Book of Asking apostates and those who separate themselves in obstinate rebellion to repent and fighting them

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 92. Book of Asking apostates and those who separate themselves in obstinate rebellion to repent and fighting them

I. The sin of the one who associates others with Allah and his punishment in this world and the Next World

Allah Almighty says, "Associating others with Him is a terrible wrong" (31:13) and "If you associate others with Allah, your actions will come to nothing and you will be among the losers." (39:65)

6520. 'Alqama related that 'Abdullah said, "When this ayat was revealed: 'Those who believe and do not mix up their belief with any wrongdoing' (6:82), that was hard on the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and they said, 'Which of us does not confuse his belief with wrongdoing?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'That is not it. Have you not heard the words of Luqman, "Associating others with Him is a terrible wrong"" (31:33)?Õ"

6521. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakra related that his father said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The worst of major wrong actions are associating others with Allah, disobeying parents, false testimony, false testimony (three times)" or "a false statement." He continued to repeat it until we said, "Would that he would he silent."

6522. Ash-Sha'bi related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "A desert Arab came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, what are the major wrong actions?' He said, "Associating others with Allah.' 'Then what?' he asked. He said, 'Then disobeying parents.' He asked, 'And then what?' 'The false oath,' he answered. I said, 'What is the false oath?' He said, 'That by which someone takes the property of a Muslim, and he lies in it.'"

6523. Abu Wa'il related that Ibn Mas'ud said, A man said, 'Messenger of Allah, will we be punished for what we did in the Jahiliyya?' He said, 'Whoever does good in Islam will not be punished for what he did in the Jahiliyya. Whoever does bad in Islam, he will be punished for the first and the last.'"

II. The ruling on the male and female apostate and asking them to repent

Ibn 'Umar, az-Zuhri and Ibrahim said that a female apostate is killed.

Allah Almighty says, "How can Allah guide a people who have become unbelievers after having believed? They bore witness that the Messenger was true and that the Clear Signs had come to them. Allah does not guide people who are wrongdoers. The repayment of such people is that Allah's curse is on them and that of the angels and of all mankind. They will be under it for ever. Their punishment will not be lightened. They will be granted no reprieve. Except for those who after that make tawba and put things right. Truly Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Those who disbelieve after having believed and then increase in their unbelief, their tawba will not be accepted. They are the misguided." (3:86-90)

"You who believe! if you obey a group of those given the Book, they will make you revert to being unbelievers after you have believed." (3:100)

He says: "As for those who believe and then return to unbelief, and then again believe and then return to unbelief, and then increase in unbelief, Allah will not forgive them or guide them on any path." (4:137)

He says, "If any of you renounce your deen, Allah will bring forward a people whom He loves and who love Him, humble to the believers, fierce to the unbelievers" (5:54)

He says, "But those whose breasts become dilated with unbelief, anger from Allah will come down on them. They will have a terrible punishment. That is because they prefer the life of this world to the Next World, and because Allah does not guide unbelieving people. Those are the people whose hearts, hearing and sight. Allah has sealed up. They are the unaware. There is no doubt that in the Next World they will be the losers." ... to His words .. "your Lord is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (16:106-110)

"They will not stop fighting you until they make you revert from your deen, if they are able. As for any of you who revert from their deen and die unbelievers, their actions will come to nothing in this world and the Next World. They are the Companions of the Fire, remaining in it timelessly, for ever." (2:217)

6524. It is related that 'Ikrima said, "Some dualists (zindiqs) were brought to 'Ali and he burned them. Ibn 'Abbas heard about that and said, 'If it had been me, I would not have burned them since the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade it, saying: 'Do not punish with Allah's punishment.' I would have killed them based on the words of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Kill the one who changes his deen.'"

6525. Abu Burda related that Abu Musa said, "I came to the Prophet* with two men of the Ash'ari tribe. One was on my right and one was on my left. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was using the siwak. Both of them asked him (for appointment to a post). He said, 'Abu Musa (or 'Abdullah ibn Qays)?' I said, 'By the One who sent you with the truth, they did not tell me what was inside them and I was not aware that they were seeking appointment.Õ It is as I could still see his siwak under his lip, pulled to one corner of his mouth. He said, 'We will or - or do not - appoint to our offices someone who desires it. Abu Musa (or 'Abdullah ibn Qays), go to Yemen.'" Then he sent Mu'adh ibn Jabal after him. When Mu'adh reached him, he put out a cushion for him and said, 'Get down.' There was a man in fetters beside Abu Musa. Mu'adh asked, 'Who is this?' He answered, 'It is a Jew who became Muslim and then reverted to Judaism.' He added, 'Sit down.' Mu'adh said. 'I will not sit down until he has been killed. It is the judgement of Allah and His Messenger" and repeated it three times. So Abu Musa commanded that he be killed. 'Then we discussed night prayers. One of us said, "I pray and I sleep and I hope for a reward for my sleep as I do for my standing in prayer."Õ"

III. Killing those who refuse to accept the obligations (fara'id) and ascribing apostasy to them

6526. 'Ubaydullah ibn Abi 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba related that Abu Hurayra said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died and Abu Bakr became the khalif, some of the Arabs rejected Islam. 'Umar said, 'How can you fight these people when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I am commanded to fight people until they say: 'There is no god but Allah.' Whoever says that, his property and life are safe from me, except if there is a legal right, and his reckoning is up to Allah."' He said, 'I will fight anyone who makes any distinction between the prayer and zakat. Zakat is what is due from property. By Allah, if they refuse me as much as a she-goat which they used to pay to the Messenger of Allah, I will fight them for it.' 'Umar said, 'By Allah, the fact was that Allah had given Abu Bakr true insight and I recognised that he was right.'"

IV. When a dhimmi or someone else indirectly insults the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and does not state it explicitly, like saying, "as-Samu 'alaykum"

6527. Hisham ibn Zayd ibn Anas ibn Malik said that he heard Anas ibn Malik say, "A Jew passed by the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'as-Samu 'alaykum' (Death be upon you). The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, answered, 'And on you.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do you know what he said? He said, "as-Samu 'alaykum".' They asked, 'Messenger of Allah, should we kill him?' 'No,' he answered. 'When the People of the Book greet you, answer, 'And upon you.'"

6528. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha said, "A group of Jews asked for permission to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and they said, 'as-Samu 'alaykum'. I said, 'Rather death and the curse be upon you!' He said, ''A'isha, Allah is kind and loves kindness in all matters.' I said, 'Did you not hear what they said?' He said, 'And I said, "And upon you."'"

6529. 'Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "I heard Ibn 'Umar say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When the Jews greet one of you, they say, 'as-Samu 'alaykum', so say, 'And on you.'"

6530. Shaqiq related that 'Abdullah said, "It is as if I could visualise the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, speaking about one of the Prophets whose people hit him and bloodied him. While he was wiping the blood from his face, he was saying, 'Lord, forgive my people. They do not know.'"

V. Killing Kharijites and heretics* after proof is established against them

The words of Allah Almighty, "Allah would never misguide a people after guiding them until He had made it clear to them how to have taqwa." (9:115)

Ibn 'Umar used to consider them to be the worst of Allah's creation. He said, "They took verses which were revealed about the unbelievers and then applied them to the believers."

[*mulhidin. According to the commentator, "It comes from inclining away from the truth and instead inclining to falsehood. In our times, it applies to someone who denies the existence of the Creator, or denies the divine deen revealed from Allah, or denies prophethood.]

6531. Suwayd ibn Ghafala related that 'Ali said, "When I report to you a hadith from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by Allah, I would prefer to fall from the sky rather than lie about him. When I tell you something that is between me and you, war is deception. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Some young and foolish people will come at the end of time who will speak from the best words of mankind, but their faith will not go beyond their throats. They will leave Islam like the arrow passes through game. Kill them wherever you meet them. On the Day of Rising the one who kills them will have a reward for killing them.'"

6532. Abu Salama and 'Ata' ibn Yasar reported that they went to Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and asked him about the Haruriyya*, "Did you hear the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say anything?" He said, "I do not know what the Haruriyya are, but I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Some people will emerge in this nation (and he did not say, 'from this nation") whose prayer will make you think little of your prayers in comparison. They will recite the Qur'an, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will pass through the deen as an arrow passes through game. The archer looks at his arrow, arrowhead and its fastening and is unsure about its notch, and whether there is any blood on it.'"

[*The Haruriyya are the Kharijites. The name is taken from Harura', a place in Iraq where they first gathered.]

6533. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar mentioned the Haruriyya and said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "They will pass through Islam as the arrow passes through game.

VI. The one who did not fight the Kharijites in order to reconcile them and to ensure that people would not be averse to him

6534. Abu Salama related that Abu Sa'id said, "While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was distributing [zakat], 'Abdullah ibn Dhi'l-Khuwaysira at-Tamimi came and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, be just!' He said to him, 'Woe to you! Who will be just if I am not just?' 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, 'Give me permission to cut off his head!' He said, 'Leave him. He has companions whose prayer will makes yours seem paltry and whose fasting makes your seem paltry. They will pass through the deen like the arrow passes through game. One looks at his arrowhead and there is nothing on it. Then he looks at the mount of its head and there is nothing on it. He will look at its shaft and there is nothing on it. Then he will look at its feathers and there will be nothing on them, for it has been too fast for excrement and blood. Their sign will be a black man, one of whose arms is like a woman's breast, or a piece of meat palpitating. They will emerge when there are parties among the people.'"

Abu Sa'id said, "I testify that I heard this hadith from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I testify that 'Ali fought them while I was with him. A man was brought with the description which the Prophet, , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had given." He said, "Revealed about him were the words, 'Among them there are some who find fault with you concerning the zakat.' (9:58)"

6535. Yusayr ibn 'Amr said, "I said to Sahl ibn Hunayf, 'Did you heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say anything about the Kharijites?' He answered, 'I heard him say while pointing towards Iraq. 'Some people will emerge from there who will recite the Qur'an, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will pass through Islam as the arrow passes through game.'"

VII. The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "The Final Hour will not come until two groups fight one another, while they claim the same thing."

6536. Al-A'raj related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Final Hour will not come until two groups fight one another, while they claim the same thing." VIII. What has come about those who use interpretation (ta'wil)

6537. Al-Miswar ibn Makhrama and 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'AbduÕl-QariÕ told him that they heard 'Umar ibn al-Khattab say, "I heard Hisham ibn Hakim reciting Surat al-Furqan while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was alive. I listened to his recitation and he was reciting it in various modes which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had not recited. I almost grabbed him in the prayer, but I waited until he said the salam. Then I grabbed by his cloak and demanded, 'Who recited to you this sura which I heard you reciting?' He answered, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited it to me.' I said, 'You lied! The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited it to me differently to how you recited it!' So I led him off to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'I heard this one reciting Surat al-Furqan in a different way to how you recited it to me!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Release him. Recite, Hisham.' So he recited it to him in the way which I had heard him reciting.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'That is how it was revealed.' Then he said, 'Recite, Umar,' and I recited it in the recitation he had taught me. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'That is how it was revealed. This Qur'an was revealed in seven modes, so recite whatever you find easy of it.'"

6538. 'Alqama related that 'Abdullah said, "When the words of Allah were revealed, 'Those who believe and do not mix up their belief with any wrongdoing,' (6:82) that was hard on the Muslims and they said, 'Who among us has not done wrong?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is not as you think. It is as Luqman said to his son, 'O my son! Do not associate anything with Allah. Associating others with Him is a terrible wrong.Õ (31:13)"

6539. Mahmud ibn ar-Rabi' saad, "I heard 'Itban ibn Malik say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to me in the morning and a man asked, 'Where is Malik ibn ad-Dukhshun?Õ One of our men said, 'That is a hypocrite who does not love Allah and His Messenger.Õ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do not say that. Does he not say, "There is no god but Allah," intending that for the sake of Allah?Õ They said, 'Yes.Õ He said, 'Allah has forbidden the Fire for anyone who meets Him saying that on the Day of Rising.Õ"

6540. Someone [Sa'd ibn 'Ubayda] related that Abu 'Abdur-Rahman and Hibban ibn 'Atiyya had a dispute. Abu 'Abdur-Rahman said to Hibban, "I know what made your companion (i.e. 'Ali) dare to shed blood.Õ He said, 'What is it, fatherless one?Õ He answered, 'Something which I heard him say.Õ 'And what was that?Õ he asked. He replied, '[He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me, az-Zubayr, and Abu Marthad on horseback, saying, 'Go until you reach the meadow Hajj. (Abu Salama said that Abu 'Awana called it that: Hajj). There will be a woman who will have a letter of Hatib ibn Abi Balta'a to the idolworshippers. Bring it to me.Õ We went on our horses and caught up to her riding her camel where the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had told us. Hatib had written to the people of Makka that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was going to move against them. We demanded, 'Where is the letter you have?Õ She answered, 'I have no letter.Õ So we made her camel kneel and searched her luggage without seeing anything. My two companions said, 'We do not think that she has a letter.Õ I said, 'We know that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, does not lie.Õ Then 'Ali swore an oath, saying, 'By the One by whom one swears, The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, does not lie. You will bring out the letter or we will strip you.Õ She put her hand below her waist-belt which belted her garment and produced the letter. We took it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 'Umar said, 'Messenger of Allah, he has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers. Let me strike off his head!Õ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Hatib, what moved you to do what you did?Õ He answered, 'Messenger of Allah, Why would I do other than believe in Allah and His Messenger! But I wanted to have some favour with the people through which Allah might protect my relatives and property. There are none of your Companions who do not have relatives by whom Allah will protect their family and property.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'He has told the truth. Do not say anything but good about him.' 'Umar again repeated, 'Messenger of Allah, he has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers. Let me strike off his head!Õ He said, 'Was he not one of the people of Badr? What will inform you? Perhaps Allah has looked at the people of Badr and said, "Do what you like. The Garden is mandatory for you"?Õ Then 'UmarÕs eyes filled with tears and he said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.Õ"

Abu 'Abdullah said that Khakh [the name of the place] is sounder although Abu 'Awana said Hajj. Hajj is a confusion in the letters. It is a place. Hushaym said that it Khakh.