Book of the Decree (Qadar)

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 85. Book of the Decree (Qadar)

6221. Zayd ibn Wahb related that 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who is the truthful confirmed one, said, 'The way that each of you is created is that you are gathered in your mother's womb for forty days and then for a similar length of time as a blood-clot and then for a similar length of time as a lump of flesh. Then Allah sends an angel and orders him to write four things: his provision, life-span, and whether he will be wretched or happy. By Allah, one of you (or a man) can do the actions of someone destined for the Fire until there is only an armspan between him and it, and then what is written will overtake him and he will do the actions of someone destined for the Garden and will enter it. A man can do the actions of someone destined for the Garden until there is only an armspan between him and it, and then what is written will overtake him and he will do the actions of someone destined for the Fire and will enter it."

Adam said, "'Illa' instead of 'ghayr' in 'only an armspan.'"

6222. 'Ubaydullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Anas related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah appoints an angel to every womb who says, 'O Lord! A sperm drop! O Lord A clot! O Lord! A lump of flesh!' Then if Allah desires to complete His creation, He does so and the angel asks, 'O Lord, is it to be male or female? Wretched or happy? What is its provision? What is its life-span?' This is all decreed in the mother's womb."

I. The pen has dried with Allah's knowledge

"...whom Allah has misguided knowingly." (45:23)

Abu Hurayra said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, "The pen has become dry (after writing) what you will meet."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "'They are the first to reach them' (23:61) means that happiness has been decreed for them."

6223. Mutarrif ibn 'Abdullah ibn ash-Shikhkhir related that 'Imran ibn Husayn said, "A man said, 'Messenger of Allah, can the people of the Garden be recognised from the people of the Fire?' 'Yes,' he answered. He asked, 'So why do those who act act?' He said, 'Everyone acts for that for which he was created,' or 'that which was made easy for him.'"

II. Allah knows best what they would have done

6224. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about the children of the idolators and he said, 'Allah knows best what they would have done.'"

6225. 'Ata' ibn Yazid reported that he heard Abu Hurayra say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about the offspring of idolators and he said, 'Allah knows best what they would have done.'"

6226. Hammam related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no child who is not born on the natural form and then his parents make him Jewish or Christian, just as an animal gives birth to a whole animal. Do you expect it to be mutilated until you mutilate it?' They asked, "Messenger of Allah, what do you think about those who die young?" He answered, "Allah has the best knowledge about what they would have done."

III. "Allah's command is a pre-ordained decree." (33:38)

6227. Al-A'raj related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A woman should not ask for her sister to be divorced so that she can enjoy her portion, but she should marry. She will have what is decreed for you."

6228. Abu 'Uthman related that Usama said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with Sa'd, Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Mu'adh when a messenger came from one of his daughters came saying that her son was dying. He sent to her, 'Allah takes is His and what He gives is His. Everything has a fixed term with Him, so she should show fortitude and expect a reward.'"

6229. 'Abdullah ibn Muhayriz al-Jumahi reported that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that while he was sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a man of the Ansar came and said, 'Messenger of Allah, we have intercourse with captives but we want a good price for them, so what do you think about coitus interruptus?' He said, 'Do you do that? You should not do that. There is no soul that Allah has written will exist, without it then coming into existence.'"

6230. Abu Wa'il related that Hudhayfa said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us in a khutba in which he did not omit to mention anything until the time of the Final Hour. Whoever knows is knows it, and whoever is ignorant of it is ignorant of it. Then I would see something that I had forgotten, and I would recognise it as a man recognises another man when he has been absent from him and then he sees him and recognises him."

6231. 'Abdu'r-Rahman as-Sulami related that 'Ali said, "We were sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who had a stick with which he began to make marking on the ground. He said, 'There is none of you but that his place in the Garden or his place in the Fire is written for him.' A man of the people said, 'Messenger of Allah, shall we not rely on this?' He said, 'No. Act. Each is eased.' Then he recited, 'As for him who gives out and has taqwa ...' (92:5)"

IV. Actions depend on their seals

6232. Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab related that Abu Hurayra said, "We were present at Khaybar with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said about a man who was one of those with him who claimed to be a Muslim, 'This is one of the people of the Fire,' When the fighting started, the man fought fiercely, received several wounds and was rendered immobile. One of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, 'Messenger of Allah, did you see the one you reported was one of the people of the Fire? He fought fiercely in the Cause of Allah and has received many wounds.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'And yet he is one of the people of the Fire.' Some of the Muslims were unsure and while that man was like that, he felt such great pain from the wounds that he put his hand into his quiver and took out an arrow and killed himself with it. Some Muslim men hurried to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, Allah has confirmed what you said. So-and-so has committed suicide and killed himself.' the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Bilal, get up and announce: "Only a believer will enter the Garden. Allah may support this deen with an impious man."'"

6233. Abu Hazim related from Sahl: "There was a man who was one of the greatest of the Muslims in defending the Muslims in one of the expeditions which he went on with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked and said, 'Whoever wants to look at a man of the people of the Fire should look at this man.' One man of the people followed him and he continued like that, one of the boldest of people in fighting against the idolaters until he was wounded. Then he hastened his death by placing the hilt on his sword in the earth and point at his breast and then he fell on it so that it emerged through his shoulders. The man went quickly to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'I testify that you are the Prophet!' He asked, 'Why is that?' He said, 'You said to so-and-so, "Whoever wants to look at a man of the people of the Fire should look at this man."' He was one of the boldest? of us in defending the Muslims and I knew that he would not die like that. When he was wounded, he hastened his death and killed himself.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then said, 'Someone can perform the actions of the people of the Fire when he is one of the people of the Garden, and he might perform the actions of the people of the Garden while he is one of the people of the Fire. Actions are according to their seals.'"

V. Someone making a vow about something which is decreed

6234. 'Abdullah ibn Murra related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade vows and said, 'It does not repel anything, and extracts something from the miser."

6235. Hammam ibn Munabbih from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Vowing does not bring anything to the son of Adam which I have decreed for, but the decree meets him with what I have decreed for him. By it I extract something from the miser."

VI. There is no power nor strength except by Allah

6236. Abu 'Uthman an-Nahdi related that Abu Musa said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and whenever we climbed up above a valley, we would say, 'There is no god but Allah and Allah is greater" with our voices raised. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O people! Be kind to yourselves! You are not calling someone who is deaf or absent. He is with you, near and hearing.' Then he said, ''Abdullah ibn Qays, shall I teach you an expression which is one of the treasures of the Garden? 'There is no power nor strength except by Allah.'"

VII. The one who is protected is the one whom Allah protects

'Asim (11;43) is a protector. Mujahid said that "saddan" (36:9) is barring from the truth. They waver in misguidance." "Dassaha" (91:10): means he made it err.

6237. Abu Salama related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophe, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No khalif is appointed but that he has two close advisors: one commands him to do good and encourages him to do that, and the other commands him to evil and encourages him to do that. The one who is protected is the one that Allah protects."

VIII. "There is a ban on any city We have destroyed; they will not return." (21:95)

"None of your people are going to believe except for those who already have believed..." (11:36)

"They will spawn nothing but more dissolute unbelievers." (71:27)

Mansur ibn an-Nu'man reported from 'Ikrima that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Hirm' in Abyssinian means 'it is incumbent.'"

6238. Tawus related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I did not see anything more like minor sins than what Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah has written for the son of Adam a share of fornication which he must commit. The fornication of the eyes is the look and the fornication of the tongue is the speech. The self wishes and desires and the private parts confirm all of this or deny it."

Another isnad from Abu Hurayra from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

IX. "We only appointed the vision We showed you and the Accursed Tree in the Qur'an as a trial and temptation for the people." (17:60)

6239. 'Ikrima related from Ibn 'Abbas about the words, "We only appointed the vision We showed you as a trial and temptation for the people" (17:60), "It is the vision of the eye of what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was shown on the Night Journey to Jerusalem." he said, "The accursed tree in the Qur'an is the tree of Zaqqum."

X. Adam and Musa arguing in the presence of Allah

6240. Tawus related that he heard Abu Hurayra relate that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Adam and Musa argued, and Musa said to him, 'Adam, you are our father and you expelled us from the Garden.' Adam said to him, 'Musa, Allah choose you for His word and wrote? for you with His own hand. Do you blame me for a business which Allah decreed forty years before He created me?' So Adam argued against Musa and Musa argued against Musa." He repeated it three times.

Another isnad with the like from al-A'raj from Abu Hurayra from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

XI. None can hold back what Allah gives

6241. It is related that Warrad, the client of al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba said, "Mu'awiya wrote to al-Mughira, 'Write for me something which you heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying after the prayer.' Al-Mughira dictated to me, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say when he finished the prayer, "There is no god but Allah alone with no partner. O Allah, none can prevent what Allah gives and none can give what He withholds. The wealth of someone with wealth will not help him with You.'"

Ibn Jurayj said that 'Abda reported to him that Warrad reported this to him. "Then after that I came to Mu'awiya and heard him commanding people to say that."

XII. The one who seeks refuge with Allah from consequences of misery and an evil decree.

The words of Allah, "Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Daybreak, from the evil of what He has created..." (113:1-2)

6242. Abu Salih related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Seek refuge with Allah from affliction, the consequences of hardship, an evil decree and the gloating of enemies."

XIII. "Allah intervenes between a man and his heart" (8:24)

6243. Salim related that 'Abdullah said, "Part of what the Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to often say in making an oath was 'No, by the Overturner of hearts."

6244. Salim related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Ibn Sawwad, 'I have concealed something from you.' He said, 'Adh-Dukh.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Be quiet, You cannot exceed your fate.' 'Umar said, 'Give me permission to strike his neck!' 'Leave him,' he answered. 'If it is him, you will not be able to do it. If it not him, then there is no good in your killing him.'"

XIV. "Say: 'Nothing can happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us." (9:51)

Mujahid said, "Bi-fatinina" (37:162) means misguided, those for whom Allah has written that they will burn in Hellfire."

"Qaddarra fa-hada" (87:3): He decreed misery and happiness and guided livestock to their grazing pasture."

6245. Yahya ibn Ya'mar related that 'A'isha told him that she asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the plague and he said, "It is a punishment which Allah sends against whomever He will. Allah has made it a mercy for the believers. There is no one who is where the plague occurs and who remains in his land with steadfastness and in expectation of the reward, knowing that only what Allah has written for him will befall him, but that he has the like of the reward of the martyr."

XV. "We would not have been guided, had Allah not guided us." (7:43)

"If only Allah had guided me, I would have had been among the godfearing." (39:57)

6246. Abu Ishaq related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the Battle of the Ditch moving earth with us while he was saying:

'If it had not been for You,
      we would not have been guided nor given sadaqa nor fasted,
So send down tranquillity on us
     and make our feet firm when we meet [the enemy].
Those have wronged us,
     but we refuse if they desire to tempt us.