The Book of Medicine

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 79. The Book of Medicine

I. Allah has not sent down an illness without sending down a cure for it

5354. 'Ata' ibn Abi Rabah related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah has not sent down an illness without sending down a cure for it."

II. Can a man treat a woman or a woman treat a man?

5355. Khalid ibn Dhakwan related that Rubayyi' bint Mu'awwidh ibn 'Afra' said, "We used to go on expeditions with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we would bring water to the people and serve them, and we would bring back the dead and wounded to Madina."

III. There is healing in three

5356. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "There is healing in three: a drink of honey, scarification for cupping and cauterisation by fire. I forbid my community to use cauterisation." The hadith is marfu'.

Mujahid related it from Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about honey and cupping.

5357. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is healing in three: scarification for cupping, a drink of honey or cauterisation by fire. I forbid my community to use cauterisation."

IV. Treatment with honey

The words of Allah Almighty, "Containing healing for mankind." (16:69)

5358. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, liked sweets and honey."

5359. 'Asim ibn 'Umar ibn Qatada said, "I heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "If there is any good in your medical treatments, it is in scarification for cupping, a drink of honey, or a light cauterisation by fire when that is appropriate to the illness. I do not like to be cauterised."'"

5360. Abu'l-Mutawakkil related from Abu Sa'id that a man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "My brother has an intestinal illness." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "Let him drink honey." He came a second time and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Let him drink honey." Then he came a third time and he again said, "Let him drink honey." Then he came to him and said, "I have done it." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah spoke the truth and the stomach of your brother has lied. Let him drink honey." He gave it to him and he was cured.

V. Treatment with camel milk

5361. Thabit related from Anas that some people became ill and said, "Messenger of Allah, give us shelter and food." When they became healthy, they said, "Madina is unhealthy." He sent them to al-Harra with some she-camels of his and said, "Drink their milk." Once they became healthy, they murdered the herdsman of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and drove away the camels. He sent people after them and had their hands and feet cut off and nails were driven in their eyes. I saw a man of them biting the earth until he died.

Sallam said, "I heard that al-Hajjaj said to Anas, 'Tell me the worst punishment inflicted by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and so he reported this to him." Al-Hasan heard about that and said, "I wish that he had not transmitted it."

VI. Treating with camel urine

5362. Qatada related that Anas said, "Some people fell ill in Madina and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, instructed them to join his herdsman and drink the camel's milk and urine. They joined the herdsman and drank their milk and urine until their bodies became healthy. Then they killed the herdsman and stole the camels. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about that and sent in their pursuit and they were brought. He had their hands and feet cut off and nails put in their eyes."

Qatada said, "Muhammad ibn Sirin related to me that that was before the hudud were revealed."

VII. Black seed (Cumin)*

5363. Mansur related that Khalid ibn Sa'd said, "We set out and Ghalib ibn Abjar was with us, He became ill on the way and was ill when we arrived in Madina. Ibn Abi 'Atiq visited him and said to us, 'You should use black cumin for him. Take five or seven seeds and crush them and then put it in his nose mixed with oil in both nostrils. 'A'isha reported to me that she heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'This black cumin is a healing for every illness except as-Sam.' She said, "What is as-Sam?' 'Death,' he answered."

5364. Abu Salama and Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab said that Abu Hurayra reported to them that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "There is healing in black cumin for every illness except death (sam)."

Ibn Shihab said that as-sam means death and black seed is shuniz.

[* Various things are said about what is meant by this. "Black" also refers to "green" in Arabic. It said to be black cumin or Indian cumin, coriander. Someone even says that it is mustard, but this is thought to be unlikely.]

VIII. Al-talbina* for someone who is ill

5365. It is related from 'Urwa that 'A'isha used to command that talbina be prepared for a sick person and for someone suffering grief due to the loss of someone. She said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Talbina gives rest to the heart of the sick person and removes some of his sorrow."

5366. It is related from Hisham's father ('Urwa) that 'A'isha used to command that talbina [be prepared] and said, "It is nasty but is beneficial."

[* Talbina is a soup made of flour or bran and milk and sweetened with honey.]

IX. Su'ut (using snuff)

5367. Tawus related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped and he paid the cupper, and that he used snuff.

[This is sniffing medicine up the nose.]

X. Using snuff with Indian aloes (costus) and Sea costus

It is read as qust or kust, like kafur and qafur (camphour), and like kushitat (81:11) and qushitat, and 'Abdullah [ibn Mas'ud] recited it as qushitat.

5368. 'Ubaydullah related that Umm Qays bint Mihsan said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'You must have this Indian aloes. It contains seven remedies. It is snuffed by someone with a sore throat, and it is put in the side of the mouth of someone with pleurisy.' I visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a son of mine who had not yet eaten food and he urinated on him. He called for water and and sprinked it over it."

XI. At what time should one be cupped?

Abu Musa was cupped at night.

5369. 'Ikrima related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped while he was fasting."

XII. Cupping on a journey or while in ihram

Ibn Buhayna said that from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

5370. Tawus and 'Ata' related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped while he was in ihram."

XIII. Being cupped on account of an illness

5371. Humayd at-Tawil reported that Anas was asked about the wage of the cupper and said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped by Abu Tayba and he gave him two sa's of food and spoke to his masters who reduced the amount they took from him. He said, 'The best treatments you use are cupping and sea costus.' He said, 'Do not torture your children by pressing the swelling of tonsilitis with the tips of fingers. Use costus.'"

5372. 'Asim ibn 'Umar ibn Qatada related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah visited al-Muqanna' when he was ill and then said, 'I will not go until he is cupped. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'There is healing in it.'"

XIV. Cupping on the head

5373. 'Abdu'r-Rahman al-A'raj heard 'Abdullah ibn Buhayna relate that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped in the middle of his head at Lahi Jamal on the way to Makka while he was in ihram."

'Ikrima related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped on his head.

XV. Cupping for a migraine (or hemicrania) or full headache

5374. 'Ikrima related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped on his head while he was in ihram on account of an illness he had at a watering place called Lahi Jamal.

'Ikrima related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped on his head to relieve a migraine which he had.

5375. 'Asim ibn 'Umar related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'If there is any good in any of your medical treatments, it is in a drink of honey, scarification for cupping, or a light cauterisation by fire, but I do not like to be cauterised."

XVI. Shaving the head on account of some harm

5376. Ibn Abi Layla reported that Ka'b ibn 'Ujra said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to me in the time of al-Hudaybiyya while I was lighting a fire under a pot and the lice were falling from my head. He asked, 'Are your lice harming you?' 'Yes,' I answered. He said, 'Shave your head and fast for three days or feed six people or slaughter a sheep." Ayyub said, "I do not know which he mentioned first."

XVII. Someone who is cauterised or cauterises someone else. The excellence of someone who does not have himself cauterised

5377. 'Asim ibn 'Umar ibn Qatada said, "I heard Jabir say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If there is healing in any of your medical treatments, it is in scarification for cupping, or a light cauterisation by fire, but I do not like to be cauterised.

5378. 'Amir reported that 'Imran ibn Husayn said, "There is no use of an incantation (ruqya) except for the evil eye or scorpion sting." He said, "I mentioned that to Sa'id ibn Jubayr who said that Ibn 'Abbas had reported to him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'All the nations were shown to me and one or two Prophets would pass with a small band of people. A Prophet would pass with no one with him. Then an enormous mass appeared before me. I asked, "What is this? Is it my community?" It was said, "This is Musa and his people." I was told, "Look at the horizon," and there was a dark mass which filled the horizon. Then it was said to me, "Look here and there on the horizons of the sky." There was a mass which filled the horizon. It was said, "This is your community. Seventy thousand of them will enter the Garden without reckoning." Then he entered his house without making clear who they were. The people started to talk and said, "We are those who have believed in Allah in followed His Messenger. It is us. Or it is our children who were born in Islam while we were born in the Jahiliyya." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about that and came out and said, "They are those who do not use incantation and do not seek omens and are not cauterised and trust in their Lord." 'Ukasha ibn Mihsan said, 'Am I one of them, Messenger of Allah?' 'Yes,' he answered. Another said, 'Am I one of them?" He said, ''Ukasha has beaten you to it.'"

XVIII. Using antimony and kohl to treat ophthalmia

It is related from Umm 'Atiyya.

5379. Zaynab related from Umm Salama that a woman's husband died and she had an eye complaint. They mentioned her to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked about kohl as there were fears about her eye, He said, "It used to be that one of you would remain in her house in her worst clothes – or in her clothes in the worst room and when a dog passed she would throw a piece of dung at it. No, it is four months and ten days."

XIX. Leprosy

5380. Sa'id ibn Mina' said, "I heard Abu Hurayra say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is no contagion and no omen nor hama* nor bad luck in the month of Safar. One should run from a leper as one runs from a lion."

[*Hama: In the Jahiliyya they believed that the unavenged spirit of a dead person took the form of a night bird which cried out, "Let me drink! Let me drink!" until revenge was taken. They also thought that the month of Safar was unlucky.]

XX. Manna is healing for the eye

5381. 'Amr ibn Hurayth said that he heard Sa'id ibn Zayd say, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Truffles are part of manna, and its juice is healing for the eye."

It is related [with a slightly different isnad] from Sa'id ibn Zayd from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Shu'ba said, "When al-Hakam related it to me, I did not disacknowledge it from the hadith of 'Abdu'l-Malik."

XXI. Giving medicine by the corner of the mouth

5382. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah reported from Ibn 'Abbas and 'A'isha that Abu Bakr kissed the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was dead. He said, "'A'isha said, 'We put medicine in the corner of his mouth and he began to indicate to us not to give him the medicine. We said, 'It is the dislike a patient has for the remedy.' When he recovered, he said, 'Did I not forbid you to put medicine in my mouth?' We said, 'It was the dislike a patient has for the medicine.' He said, 'There is no one in the house but that he will be made to take the medicine in the mouth while I am watching except for al-'Abbas. He did not see what you did.'"

5383. 'Ubaydullah reported that Umm Qays said, "I took a son of mine to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I had pressed his tonsils with my fingers because he was suffering from tonsillitis. He said, 'Why do you choke your children by this pressing? You must use Indian aloes. It contains a remedy for seven ailments, including pleurisy. It is sniffed for tonsillitis and put into the side of the mouth for pleurisy."

Sufyan said, "I heard az-Zuhri say, 'He made two clear to us and did not make the other five clear to us.' I said to Sufyan, 'Does Ma'mar say, "She pressed (using 'ala)?' He said, 'I do not recall that. He said, 'Pressed (using 'an),' I memorised it from az-Zuhri."

Sufyan described rubbing the uvula of the child with the fingers, Sufyan put a finger under its uvula. It means to lift the uvula with the finger. He did not say, "Press it a little."

5384. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Utba related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was very ill and his illness was grave, he asked permission of his wives to remain ill in my house and he received permission. He went out, supported by two men, with his feet dragging on the ground. It was Ibn 'Abbas and another man.' I reported it to Ibn 'Abbas and he said, "Do you know who the other man was that 'A'isha did not name?' 'No,' I answered. He said, 'It was 'Ali.'"

After the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had entered her room and his illness became severe, 'A'isha said that he said, "Pour over me seven waterskins full of water which have not been tied. Perhaps I will be able to instruct the people." She said, "We sat him in a tub belonging to Hafsa, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and started to pour the water in those waterskins over him until he indicated to us to stop. Then he went out to the people and led them in the prayer and addressed them."

XXII. Tonsillitis

5385. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah reported that Umm Qays bint Mihsan al-Asadiyya of the Asad tribe of Khuzayma, one of the first women to make hijra who gave allegiance to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the sister of 'Ukasha, reported to him that she took her son to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and she had pressed his tonsils because of tonsillitis. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Why do you choke your children by this pressing? You must use Indian aloes. It contains healing for seven ailments, including pleurisy." He meant kust, which is Indian aloes. Yunus ibn Rashid reported from az-Zuhri, "pressed on it" (using Form II of the verb rather than Form IV).

XXIII. Treatment of diarrhoea

5386. Abu'l-Mutawakkil related that Abu Sa'id said. "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'My brother has loose bowels.' He said, 'Feed him honey.' He said, 'I have fed it to him and it only increased the diarrhoea.' He said, 'Allah has spoke the truth and the belly of your brother has lied.' An-Nadr corroborated it from Shu'ba.

XXIV. There is no Safar. Safar is a disease which affects the belly

5387. Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman and others reported from Abu Hurayra £that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no contagion and no safar and no hama." A bedouin asked, "Messenger of Allah, what about my camels? They are like gazelles in the sand and then a mangy camel comes and goes in among them and they get mange." He asked, 'Who infected the first one?'

Az-Zuhri related it from Abu Salama and Sinan ibn Abi Sinan.

[see 5380.]

XXV. Pleurisy

5388. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah reported that Umm Qays bint Mihsan, one of the first women to make hijra who gave allegiance to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the sister of 'Ukasha ibn Mihsan, told him that she went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a son of hers whose tonsils she had pressed on account of tonsillitis. He said, 'Have fear of Allah when you choke your children by this pressing. You must use Indian aloes. It contains healing for seven ailments, including pleurisy.' He meant kust or qust (costus). It is a dialect."

5389. Hammad said, "Some of the books of Abu Qilaba about what he related were read to Ayyub, and part of what is related to him and is in the book from Anas is that Abu Talha and Anas ibn an-Nadr cauterised him, and Abu Talha cauterised him with his own hand."

Abu Qilaba related that Anas ibn Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave permission to the people of a house of the Ansar to use incantations (ruqya) for scorpion stings and ear complaints."

Anas said, "I was cauterised for pleurisy while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was alive. Abu Talha, Anas ibn an-Nadr and Zayd ibn Thabit were present with me. Abu Talha cauterised me."

XXVI. Burning a mat for use in stanching bleeding

5390. Abu Hazim reported that Sahl ibn Sa'd as-Sa'idi said, "When the helmet broke on the head of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his face was covered in blood and his tooth broken, 'Ali brought water on his shield while Fatima washed the blood from his face. When Fatima, peace be upon her, saw that the bleeding increased because of the water, she took a mat and burnt it and then stuck it on the wound of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the bleeding stopped."

XXVII. Fever is from the breath of Hellfire

5391. Nafi' related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Fever is from the blast of Hellfire. Extinguish it with water." Nafi' said, "'Abdullah used to say, 'Remove the punishment."

5392. Fatima bint al-Mundhir reported that when a woman with a fever was brought to Asma' bint Abi Bakr, she made supplication for her and then took water and poured it in the front of her garment. She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to order us to cool ourselves with water."

5393. 'Urwa related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Fever is from the blast of Hellfire, so cool it with water."

5394. 'Abaya ibn Rifa'a related from his grandfather Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say 'Fever is from the blast of Hellfire, so cool it with water."

XXVIII. The one who left a land which did not suit him

5395. Qatada related that Anas ibn Malik reported that some people or men from 'Ukl or 'Urayna came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and expressed Islam. They said, 'Prophet of Allah, we are people of livestock and are not people of farmland." They found Madina unhealthy and so the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded for them some camels and a herdsman and told them to go out with him. They drank the milk and urine of the camels and went until they reached part of al-Harra. Then they disbelieved after becoming Muslim and killed the herdsman of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and stole the camels. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about it and sent a search after them and he commanded that nails be driven into their eyes and their hands cut off and they were left in the region of al-Harra until they died as they were."

XXIX. What is mentioned about the plague

5396. Usama ibn Zayd related from Sa'd that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you hear that the plague is in a land, do not enter it. When it arrives in a land where you are, do not leave it." I (Ibrahim ibn Sa'd) said, "You heard Sa'd relate it and he did not reject it?" "Yes," he (Usama) answered.

5397. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn al-Harith ibn Nawfal reported from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab £ set out for Syria. When he got as far as Sargh, he met the commanders of the army commanders, Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah and his companions, told him that the plague had broken out in Syria.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Umar said to me, 'Call the early Muhajirun for me,' and so I called them and he consulted them and informed them that the plague had broken out in Syria. They disagreed. Some of them said, 'You have set out on a matter and we do not think that you should retreat from it.' Others said, 'With you are the rest of the people and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we do not think that you should expose them to this plague.' He said, 'Leave me.' Then he said, 'Call the Ansar for me,' and I called them and he consulted them. They behaved as the Muhajirun had done and disagreed as they had disagreed. He said, 'Leave me.' Then he said, 'Call for me those who are here of the elders of Quraysh who emigrated before the Conquest of Makka.' So I called them, and there were not two of them who disagreed about it. They said, 'We think that you should return with the people and not expose them to this plague.' So 'Umar made an announcement among the people: 'I am travelling back in the morning, so travel back then as well.' Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah said, 'Are you fleeing from the decree of Allah?' 'Umar said, 'If only someone other than you had said that, Abu 'Ubayda!' Yes, we are fleeing from the decree of Allah to the decree of Allah. Do you think that if you had camels and they went down into a valley which had two sides, one of which was fertile and the other barren, and you grazed them on the fertile side, that that grazing would be by the decree of Allah, and if you grazed them on the barren side, that that grazing would not be by the decree of Allah?'" 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf, who had been absent on some errand, then came and said, 'I have some knowledge of this. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "When you hear that it is in a land, do not go to it. When it comes to a land where you are, do not leave it, fleeing from it.'" 'Umar praised Allah and then left."

5398. Ibn Shihab related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amir that 'Umar set out for Syria. When he was at Sargh, he heard that the plague had broken out in Syria. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf told him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said, "When you hear that it is in a land, do not go to it. When it occurs in a land where you are, do not leave it, fleeing from it."

5399. Nu'aym al-Mujmir reported from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Neither the False Messiah nor the plague will enter Madina."

5400. Hafsa bint Sirin said, "Anas ibn Malik asked me, "What did Yahya (ibn Sirin) die of?" "The plague," I answered. He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The plague is martyrdom for every Muslim."

5401. Abu Salih related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The one who dies of an abdominal disease is a martyr and the one who dies of the plague is a martyr."

XXX. The reward of someone who is steadfast in the face of the plague

5402. Yahya ibn Ya'mar related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him that she asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the plague and the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, informed her, "It is a punishment which Allah used to send against whoever He wished, but Allah has made it a mercy for the believers. There is no one who comes into contact with the plague and then remains with fortitude in the land where he is, knowing that only what Allah has written for him will befall him, but that he has a similar reward to that of the martyr."

An-Nadr corroborated it from Dawud.

XXXI. Using incantations (ruqya) and the Refuge Suras of the Qur'an (113-114)

5403. 'Urwa related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to blow over himself in the illness from which he died after reciting the suras of refuge. She said, "When ill illness became worse, I used to blow them over him and wiped his hand over himself for the blessing."

I (Ma'mar) asked az-Zuhri, "How did he blow?" He said, "He used to blow on his hands and then wipe his face with them."

XXXII. Incantations (ruqya) using the Fatiha of the Book

It is mentioned from Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

5404. Abu'l-Mutawakkil related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that some of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to one of the Arab tribes who did not give them hospitality. While they were like that, the chief of the tribe was bitten or strung. They asked, 'Do you have any medicine or incantation?" They said, "You did not give us hospitality, so we will not do that unless you give us a wage for it." They allotted some sheep for them. [One] recited the Umm al-Qur'an and collected his saliva and spat it on the spot. The man was cured and they brought the sheep. The [Companions] said, "We will not take them until we ask the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." They asked him and he laughed and said, "How did you know that it is an incantation? Take it and gave me a share."

XXXIII. Stipulating sheep as payment for a ruqya

5405. Ibn Abi Mulayka related from Ibn 'Abbas that a group of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by some water where someone had been stung or bitten, A man from those by the water came and said, 'Is there anyone among you who can do incantation? By the water there is a person who has been stung or bitten." One of their men went and recited the Fatiha of the Book in exchange for a sheep. The man recovered and he brought the sheep to his companions. They disliked that and said, "You took a wage for the Book of Allah." When they reached Madina, they said, "Messenger of Allah, he has taken a wage for the Book of Allah." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You are more entitled to take wages for what you did with the Book of Allah."

XXXIV. The Incantation (ruqya) for the Evil Eye

5406. 'Abdullah ibn Shaddad was heard to report that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded me – or commanded someone – to use an incantation against the Evil Eye."

5407. Zaynab bint Abi Salama reported from Umm Salama that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a slavegirl in her house with a some reddish blackness in her face. He said, 'Do an incantation for her. She is suffering from the evil eye."

Az-Zuhri reported it from 'Urwa from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

'Abdullah ibn Salim corroborated it from az-Zubaydi.

XXXV. The evil eye is real

5408. Hammam related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The evil eye is real." He forbade tattooing.

XXXVI. An incantation (ruqya) for a the bite of a snake or scorpion sting

5409. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn al-Aswad related that his father said, "I asked 'A'isha about the incantation for a sting. She said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made an allowance for everything which has a sting.*"

[* ants, scorpions, wasps etc.]

XXXVII. The incantation (ruqya) of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

5410. 'Abdu'l-'Aziz said, "I and Thabit visited Anas ibn Malik and Thabit said, 'Abu Hamza, I am ill.' Anas said, 'Shall I use the incantation of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on you?' 'Yes,' he replied. Anas said, 'O Allah, Lord of people, remover of hardship, heal! You are the Healer. There is no healer but You, with a healing which does not leave behind any illness."

5411. Masruq related that 'A'isha said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite the refuge prayer for some of his family by wiping his right hand over them and saying, 'O Allah, Lord of people, remove the hardship and heal him. You are the Healer. There is no healing except Your healing, a healing which does not leave behind any illness."

There is a similar report from Masruq from 'A'isha.

5412. 'Urwa reported from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do incantation, saying, "Lord of people, remove the trouble. Healing is in Your hand. None can remove it but You!"

5413. 'Urwa reported from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say to the sick person, "In the Name of Allah, when the earth of our land is mixed the saliva of one of us, it may heal our sick by the permission of our Lord."

5414. 'Amra related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say in the incantation, 'When the earth of our land is mixed the saliva of one of us, it may heal our sick by the permission of our Lord.'"

XXXVIII. Blowing (nafth) in the incantation (ruqya)

5415. Abu Salama said that he heard Abu Qatada say, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'A good dream is from Allah and a bad dream is from Shaytan. When one of you sees something he dislikes, he should blow* three times when he wakes up and seek refuge from its evil and it will not harm him." Abu Salama said, "If I see a dream which is heavier on me than a mountain, I have not been concerned about it since I heard this hadith."'"

[*Nafth is either blowing without spit, or with a slight amount as when one spits out a pip.]

5416. 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr reported that 'A'isha said, "When the Prophet,  may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to bed, he blew on his hands after reciting Surat al-Ikhlas and the two suras of refuge and then he would wipe his face and his body with them as far as his hands could reach." 'A'isha added, "When he was ill, he used to tell me to do that for him." Yunus said, "I used to see Ibn Shihab do that when he went to bed."

5417. Abu'l-Mutawakkil related that Abu Sa'id said, "A group of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on a journey and halted near one of the Arab tribes. They asked them for hospitality but they refused to give them any. The chief of that tribe was bitten or stung [by a snake or scorpion] and they tried everything, but nothing helped. One of them said, 'If you were to go to those people who camped near you, perhaps one of them has something.' So they went to them and said, 'Our chief has been stung and we have tried everything but nothing has helped him. Does any of you have anything [which will help]?' One of them said, 'Yes, by Allah. I can recite an incantation, but, by Allah, we asked you for hospitality and you did not give it to us. I will not recite it for you until you stipulate a payment for us.' They agreed to pay them a certain number of sheep. He went and spat on it while reciting, 'Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds.' It was as if the chief was released from a hobble and he began to walk and there was nothing wrong with him. He said, 'Pay them their wage which you agreed with them.' One of the [Muslims] said, 'Divide it up.' The one who had recited said, 'Do not do it until we reach the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. We will tell him what happened and see what he commands us.' They went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned it to him. He said, 'How did you know that it is an incantation?' Then he said, 'You were right. Divide and give me a share as well.'"

XXXIX. The one doing the incantation wiping the one who is ill with his right hand

5418. Masruq related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite the refuge prayer for some of them, wiping him with his right hand, saying 'Remove the hardship, Lord of people, and heal, You are the Healer. There is no healing except Your healing, a healing which does not leave behind any illness.'"

I mentioned the like of it to Mansur from Ibrahim from Masruq from 'Abdu'r-Rahman (i.e. with a different isnad before it reaches Masruq).

XL. A woman doing an incantation (ruqya) for a man

5419. 'Urwa related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to blow on himself in the illness from which he died after reciting the refuge suras. When his illness was worse, I used to blow them over him and wipe his hand over him for the blessing."

I (Ma'mar) asked Ibn Shihab, "How did he blow (nafth)?" He answered, "He used to blow on his hands and then wipe his face with them."

XLI. Those who did not use incantation

5420. Sa'id ibn Jubayr reported that Ibn 'Abbas said, "One day the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us and said, 'All the nations were shown to me. A Prophet will pass by with one man, a Prophet with two men, a Prophet with a small band of people, and a Prophet with no one with him. Then I saw an enormous mass which blocked out the horizon and I hoped that they would be my community. It was said, "This is Musa and his people." Then I was told, "Look at the horizon," and there was a dark mass which filled the horizon. Then it was said to me, 'Look,' and there was a mass which filled the horizon. It was said, 'This is your community and among them are seventy thousand who will enter the Garden without reckoning.' Then the people broke up when he had not made them clear. The Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to discuss it and said, 'We were born in shirk, but we believed in Allah and His Messenger. Rather they are our sons.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about that and said, "They are those who do not look for omens, do not make charms, are not cauterised and trust in their Lord." 'Ukasha ibn Mihsan stood and asked, 'Am I one of them, Messenger of Allah?' 'Yes,' he answered. Another stood and asked, 'Am I one of them?" He said, ''Ukasha has beaten up to it.'"

XLII. Looking for omens in birds

5421. Salim related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no contagion and no omens. There may be bad luck in three: women, houses and animals."

5422. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba related that Abu Hurayra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'There are no omens. The best of it is a good sign.' They asked, 'What is the good sign?' He answered, 'A good word that one of you hears.'"

XLIII. The good sign

5423. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba related that Abu Hurayra said, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'There are no omens. The best of it is a good sign.' They asked, 'What is the good sign?' He answered, 'A good word that one of you hears.'"

5424. Qatada related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no contagion. I like the good sign, which is the good word."

XLIV. There is no hama

[One text adds "and no bad luck in Safar" See 5380 for hama.]

5425. Abu Salih related from Abu Huryara that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no contagion and no omen nor hama nor bad luck in the month of Safar."

XLV. Soothsaying

5426. Abu Salama related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave a judgement about two women of Hudhayl who had fought one another and one of them threw a stone at the other. The stone hit her in the abdomen and, as she was pregnant, it killed her child. They took the dispute to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he judged that the blood money for what was in her womb was was a slave of fair complexion and excellence (ghurra), male or female. The guardian of the woman who was liable said, 'Messenger of Allah, how can I be liable for someone who has neither drunk nor eaten, nor spoken nor cried. The life of this should be nullified." The Prophet* observed, "This is one of the brothers of the soothsayers."

[This was because he spoke in saj', rhymed prose, which was also used by soothsayers.]

5427. Abu Salama related from Abu Hurayra that two women (fought) and one threw a stone at the other and caused her foetus to miscarry. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, judged a good slave, male or female, [as the blood money] for it.

Ibn Shihab related from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave a judgement that the compensation for a foetus killed in its mother's womb was a slave of fair complexion and excellence, male or female. The one against whom judgement was given said, 'Why should I pay damages for that which did not drink or eat or speak or make ant cry. The like of this is nothing The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "This is one of the brothers of the soothsayers."

5428. Abu Bakr ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn al-Harith related that Abu Mas'ud said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the proceeds from the sale of dogs, money earned through prostitution and the earnings of a soothsayer."

5429. 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr related that 'A'isha said, "Some people asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about soothsayers. He said, 'They have nothing.' They said, 'Messenger of Allah, sometimes they tell us something and then it turns out to be true.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'That is a true word which a jinn caught hold of and poured into the ear of his friend, but they mix a hundred lies with it.'"

'Ali said that 'Abdu'r-Razzaq said that "a true word" is mursal. Then afterwards it reached him that it had an isnad.

XLVI. Magic

The words of Allah Almighty, "The shaytans rejected, teaching people sorcery and what had been sent down to Harut and Marut, the two angels in Babylon, who taught no one until they had said to him, 'We are merely a trial and temptation, so do not reject.' People learned from them how to separate a man and his wife but they cannot harm anyone by it, except with Allah's permission. They have learned what will harm them and will not benefit them. They know that any who deal in it will have no share in the Next World." (2:102)

And His words, "Magicians do not prosper wherever they go." (20:69)

And His words, "Do you succumb to magic with your eyes wide-open?"(21:3)

And His words, "And suddenly their ropes and staffs appeared to him, by their magic, to be slithering about." (20:66)

And His words, "And from the evil of women who blow on knots." (113:4) An-naffathat are female practitioners of magic.

"So how have you been bewitched?" (23:89) meaning blinded.

5430. 'Urwa related that 'AÕisha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was bewitched by a man of the Banu Zurayq called Labid ibn al-A'sam so that he would imagine that he had done a thing which he had not done it until one day or night while he was with me, he made supplication and did so again. Then he said, ''A'isha, are aware that Allah has informed me of what I asked Him about? Two men came to me and one of them sat at my head and the other and at my feet, and one said to the other, "What ails the man?" "Bewitched," he answered. He said, "And who has bewitched him?" He replied, "Labid ibn al-A'sam." He said, "Using what?" He replied, "A comb, the hairs in it (mushata), and the husk of a male palm spathe." He asked, "Where is it?" He said, "In the well of Dharwan."' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to it with some of his Companions and then came back. He said, ''A'isha, its water is the colour of henna infusion. The heads of its palms are like the heads of devils.' I asked, 'Messenger of Allah, did you take it out?" He answered, "Allah has cured me and I fear that that would provoke evil among the people." Then he ordered that the well be filled in."

Abu Usama, Abu Damra and Ibn Abi'z-Zinad corroborated it from Hisham."

Al-Layth and Ibn 'Uyayna reported from Hisham "a comb and fibres (mushaqa)."

It is said that mushata is the hair which comes out when one combs the hair. Mushaqa are shreds of flax of cotton."

XLVII. Shirk and magic are deadly sins

5431. Abu'-Ghayth related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Avoid the fatal sins: shirk in Allah and magic."

XLVIII. Should the source of magic be extracted from where it is?

Qatada said, "I asked Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, 'If a man is bewitched or unable to come to his wife, can he seek to undo it or use nushra*?' 'Yes,' he answered, 'There is no harm in that. By it they desire to put things right. That which is beneficial for people is not forbidden.'"

[Nushra is reciting verses over water which is then used by the person afflicted.]

5432. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was bewitched so that he would imagine that he had had intercourse with his wives when he had not. (Sufyan said, "This is the worst type of magic when it does that.") He said, ''A'isha, do you know that Allah has given me a decision in what I asked Him about? Two men came to me and one of them sat at my head and the other and at my feet, and the one at my head said to the other, "What ails the man?" "Bewitched," he answered. He said, "And who has bewitched him?" He replied, "Labid ibn al-A'sam, a man of the Banu Zurayq, the allies of the Jews, who is a hypocrite." He said, "Using what?" He replied, "A comb and flax fibres." He asked, "Where is it?" He said, "Inside a male palm spadex under a stone in the well of Dharwan."' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to the well to remove it. He said, 'This is the well that I was shown.' Its water was the colour of henna infusion and the date palms looks like the heads of devils. He said, 'It was taken out.' I asked, 'Why do not use nushra?' He replied, 'By Allah, Allah has cured me. I dislike to provoke evil against anyone.'"

XLIX. Magic

5433. 'Urwa related that 'AÕisha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was bewitched so that he would imagine that he had done a thing which he had not done it until one day while he was with me, he made supplication and did so again. Then he said, ''A'isha, are aware that Allah has informed me of what I asked Him about?' I asked, 'What is that is Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'Two men came to me and one of them sat at my head and the other and at my feet, and one said to the other, "What ails the man?" "Bewitched," he answered. He said, "And who has bewitched him?" He replied, "Labid ibn al-A'sam, a Jew from the Banu Zurayq." He said, "Using what?" He replied, "A comb, the hairs in it, and the husk of a male palm spathe." He asked, "Where is it?" He said, "In the well of Dharwan."'" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the well with some of his Companions. He looked and there wee palm trees on it. Then he came to 'A'isha and said, "By Allah, its water is the colour of henna infusion. The heads of its palms are like the heads of devils." I asked, 'Messenger of Allah, did you take it out?" He answered, "No, Allah has healed me and cured me and I fear that that would provoke evil among the people." Then he ordered that the well be filled in."

L. Some eloquence is part of magic

5434. Zayd ibn Aslam reported from Ibn 'Umar that two men came from the east and spoke and people were astonished at their eloquence. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is some eloquence that is magic," or "Some of eloquence is magic."

[The two men are said to be 'Amr ibn al-Ahtam at-Tamimi and az-Zibriqan ibn Badr at-Tamimi.]

LI. Using 'ajwa* dates against magic

5435. 'Amir ibn Sa'd related that his father said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If someone has 'ajwa dates in the morning, he will be not harmed by poison or magic for that day until nightfall.'"

Someone else said, "Seven dates."

5436. 'Amir ibn Sa'd said, "I heard Sa'd say, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Whoever has seven 'ajwa dates in the morning will not be harmed by poison or magic that day."'"

[*'Ajwa is a type of Madinan date which is dark in colour.]

LII. There is no hama

5437. Abu Salama related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is no contagion nor bad luck in Safar nor hama.' A bedouin said, 'Messenger of Allah, what about the camels which are like gazelles in the sand and then a mangy camel comes and goes in among them and they get mange?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'What infected the first?'"

Abu Salama said that he heard Abu Hurayra say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Someone with sick camels should not bring them to water with sound ones." Abu Hurayra did not acknowledge the first hadith. We said, "Did you not relate, 'There is no contagionÉ?'" Abu Salama said, "I did not see him forget any hadith other than this."

LIII. There is no contagion

5438. Salim ibn 'Abdullah and Hamza reported that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no contagion and no bad omens. Bad luck may be in three: horses, women and houses."

5439. Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no contagion."

Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, "I heard Abu Hurayra say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Someone with sick camels should not bring them to water with sound ones.'" Sinan ibn Abi Sinan ad-Du'ali reported that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is no contagion.' A bedouin stood up and said, 'What do you think about camels which are like gazelles in the sand and then a mangy camel comes and goes in among them and they get mange?' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'What infected the first one?'"

5440. Qatada related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no contagion nor bad omens. I like the good sign." They said, "What is the good sign?" He said, "A good word."

LIV. What is mentioned about the poisoning of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

5441. Sa'id ibn Abi Sa'id is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When Khaybar was conquered, a poisoned sheep was presented to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Gather for me all the Jews who are here.' They were gathered for him and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  said, 'I am going to ask you about something. Will you tell me the truth about it?' They answered, 'Yes, Abu'l-Qasim.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked them, 'Who is your father?' They said, 'Our father is so-and-so.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'You have lied. Your father is so-and-so.' They said, 'You spoke the truth and have spoken truly.' He said, 'So now will you tell me the truth about something if I ask you about it?' They said, 'Yes, Abu'l-Qasim. If we lie, you will recognise our lie just as you recognised that regarding our father.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked them, 'Who are the people of the Fire?' They answered, 'We will be in it for a short time and then you will replace us in it.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'May you be basely driven into it! By Allah, we will never replace you in it!' Then he said, 'Will you tell me the truth about something if I ask you about it?' They answered, 'Yes.' He asked, 'Did you put poison in this sheep?' 'Yes.' they replied. He said, 'What made you do that?' They answered, 'If you were a liar, then we would be relieved of you. If you were a Prophet, then it would not harm you.'"

LV. Taking poison and using it for medical treatment, or using what may be dangerous or something impure

5442. Dhakwan was heard to relate from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone throws himself off a mountain and kills himself, in the Fire of Hell he will be throwing himself down forever. If someone drinks poison and kills himself, in the Fire of Hell he will have his poison in his hand which he will drink forever. If someone kills himself with iron, in the Fire of Hell he will have his iron weapon in his hand stabbing his belly with it forever,'"

5443. 'Amir ibn Sa'd reported, "I heard my father say, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Whoever has seven 'ajwa dates in the morning will not be harmed by poison or magic that day."

LVI. The milk of she-asses

5444. Abu Idris al-Khawlani related that Abu Tha'laba al-Khushani said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade eating every beast of prey with fangs." Az-Zuhri said, "I did not hear this until I came to Syria." Al-Layth added, "Yunus related to me from Ibn Shihab. He said, 'I asked him, "Can we do wudu' or drink the milk of she-asses, the bile of beasts of prey or the urine of camels?" He answered, "The Muslims used to use it (camel urine) to treat themselves and did not see any harm in it. As for the milk of she-asses, it has reached us that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade their meat, but neither a command or a prohibition has reached me about their milk. As for the bile of beasts of prey, Ibn Shihab said, "Abu Idris al-Khawlani told me that Abu Tha'laba al-Khushani told him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade eating every beast of prey with fangs."'"

LVII. When a fly falls into a vessel

5445. 'Ubayd ibn Hunayn, a client of the Banu Zurayq, reported from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a fly falls into a vessel belonging to one of you, he should completely immerse it and then throw it away. There is healing in one of wings and disease in the other."