Book of Slaughtering and Hunting

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 75. Book of Slaughtering and Hunting

I. Saying the Name of Allah while Hunting

The words of Allah Almighty, "Forbidden for you are carrion ... to ...  So do not be afraid of them but be afraid of Me." (5:1-3)

His words, "O you who believe, Allah will test you with game animals which come within the reach of your hands and spears." (5:94)

The words of Allah Almighty, "All livestock animals are lawful for you, except those that are recited to you now..." (5:1)

Ibn 'Abbas said, "'uqud" (5:1) are contracts, both lawful and unlawful. "Except those that are recited to you now" (5:2) are pigs. "yajrimannakum" (5:2) means "incite you". "Shanan" (5:2) means hatred. "Al-munkhaniqa" (5:3) means that which has been choked to death. "Al-Manqudha" (5:3) means struck by wood with a fatal blow. "Al-mataraddiya" (5:3) means having fallen from a mountain. "An-Natiha" is a gored sheep. If one reaches it while its tail or eyes are  still moving, then you can slaughter and eat it.

5158. It is related from 'Amir that 'Adi ibn Hatim said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about featherless arrows. He said, 'Eat what it hits with its sharp end. What has been hit side on has been beaten to death.' I asked him about hunting dogs and he said, "Eat what they catch for you. The act of the dog seizing the game is slaughter. If you find another dog with your dog or dogs, and you fear that it took the game with your dog and killed it, then do not eat it. You said the Name of Allah over your dog, but did not do so over the other dog.'"

II. Game killed by a featherless arrow

Ibn 'Umar said about an animal killed with a hazelnut, "That is like the animal beaten to death."

Salim, al-Qasim, Mujahid, Ibrahim, 'Ata' and al-Hasan disliked it.

Al-Hasan disliked using hazelnuts* in towns and villages, but saw no harm in using them elsewhere.

[This can also refer to clay pellets.]

5159. Ash-Sha'bi reported that 'Adi ibn Hatim said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about featherless arrows. He said, 'Eat what it hits with its sharp end. What has been hit side on and killed has been beaten to death, so do not eat it.' I asked, 'What if I set loose my dog?' He replied, 'When you let your dog loose and say the basmala, then you can eat.' I asked, 'If it eats some of it?' He answered, 'Then do not eat it. It did not catch it for you. It caught it for itself.' I said, 'And if I set loose my dog and find another dog with it?' He replied, ''Do not eat it for you have said the basmala over your dog but not over the other one.'"

III. Game hit by the flat side of the featherless arrow

5160. It is related by Hammam ibn al-Harith that 'Adi ibn Hatim said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, we set loose trained dogs.' He said, 'Eat what they catch for you.' I asked, 'Even if they kill it?' 'Even if they kill it,' he answered. I said, 'We also shoot it with featherless arrows.' He said, 'Eat what is pierced by the arrow, but do not eat what it hit by its side.'"

IV. Hunting with a bow

Al-Hasan and Ibrahim said, "If someone hits game and severs one of its arms or legs, do not eat that which was severed, but eat the rest."

Ibrahim said, "When you hit it in the neck or the middle, then eat it."

Al-A'mash reported from Zayd, "A wild ass eluded a man from 'Abdullah's family, so he ['Abdullah ibn Mas'ud] told them to hit however they could and leave what was cut from it and eat the rest."

5161. It is related that Abu Tha'laba al-Khushani said, "I said, 'Prophet of Allah, we are in the land of the People of the Book. Can we eat from their vessels? It is a land with game and I hunt with a bow and with my dog which is not rained and with my trained dog. What am I permitted to eat?' He answered, 'As for what you mentioned about the People of the Book, if you can find other vessels, then do not eat from them. If you do not find other vessels, then wash them and eat from them. Eat what you hunt with your bow when you mentioned the Name of Allah. Eat what you hunt with your trained dog when you mentioned the Name of Allah. Eat what you hunt with your untrained dog when you are able to slaughter it.'"

V. Khadhf (flicking small stones) and bunduqa (hazelnuts)

5162. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal saw a man flicking small stones and told him, "Do not flick small stones. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade flicking small stones, or he used to dislike doing it." 'Abdullah said, "one does not hunt game by that nor hurt an enemy by it, but it may break a tooth or cause loss of an eye." Then he saw the man flicking stones after that and said to him, "I tell you that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade or disliked flicking small stones and you are still flicking them! I will not speak to you for such-and-such a time."

VI. The one who keeps a dog which is neither for hunting or for herding

5163. 'Abdullah ibn Dinar reported that he heard Ibn 'Umar relate that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who acquires a dog - except one for herding or trained for hunting - loses two qirats of his actions every day.'"

5164. It is related that Salim heard 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar say, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Anyone who acquires a dog - except one trained for hunting game or herding, has his reward decreased by two qirats every day.'"

5165. It is related from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who acquires a dog - except one for herding or trained for hunting, loses two qirats of his actions every day.'"

VII. When the dog eats [of the game]

The words of Allah Almighty, "They will ask you what is lawful for them. Say: 'All good things are lawful for you, and also what is caught for you by hunting animals ..." (5:4)

"Trained dog are called sawa'id and kawasib. "Ijtaru" (45:21) is to earn.

"which you have trained as Allah has taught you. Eat what they catch for you, mentioning Allah's name over it. And show fear of Allah. Allah is Swift at Reckoning." (5:4)

Ibn 'Abbas said, "If the dog eats the game, it spoils it. It has caught it for itself. Allah says, 'which you have trained as Allah has taught you.' So they are beaten and taught to leave the game."

Ibn 'Umar disliked  eating it.

'Ata' said, "If the dog drinks the blood but does not eat it, then you can eat it."

5166. It is related from ash-Sha'bi that 'Adi ibn Hatim said, "I asked a question of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, 'We are a people who hunt with these dogs.' He said, 'When you let loose your trained dogs having mentioned the Name of Allah, then eat from what they catch for you, even if they kill it, but the dogs eats some of it. I would then fear that it has caught it for itself. If other dogs join your dog, then do not eat it."

VIII. If one fails to find the game (he has shot) for two or three days

5167. It is related from ash-Sha'bi from 'Adi ibn Hatim that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you let your dog loose and say the basmala, then you can eat. If it eats some of it, you should not eat for it has caught it for itself. If it joins other dogs over whom the Name of Allah has not mentioned who then catch an animal and kill it, do not eat. You do not know which of them has killed it. If you shoot game and find it two or three days later with no mark other than that of your arrow, then eat it. If it has fallen into water. then do not eat it."

'Amir related from 'Adi that he said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "What is someone shoots game and loses its track for two or three days and then finds it dead with his arrow in it?" He answered, "He can eat it if he wishes."

IX. If someone finds another dog with the game

5168. It is related from ash-Sha'bi that 'Adi ibn Hatim said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, I let loose my dog and say the basmala.' He said, 'When you let loose your dog and say the basmala, and it catches and kills it and then eats of it, do not eat it. It has caught it for itself.' I asked, 'If I let loose my dog and find another dog with it and do not know which of them has caught it?' He answered, 'Do not eat it. You said the basmala over your dog, but not over the other dog.' I asked him about game shot with a featherless arrow. He said, 'Eat what it hits with its sharp end. What has been hit side on and killed has been beaten to death, so do not eat it.'"

X. What has been said about hunting

5169. It is related from 'Amir that 'Adi ibn Hatim said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'We are a people who hunt with these dogs.' He said, 'When you let loose your trained dog and mention the Name of Allah, eat what it catches for you. If it eats from it, do not eat. I fear that it has caught it for itself. If another dog from elsewhere joins it, then do not eat it."

5170. It is related that Abu Idris 'A'idhullah heard Abu Tha'laba al-Khushani say, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, we are in the land of the People of the Book, and we eat from their vessels. It is a land with game and I hunt with a bow and with my dog which is not trained and with my trained dog. Tell me what is lawful for us of that.' He answered, 'As for what you mentioned about being in the land of the People of the Book and eating from their vessels, if you find other vessels than their vessels, then do not eat from them. If you do not find them, then wash them and eat from them. As for what you mentioned of being in a land with game, eat what you hunt with your bow when you mentioned the Name of Allah. Eat what you hunt with your trained dog when you mentioned the Name of Allah. Eat what you hunt with your untrained dog when you are able to slaughter it.'"

5171. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We made a rabbit bolt from its hole at Marr az-Zahran and the people ran after it but got tired. I got to it, caught it and brought it to Abu Talha. He sent its haunch and thighs to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he accepted that."

5172. It is related from Abu Qatada that he was with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When he had gone part of the way to Makka, he and some of his companions who were in ihram fell back. He was not in ihram. He say a wild ass, mounted his horse and then asked his companions to hand him a whip and they refused. He asked them for his spear and they refused. He took it and attacked the ass and killed it. Some of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ate it and others refused. When they caught up to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, they asked him about that and he said, "It is food with which Allah has fed you."

The like of it related from Abu Qatada but the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do you have any of its meat still with you?"

XI. Hunting on mountains

5173. It is related from Nafi', the client of Abu Qatada, and Abu Salih, the client of at-Taw'ama, that Abu Qatada said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, between Makka and Madina and they were in ihram. I was a man not in ihram on the horse and I used to be good at going up mountains. While I was like that, I saw the people looking at something and I looked and there was a wild ass. I said to them, 'What is this?' "We do not know,' they answered. I said, 'It is a wild ass.' They said, 'It is as you have seen.' I had forgotten my whip and said to them, 'Hand me my whip,' They replied, 'I will not help you. I dismounted and took it. Then I chased after it and kept on until I had killed it. I came to them and said, 'Get up and carry it.' They said, 'We will not touch it.' I carried it and brought it to them. Some of them refused and some of them ate it. I said, 'I will ask the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to stop for you. I caught up to him and told him the story. He asked me, 'Do you have any of it still with you?' 'Yes,' I replied. He said, 'Eat. It is food with which Allah has fed you."

XII. The words of Allah Almighty, "What you catch in the sea is lawful for you and all food from it." (5:96)

'Umar said that its game is what is caught and its "food" is what it casts up.

Abu Bakr said, "Floating fish are lawful."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Its 'food' is its dead fish except for what you deem unclean. Jews do not eat eels, but we eat them."

Shurayh, a Companion of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Everything in the sea is considered to be slaughtered."

'Ata' said, "I think that seabirds must be slaughtered."

Ibn Jurayj said, "I asked 'Ata', 'What about the catch of rivers and small bodies of water. Is that water game?' 'Yes,' he answered. Then he recited, 'This one, sweet, refreshing, delicious to drink that one salty, bitter to the taste. Yet from both of them you eat fresh flesh.' (35:12)

Al-Hasan [ibn 'Ali], peace be upon him, rode a saddle made of sharkskin. [Note: in Arabic a shark is kalb al-bahr, sea dog.]

Ash-Sha'bi said, "If my family would eat frogs, I would feed them to them."

Al-Hasan did not see anything wrong with turtles/tortoises.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Eat of the catch of the sea, even if it is caught by a Christian, Jew or Magian."

Abu'd-Darda' said about the muri*, "The fish and the sun are the slaughtering of the wine."

[*Wine in which fish and salt are put and then it is placed in the sun and changes. It makes it into vinegar.]

5174. It is related that 'Amr heard Jabir say, "We went out on an expedition as the Army of al-Khabt under the command of Abu 'Ubayda. We were afflicted by terrible hunger, and the sea cast up a dead fish whose like we had never seem. It is called a sperm whale. We ate from it for half a month. Abu 'Ubayda took one of its bones and a rider rode under it."

5175. 'Amr related that he heard Jabir say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent us, three hundred riders, whose commander was Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah, to ambush the caravan of Quraysh. We were afflicted by terrible hunger so that we ate the leaves of the khabt tree and so that army was called the Army of al-Khabat. and we ate from it for half a month and we oiled ourselves with its fat until our bodies returned to their former strength. Abu 'Ubayda took one of its ribs and set it upright and a rider passed under it. When the hunger was severe, one man among us slaughtered three camels, and then slaughtered another three camels and then Abu 'Ubayda forbade him."

XIII. Eating locusts

5176. Abu Ya'fur reported that he heard Ibn Abi Awfa say, "We went on seven or six expeditions with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we used to eat locusts with him.

It is related from Abu Ya'fur from Ibn Abi Awfa, "seven expeditions."

XIV. The vessels of Magians and eating carrion

5177. It is related that Abu Tha'laba al-Khushani said, "I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, we are in the land of the people of the Book and we eat from their vessels. It is a land with game and I hunt with a bow and with my dog which is not rained and with my trained dog' He answered, 'As for what you mentioned about the People of the Book, do not eat from their vessels unless you cannot find any alternative. If you do not find an alternative, then wash them and eat from them. As for what you mentioned about being in a land with game, when you hunt with your bow, mention the Name of Allah and eat. When you hunt with your trained dog, mention the Name of Allah and eat. When you hunt with your untrained dog and are able to slaughter it, then eat it.'"

5178. It is related from Yazid ibn Abi 'Ubayd that Salama ibn al-Akwa' said, "In the evening of the day when we conquered Khaybar, they lit fires. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'For what are these fires being kindled?' They answered, 'For the meat of domestic donkeys.' He said,' Pour out what is in them and break the pots.' A man of the people asked, 'Shall we pour out what is in them and wash them.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Or do that.'"

XV. Mention the basmala when slaughtering, and those who deliberately omit it

Ibn 'Abbas said, "There is no harm if someone forgets it."

Allah Almighty says, "Do not eat anything over which the name of Allah has not been mentioned. To do so is sheer degeneracy (fisq)." (6:121) Ibn 'Abbas said that the one who forgets to do that is not called fasiq.

He says, "The shaytans inspire their friends to dispute with you. If you obeyed them you would be idolaters." (5:121)

5179. It is related that the grandfather of 'Abaya ibn Rifa' ibn Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at Dhu'l-Hulayfa. The people were afflicted by hunger and we had seized some camels and sheep as booty. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was somewhat behind the people and they hurried and slaughtered and set up the pots. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reached them and ordered the pots to be emptied. Then he carried out the division. He made ten sheep equal to a camel. One of the camels fled. There were few horses among the people. The people went after it until they became exhausted. One of the men aimed an arrow at it and Allah stopped the camel. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Some of these animals are wild like wild animals. If you loose control over them, then do as this man did.'" My grandfather said, "We expect - or fear - that we may meet the enemy tomorrow and not have any knives. Can we slaughter with reeds?" He said, "Use whatever makes the blood flow and eat it when the Name of Allah has been mentioned over it. Do not [slaughter] with a tooth or nail, and I will tell you about that. The tooth is a bone and the nail is the knife of the Abyssinians.'"

XVI. That which has been slaughtered on altars and to idols

5180. Salim related that he heard 'Abdullah report that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, met Zayd ibn 'Amr ibn Nufayl at the bottom of Baldah before any revelation had come down on the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, offered him a dish with some meat in it, but he refused to eat of it. [This is also read, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was offered...] Then he said, 'I do not eat from what you slaughter to your idols. I only eat from that over which the name of Allah has been mentioned.'"

XVII. The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Slaughter in the Name of Allah."

5182. It is related that Jundub ibn Sufyan al-Bajali said, "One day we sacrificed some animals with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Some people had sacrificed their animals before the prayer. When he finished [the prayer], the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw that they had slaughtered before the prayer. He said, 'Anyone who has slaughtered before the prayer should slaughter another in its place. Anyone who has not yet slaughtered should do so in the Name of Allah.'"

XVIII. That which causes the blood to flow, be it cane, stone or iron

5182. Nafi' reported that the son of Ka'b ibn Malik told Ibn 'Umar that his father (Ka'b) told him that they had a slavegirl who used to herd some sheep of theirs at Sal'. She saw that one of her sheep which was dying and broke a stone and slaughtered it. He told his family, "Do not eat it until I go to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and ask him," or "Send someone to him to ask him." He went to the Prophet* or sent to him, and the Prophet commanded them to eat it."

5183. A man of the Banu Salama reported that 'Abdullah told him that a slavegirl belonging to Ka'b ibn Malik used to herd some sheep of his at a small mountains at the market which is at Sal'. A sheep was fatally injured and she broke a stone and slaughtered it. They mentioned that to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he commanded them to eat it.

5184. It is related that Rafi' [ibn Khadij] said, "Messenger of Allah, we have no knives?" He said, "If it makes the blood flow and the Name of Allah has been mentioned, then eat. Do not [slaughter] with a tooth or nail. The nail is the knife of the Abyssinians and a tooth is a bone." A camel ran away and was stopped. He said, "Some of these animals are wild like wild animals. If you lose control over them, then do as this man did."

XIX. Slaughtering done by a woman or slavegirl

5185. Nafi' reported that the son of Ka'b ibn Malik reported from his father that a woman slaughtered a sheep with a stone and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about that and commanded that it be eaten.

It is related from Nafi' that he heard a man of the Ansar report to 'Abdullah from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that a slavegirl belonging to Ka'b...

5186. It is related from Nafi' from a man of the Ansar from Mu'adh ibn Sa'd or Sa'd ibn Mu'adh that a slavegirl belonging to Ka'b ibn Malik used to herd some sheep at Sal'. One of the sheep was fatally injured and she caught it and slaughtered it with a stone. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about that and said, "Eat it."

XX. Do not slaughter with a tooth, bone or nail

5187. It is related that Rafi' ibn Khadij said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Eat what has been slaughtered by what makes the blood flow except for a tooth or a nail."

XXI. Animals slaughtered by desert Arabs and the like

5188. It is related from 'A'isha that some people said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Some people bring us meat and we do not know whether or not the Name of Allah has been mentioned over it." He said, "Mention the Name of Allah over it and eat." She said, "Those people had been unbelievers shortly before."

'Ali corroborated it from ad-Darawardi, and Abu Khalid and at-Tufawi corroborated it.

XXII. Animals slaughtered by the People of the Book and their fat, no matter whether they are the people of war or not

The words of Allah Almighty, "Today all good things have been made lawful for you. And the food of those given the Book is also lawful for you and your food is lawful for them." (5:5)

Az-Zuhri said, "There is nothing wrong in eating the animals slaughtered by the Christian Arabs. If you hear someone mention other than Allah, then do not eat it. If you do not hear that, then Allah has allowed you that and He knows their disbelief." The like of this is also mentioned from 'Ali.

Al-Hasan and Ibrahim said that there is nothing wrong in eating animals slaughtered by an uncircumcised person.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "their food" means their slaughtered animals.

5189. It related that 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal said, "While we were laying siege to the fortress of Khaybar, someone threw a skin full of fat and I leapt to take it. I turned and there was the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I was too embarrassed to do it."

XXIII. Animals which run away are like wild animals

Ibn Mas'ud permitted that.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "If you cannot catch domestic animals you own, then they are like game. If a camel falls into a well, slaughter it by whatever part of it you can reach.*

[*Note. That is the view of three imams: Abu Hanifa, ash-Shafi'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Malik said that it is only permitted to slaughter it in the neck.]

'Ali, Ibn 'Umar and 'A'isha held that view.

5190. It is related that Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, we will meet the enemy tomorrow and we have no knives.' He said, 'Hurry (or Be quick). If it makes the blood flow and the Name of Allah has been mentioned, then eat. Do not [slaughter] with a tooth or nail. I will tell you about that. A tooth is a bone and the nail is the knife of the Abyssinians.' We got some camels and sheep and one of the camels fled. There were few horses among the people. They went after it until they became exhausted. One of the men shot an arrow at it and stopped it. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Some of these camels are wild like wild animals. If you lose control over any of them, then do as this man did.'"

XXIV. Slaughter performed by nahr and normal slaughtering (dhabh)

Ibn Jurayj said, "'Ata' said, 'There is no dhabh or nahr except in the place where dhabh or nahr is performed.' I asked, 'Is it permitted to use dhabh on that which is normally slaughtered by means of nahr.' 'Yes,' he replied, 'Allah mentions the dhabh of cattle. If you use dhabh on something which is normally slaughtered by nahr, that is allowed. I prefer nahr. Dhabh is cutting the jugular veins.' I asked, 'Should he go beyond the veins and cut the spinal cord?' He said, 'I do not think so.'"

Nafi' reported that Ibn 'Umar forbade cutting into the spinal cord. He said, "That is cutting less than the bone and then leaving the animal to die."

[Nahr is cutting the veins which are cut in dhabh, but below the neck by stabbing with a spear. Camels are slaughtered in this manner. Dhabh is cutting the veins at the top (in the neck) and is used for other animals.]

The words of Allah Almighty, "And when Musa said to his people, 'Allah commands you to sacrifice a cow (by dhabh).'" (2:67)

And His words, "So they sacrificed her [by dhabh] – but they almost did not do it." (2:71)

Sa'id said that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Dhabh is done by cutting the gullet and the throat."

Ibn 'Umar, Ibn 'Abbas and Anas said, "If one cuts off the head, there is no harm."

5191. It is related from Fatima bint al-Mundhir, the wife of 'Urwa, that Asma' bint Abi Bakr said, "We slaughtered a horse by nahr in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and ate it."

5192. It is related that Asma' said, "In the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we slaughtered a horse (by dhabh) in Madina and ate it."

5193. It is related that Asma' ibn Abi Bakr said, "In the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we slaughtered a horse (by dhabh) and ate it."

Waki' and Ibn 'Uyayna corroborated nahr from Hisham.

XXV. What is disliked of mutilation of live animals, setting up animals in a cage as a target and tying up live animals as targets

5194. It is related that Hisham ibn Zayd said, "I went with Anas to al-Hakam ibn Ayyub. He saw some boys or lads who had set up a chicken and were shooting at it. Anas said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade tying up animals so that they could be shot at [and killed]."

5195. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that he visited Yahya ibn Sa'id and one of Yahya's sons had tied up a chicken and was shooting at it. Ibn 'Umar went and untied it. Then he brought it and the boy and said, "Prevent your boy from tying up these birds to kill them. I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade tying up animals so that they could be shot at and killed."

5196. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "While I was with Ibn 'Umar, we passed by some young men or a group who had set up a chicken at which they were shooting. When they saw Ibn 'Umar, they ran off. Ibn 'Umar said, 'Who did this? The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cursed those who did this.'"

It is corroborated from al-Minhal from Sa'id that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cursed the one who mutilated a live animal [by cutting off part of it while it was still alive]."

'Adi reported it from Sa'id from Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

5197. It is related that 'Adi ibn Thabit said, "I heard 'Abdullah ibn Yazid report that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade robbery and mutilation of live animals."

XXVI. The meat of chickens

5198. It is related that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, eating chicken."

5199. It is related that Zahdam said, "We were with Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, and there was friendship between us and this tribe of Jarm. He was brought some food which contains chicken meat. There was a man with a red complexion sitting there who did not go near the food. Abu Musa said, 'Come near! I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, eat it.' He replied, 'I saw it eat something filthy and I have taken an oath not to eat it.' He said, 'Come and I will inform – or tell – you about that. I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, among the group of the Ash'arites, which happened to be at a time when he was angry. He was dividing up some of the zakat camels. We asked him to give us mounts and he swore that he would not give us mounts. He said, 'I have nothing to let you ride.' Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought some camels as booty and asked, 'Where are the Ash'arites? Where are the Ash'arites?' He gave us five camels with white humps. We went a short distance and I said to my companions, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forgot his oath. By Allah, if we take advantage of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forgetting his oath, we will never be successful!' So we went back to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, you gave us mounts when you swore that you would not give us mounts. We think that you have forgotten your oath.' He answered, 'It is Allah who has given you mounts. By Allah, if Allah wills, I will never make an oath and then see something better than it without doing the thing that is better and then doing expiation for it.'"

XXVII. Horse-meat

5200. It is related that Asma' said, "We slaughtered a horse by nahr in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and ate it."

5201. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "On the Day of the conquest of Khaybar, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the meat of donkeys, but made an allowance for horse-meat."

XXVIII. The meat of domestic donkeys

It is related from Salama from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

5202. It is related from Salim and Nafi' from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the flesh of domestic donkeys on the Day of Khaybar.

It is related  from Nafi' that 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the flesh of domestic donkeys."

Ibn al-Mubarak corroborated it from 'Ubaydullah from Nafi'. Abu Usama mentioned it from 'Ubaydullah from Salim.

5203. It is related that 'Ali said, "In the year of Khaybar, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the mu'ta marriage and the flesh of domestic donkeys."

5204. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "On the Day of the conquest of Khaybar, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the meat of donkeys, but made an allowance for horse-meat."

5205. It is related that al-Bara' and Ibn Abi Awfa said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the flesh of donkeys."

5206. It is related from Abu Idris that Abu Tha'laba said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made the meat of domestic donkeys haram."

Az-Zubaydi and 'Uqayl corroborated it from Ibn Shihab.

5207. It is related from az-Zuhri that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade every beast of prey with fangs.

5208. It is related from Anas ibn Malik that someone came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "The donkeys have been eaten." Then someone else came to him and said, "The donkeys have been eaten." Then someone else came to him and said, "The donkeys have been destroyed." Then he commanded a caller to call out among the people, "Allah and His Messenger have forbidden you the meat of domestic donkeys. It is impure." So the pots were tipped out while the meat were boiling in them.

5209. It is related that 'Amr said, "I said to Jabir ibn Zayd, 'They claim that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade donkey's meat.' He said, 'Al-Hakam ibn 'Amr al-Ghifari used to say that when he was with us in Basra, but the great scholar, Ibn 'Abbas, refused to say that and recited, "Say: 'I do not find, in what has been revealed to me, any food unlawful to be eaten except for carrion, flowing blood, and pork...'" (6:145)'"

XXIX. Eating beasts of prey with fangs

5210. It is related from Abu Idris al-Khawlani from Abu Tha'laba that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade every wild animal with fangs.

Yunus, Ma'mar, Ibn 'Uyayna and al-Majishun corroborated it from az-Zuhri.

XXX. The skins of carrion

5211. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a dead sheep and asked, "Why don't you use its skin?" They replied, "It is carrion." He said, "It is only forbidden to eat it."

5212. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was hear to say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a dead goat and said, "There is nothing wrong in its people using its skin."

XXXI. Musk

5213. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no one who is wounded in the Way of Allah but that he will come on the Day of Rising with his wound bleeding. It will be the colour of blood but have the smell of musk."

5214. It is related from Abu Musa that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The metaphor of a good companion and a bad companion is that of someone possessing musk and the bellows of the blacksmith. From someone possessing musk you either buy it or smell its scent while the bellows of the blacksmith either burn your body or your clothes or you smell a foul odour from them."

XXXII. Rabbits

5215. It is related that Anas said, "We made a rabbit bolt from its hole at Marr az-Zahran and the people ran after it but got tired. I caught it and brought it to Abu Talha. He sent its haunch – or its thighs – to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he accepted that."

XXXIII. Lizards

5216. 'Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "I heard Ibn 'Umar say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I neither eat lizards nor prohibit that."

5217. 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas reported that Khalid ibn al-Walid went to the house of Maymuna with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. [He said], "A roasted lizard was brought and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stretched his hand to it. One of the women said, 'Tell the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, what he is about to eat.' They said, 'It is lizard, Messenger of Allah.' He removed his hand and I asked, 'Is it haram, Messenger of Allah?' 'No,' he answered, 'but it is not found in the land of my people and I find that I dislike it.'" Khalid said, "I pulled it to me and ate it while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was looking at me."

XXXIV. When a mouse falls into solid or liquid ghee

5218. Ibn 'Abbas reported from Maymuna that a mouse fell into some ghee and died. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about it and he said, "Throw it away along with what is around it, and eat the rest."

It was said to Sufyan, "Ma'mar related it from az-Zuhri from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab from Abu Hurayra." He said, "I only heard az-Zuhri say that it was from 'Ubaydullah from Ibn 'Abbas from Maymuna from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I heard it from him several times."

5219. It is related from az-Zuhri about an animal which died in oil or ghee, solid or not solid, be it a mouse or another animal that he said, "It reached us that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded when a mouse died in ghee that what was close to it be thrown away and the rest eaten."

It is from the hadith of 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah.

5220. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that Maymuna said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about a mouse which had fallen into ghee and he said, 'Throw it away along with what is around it and eat the rest.'"

XXXV. Branding and marking the faces

5221. It is related from Salim that Ibn 'Umar disliked marking the face.

Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade striking [the face.]

Qutayba corroborated it from al-'Anqazi from Hanzala, saying, "striking the face."

5222. It is related that Anas said, "I brought a brother of mine to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so that he could do tahnik (rub his gums with a chewed date). He was in a sheep-pen of his and I saw him branding a sheep." I reckon that he said, "on the ear."

XXXVI. When some people obtain booty and then some of them slaughter some sheep or camels without the permission of their companions, that should not be eaten

This is based on a hadith of Rafi' from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Tawus and 'Ikrima said about a slaughtered stolen animal, "Throw it away."

5223. It is related that Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "I said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'We will meet the enemy tomorrow and not have any knives.' He said, 'Use whatever makes the blood flow and eat it when the Name of Allah has been mentioned over it as long as it is not a tooth or nail, and I will tell you about that. A tooth is a bone and the nail is the knife of the Abyssinians.' Some hasty people got ahead and took some booty while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was behind the people. They had set up pots and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered that they be tipped out. He divided the animals between them and made one camel equal to ten sheep. Then a camel belonging to the first group of people ran away and they had no horses with them. A man shot an arrow at it and Allah stopped it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Some of these animals are wild like wild animals. If one of them does this, then do as this man did.'"

XXXVII. When a camel belonging to some people runs away and one of them shoots an arrow at it and kills it intending their benefit, that is permitted

It is based on a report of Rafi' from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

5224. It is related that Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey and one of the camels ran away. A man shot it with an arrow an stopped it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Some of them are wild like wild beasts. If you loose control over them, then do as this man did.'" He said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, when we are on expeditions or journeys, we want to slaughter but have no knives.' He said, 'Listen, use what males the blood flow and mention the Name of Allah and then eat it, unless it is a tooth or a nail. The tooth is a bone and the nail is the Abyssinian knife.'"

XXXVIII. What someone compelled by necessity can eat

By the words of the Almighty, "You who believe! Eat of the good things We have provided for you and show thanks to Allah if you worship Him alone. He has only forbidden you carrion, blood and pork and what has been consecrated to other than Allah. But anyone who is forced to eat it – without desiring it or going to excess in it – commits no crime." (2:172-173)

He says, "But if anyone is forced by hunger, not intending any wrongdoing..." (5:3)

His words, "Eat that over which the name of Allah has been mentioned, if you believe in His Signs. What is the matter with you that you do not eat that over which the name of Allah has been mentioned, when He has made plain to you what He has forbidden you – except when you are forced to eat it? Many people misguide others by their whims and desires without any knowledge. Your Lord knows best those who overstep the limits." (6:118-119)

"Say: 'I do not find, in what has been revealed to me, any food unlawful to be eaten except for carrion, flowing blood, and pork – for that is unclean – or some deviance consecrated to other than Allah. But if anyone is forced to eat it, without desiring to or going to excess in it, your Lord is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'" (6:145)

"So eat from what Allah has provided for you, lawful and good, and be thankful for the blessing of Allah if it is truly Him you worship. He has forbidden you carrion, blood and pork and anything consecrated to other than Allah. But if someone is forced to eat it, without desiring to or going to excess in it, your Lord is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (16:114-115)