Book of Tafsir

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 68. Book of Tafsir

"The All-Merciful, theMost Merciful (ar-Rahmân, ar-Rahîm)" are two names which derive from "mercy (rahma)". Rahîm and Râhim have the same meaning, as do 'alîm and 'âlim (knowing).

I: What has come regarding the Fatiha of the Book

It is called the "Mother of the Book" because it is the first to be written in copies of the Qur'an and the first to be recited in the prayer. "Deen" means repayment, in both good and evil, from the verb, "to repay, be in debt" (dâna, yadînu).

Mujahid said that "bi-dîn" in 107:1 and 82:9 means "reckoning, and that "madînin" ("exempt from future account" 56:86) means "taken to reckoning".

4204. It is related that Sa'id b. al-Mu'alla said, "I was praying in the mosque and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called me, but I did not answer. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, I was praying.' He said, 'Does not Allah say, "Respond to Allah, and to the Messenger, when He calls you to what will bring you to life!" (8:24)?' Then he said to me, 'I will teach you a sura which is the greatest of the suras in the Qur'an before you leave the mosque.' Then he took me by the hand and when he wanted to leave, I said to him, 'Did you not say, "I will teach you a sura which is the greatest of the suras in the Qur'an before you leave the mosque'?' He said, '"Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds." It is the Seven Oft-Repeated ones and the Immense Qur'an which I was given.'"

II: "not of those with anger on them, nor of the misguided"

4205. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the Imam says, 'not of those with anger on them, nor of the misguided,' then say, 'Ameen.' If someone's word coincides with that of the angels, he will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

Surat al-Baqara

III: The words of Allah, "He taught Adam the names of everything." (2:31)

4206. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising people will be gathered and they will say, 'If only we could ask someone to intercede for us with our Lord!' They will go to Adam and say, 'You are the father of mankind. Allah created you with His hand and His angels prostrated to you and He taught you the names of everything. Intercede on our behalf with your Lord so that He will relieve us from this place where we are.' He will say, 'I am not worthy of this task,' and he will mention his wrong action and be ashamed. 'Go to Nuh. He is the first Messenger that Allah sent to the people of the earth.' They will go to him and he will say, 'I am not worthy of this task,' and he will mention his asking his Lord for that of which he had no knowledge, and he will be ashamed. He will say, 'Go to the Friend of the All-Merciful.' They will go to him and he will say, 'I am not worthy of this task. Go to Musa, a slave to whom Allah spoke directly and to whom He gave the Torah.' They will go to him and he will say, 'I am not worthy of this task,' and he will mention his killing a life not in retaliation for a life and will be ashamed before his Lord. He will say, 'Go to 'Isa, the slave of Allah and His Messenger, the Word of Allah and His Spirit.' But he will say, 'I am not worthy of this task, Go to Muhammad, a slave whose past and future wrong actions Allah has forgiven They will come to me and I will go to ask permission from his Lord and He will give me permission. When I see my Lord, I will fall down in prostration and He will leave me as long as Allah wills. Then it will be said, 'Raise your head and ask and you will be given. Speak and it will be heard. Intercede and intercession will be granted.' I will lift my head and praise Him with praises which He will teach me. He will fix an amount for me and I will let them into the Garden. Then I will return to Him and when I see my Lord, I will do the same. Then I will intercede and He will fix an amount for me and I will let them into the Garden. Then I will return a fourth time and say, 'Only those remain in the Fire whom the Qur'an has held and for whom eternity is obliged.'"

Abu 'Abdullah said, "Except those whom the Qur'an has held" refers to the words of Allah Almighty, "remaining in it timelessly, forever." (16:29)

IV. Chapter

Mujahid said, "To their shaytans," (2:14) means their companions among the hypocrites and idolaters; "encompasses the unbelievers" (2:19) means that Allah gathers them; "colouring (sibgha)" (2:138) is the deen; "except for the humble" (2:45) is the believers in truth. Mujahid said that "bi-quwwa" (2:63) is to act according to what it [i.e. the Torah] contains.

Abu'l-'Aliyya said, "sickness" (2:10) is doubt; "those coming afterwards" (2:66) is a designation for those who remain," and "without blemish" (2:71) means no whiteness.

Another * said that "inflicting an evil punishment on you" (2:49) means they controlled you. Walaya is the verbal noun of wala', lordship. When it is wilaya, then it is rulership.

[* Al-Qasim ibn Sallam and Ma'mar ibn al-Muthanna)

One of them said that the grains (61) which they used to eat were all garlic.

Qatada said that "brought down on themselves" (2:90) is to be changed.

Someone else said, "they prayed for victory" (2:89) is to ask for help and victory; "sharu" (2:102) is to sell; "ra'ina" (2:104) comes from a word meaning flippancy. When they regard a person as stupid, they say, "ra'ina". "Not compensate" (2:43, 123) means to be of no use; "footsteps (khutuwat)" (2:168) is from khatw, and means his tracks; and "abtala" (2:124) means "to put to the test."

V: The words of the Almighty, "Do not then knowingly make others equal to Allah" (2:22)

4207. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Which is the greatest sin in the eyes of Allah?' He replied, 'That you set up a rival with Allah when He created you.' I said, 'That is indeed terrible.' I asked, 'Then what?' He said, 'That you kill your child fearing that he will eat with you.' I said, 'Then what?' He answered, 'That you commit adultery with your neighbour's wife.'"

VI: The words of the Almighty, "And We shaded you with clouds and sent down manna and quails to you: 'Eat of the good things We have provided for you.' They did not wrong Us; rather it was themselves they wronged." (2:57)

Mujahid said that manna is a gum and quail is a bird.

4208. It is related that Sa'id b. Zayd said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Truffles are part of manna, and eating them is a cure for the eyes."

VII: "Remember when We said, 'Go into this town. and eat from it wheresoever you like, freely. Enter the gate prostrating and say, "Relieve us of our burdens!" Your mistakes will be forgiven. We will grant increase to all good-doers.'" (2:58)

"Raghadan" means "ample and abundant."

4209. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The tribe of Israel were told, 'Enter the gate prostratiing and say, "Relieve us of our burdens (hitta)!"' but they changed it and entered crawling on their buttocks, saying, 'Hitta is a grain (habba) in a hair.'"

VIII: His words, "Anyone who is the enemy of Jibril." (2:97)

'Ikrima said, "The meaning of 'Jibr', 'Mika', and 'Saraf' is 'slave' [i.e. in Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil] and 'il' means 'Allah'."

4210. It is related that Anas said, "When 'Abdullah ibn Salam heard of the arrival of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Madina while he was gathering fruit in some land, he went to the Prophet and said, "I will ask you about three things which only a Prophet knows. What is the first sign of the Final Hour? What is the first food that the people of the Garden will eat? And for what reason does a child resemble his father or his mother?" He said, "Jibril has just informed me about them." He said, "Jibril?" He replied, "Yes." He said, "That is the enemy of the Jews among the angels." He recited this ayat: "Say, 'Anyone who is an enemy to Jibril should know that it was he who brought it down upon your heart, by Allah's authority.'" "The first sign of the Final Hour will be a fire which will gather people from the east to the west. The first food that the people of the Garden will eat will be the extra bit of the liver of the fish. When the man's discharge comes first, the child will resemble him. If the woman has a discharge first, then it will resemble her." He said, "I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that you are the Messenger of Allah. O Messenger of Allah, the Jews are a calumnious people. If they know about my Islam before you ask them about me, they will slander me in your presence." The Jews came and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "What kind of man is 'Abdullah ibn Salam among you?" They said, "The best of us, and the son of the best of us, and our master and the son of our master." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "What would you think if 'Abdullah were to become Muslim?" They said, "We seek refuge with Allah from that!" 'Abdullah came out to them and said, "I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." They said, "The worst of us and the son of the worst of us," and began to disparage him. He said, "This is what I feared, Messenger of Allah."

IX: His words, "Whenever We abrogate an ayat or cause it to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or equal to it." (2:106)

4211. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar said, "Our best reciter is Ubayy and the one of us with the most knowledge of judgement is 'Ali. However, we leave some of what Ubayy says because Ubayy says, 'I do not leave anything that I said from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while Allah Almighty says, 'Whenever We abrogate an ayat or cause it to be forgotten.'"

X: "They say, 'Allah has a son.' Glory be to Him!" (2:116)

4212. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah said, 'The son of Adam tells lies about Me, and he should not do that. He abuses Me and he should not do that. As for his telling lies about Me, he claims that I cannot bring him back as he was. As for his abusing me, it is his words that I have a son. Glory be to Me about taking a consort or a son!'"

XI: "Take the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer." (2:125)

The root of mathaba (place of assembly) (2:125) means they return to a place.

4213. It is related that 'Umar said, "Allah agreed with me regarding three things, or "My Lord agreed with me regarding three things. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, if only you could take the Maqam of Ibrahim as a place of prayer,' and I said, 'Messenger of Allah, both devout and corrupt men visit you. I wish you would order your wives to veil themselves,' and the ayat of veiling was revealed. It reached me that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had rebuked some of his wives, and so I visited them and said, 'You will stop or Allah will give His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, better than you in replacement," until I came to one of his wives who said, 'O 'Umar! Is not the Messenger of Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, unable to admonish his wives so that you have to admonish them?' Then Allah sent down, 'It may be that if he does divorce you, his Lord will give him in exchange better wives than you: Muslim women...' (66:5)"

Another isnad.

XII: "And when Ibrahim built the foundations of the House with Isma'il: 'Our Lord, accept this from us! You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.'" (2:127)

Qawa'id is the foundation, and the singular is qa'ida. It is used in 24:60, "As for women who are past child-bearing age," where qawa'id is the singular of qa'id.

4214. It is related from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to her, "Do you not know that when your people rebuilt the Ka'ba, they made it smaller in area than the original foundations of Ibrahim?" [She said,] "So I said, 'Messenger of Allah, why then do you not rebuild it again on the foundations of Ibrahim?' He said, 'If it had not been that your people were only recently unbelievers, I would have done that.'"

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "If 'A'isha heard this from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I believe that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, only omitted touching the two corners opposite al-Hijr because it was not completed on the foundations of Ibrahim."

XIII: "Say, 'We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us.'" (2:136)

4215. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The People of the Book used to recite the Torah in Hebrew and comment on it in Arabic to the people of Islam. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do not either confirm nor deny the People of the Book. Say: "We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us..." (2:136)'"

XIV: "The fools among the people will ask, 'What has made them turn around from the direction they used to face?' Say, 'Both East and West belong to Allah. He guides whoever He wills to a straight path.'" (2:142)

4216. It is related that al-Bara' said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed towards Jerusalem for sixteen or seventeen months although the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would have liked to face the House. He prayed 'Asr with the people praying with him. Then one of the men who had prayed with him left and passed by some people in a mosque who were bowing in ruku'. He said, "I testify by Allah that I prayed with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, facing Makka." They immediately turned towards the House. Some men had died or been slain before the qibla was changed and we did not know what to say about them. Then Allah sent down, 'Allah would not let your belief go to waste. Allah is All-Gentle, Most Merciful to mankind.' (2:143)"

XV: "Hence We have made you a middlemost community, so that you may act as witnesses against mankind and the Messenger as a witness against you." (2:143)

4217. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "Nuh will be summoned on the Day of Rising and he will say, 'At your service and obedience, O Lord!' He will say, 'Didd you convey it?' He will say, 'Yes.' It will be said to his community, 'Did he convey it to you?' They will say, 'No warner came to us.' He will say, 'Who will then testify on your behalf?' He will say, 'Muhammad and his community.' They will testify that he conveyed it. 'The Messenger a witness over yourselves. Those are His words, may His mention be exalted!. 'Hence We have made you a middlemost community, so that you may act as witnesses against mankind and the Messenger as a witness against you.' (2:143) The "middlemost" is equitable."

XVI: "We only appointed the direction you used to face in order to know him who follows the Messenger from him who turns round on his heels. Though in truth it is a very hard thing – except for those Allah has guided. Allah would not let your belief go to waste. Allah is All-Gentle, Most Merciful to mankind." (2:143)

4218. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "While the people were performing the Subh prayer at Quba', someone came to them and said, 'Some Qur'an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying that he should face the Ka'ba, so face it.' They then faced towards the Ka'ba."

XVII: "We have seen you looking up into heaven, turning this way and that, so We will turn you towards a direction which will please you. Turn your face, therefore, towards the Sacred Mosque....to ... what they do." (2:144)

4219. It is related that Anas said, "None of those who prayed to the two qiblas still remain except me."

XVIII: "If you were to bring every Sign to those given the Book, they still would not follow your direction. to .. you would then be one of the wrongdoers." (2:145)

4220. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "While the people were performing the Subh prayer at Quba', a man came to them and said, 'In the night some Qur'an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was commanded to face the Ka'ba, so face it.' They had been facing Syria and so they turned around towards the Ka'ba."

XIX: "Those We have given the Book recognise it as they recognise their own sons. Yet a group of them knowingly conceal the truth. The truth is from your Lord, so on no account be among the doubters." (2:146-147)

4221. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "While the people were performing the Subh prayer at Quba', someone came to them and said, 'In the night some Qur'an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was commanded to face the Ka'ba, so face it.' They had been facing Syria and so they turned around towards the Ka'ba."

XX: "Each person faces a particular direction so race each other to the good. Wherever you are, Allah will bring you all together. Truly Allah has power over everything." (2:148)

4222. It is related that al-Bara' was heard to say, "We prayed with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, towards Jerusalem for sixteen or seventeen months and then he turned it towards the qibla."

XXI: "From wherever you come out turn your face to the Sacred Mosque. This is certainly the truth from your Lord. Allah is not heedless of what you do." (2:149)

"Shatruhu" means towards it.

4223. It is related that Ibn 'Umar was heard to say, "While the people were performing the Subh prayer at Quba', a man came to them and said, 'In the night some Qur'an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was commanded to face the Ka'ba, so face it.' They turned around where they were and faced the Ka'ba. The people had been facing had been facing Syria."

XXII: "Wherever you come from, turn your face to the Sacred Mosque. Wherever you are, turn your faces towards it . .to . .so that perhaps you will be guided." (2:150)

4224. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "While the people were performing the Subh prayer at Quba', someone came to them and said, 'In the night some Qur'an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was commanded to face the Ka'ba, so face it.' They had been facing Syria and so they turned around towards the qibla: the Ka'ba."

XXIII: His words, "Safa and Marwa are among the Sacred Landmarks of Allah, so anyone who goes on hajj to the House or does 'umra incurs no wrong in going back and forth between them. If anyone spontaneously does good, Allah is All-Thankful, All-Knowing." (2:158)

Sha'a'ir are waymarks, the singular being sha'ira. Ibn 'Abbas said that "safwan" means stone. It is also said to be the smooth stone on which nothing grows, the singular being safwana, meaning Safa. Safa is used for the plural.

4225. It is related that 'Urwa said, "When I was young I asked 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, 'What do you think of the words of Allah the Blessed and Almighty, "Safa and Marwa are among the Sacred Landmarks of Allah, so anyone who goes on hajj to the House or does 'umra incurs no wrong in going back and forth between them." By Allah, so I think there is no harm in someone not going between Safa and Marwa' 'A'isha said, 'No, if it was as you say, it would have been, "...there is no harm in him not doing tawaf of them." However, this ayat was sent down about the Ansar who used previously to go into ihram for the idol Manat which was opposite Qudayd. They considered it to be a sin to do tawaf of Safa and Marwa. When Islam came, they asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that and Allah Almighty sent down, "Behold! Safa and Marwah are among the symbols of Allah. So if those who visit the House in the Season or at other times, should compass them round, it is no sin in them." '"

4226. It is related that 'Asim ibn Sulayman said, :I asked Anas ibn Malik about Safa and Marwa and he said, "We used to think that they were part of the business of the Jahiliyya. When Islam came, we kept back from them, and then Allah Almighty sent down: 'Safa and Marwa are among the Sacred Landmarks of Allah, so anyone who goes on hajj to the House or does 'umra incurs no wrong in going back and forth between them.'"

XXIV: His words, "Some people set up equals to Allah, loving them as they should love Allah." (2:165)

Andad means adversaries, the singular being nidd.

4227. It is related from 'Abdullah, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said one thing and I said another. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever dies calling on a rival to Allah will enter the Fire.' I said, 'Whoever does not call on a rival to Allah will enter the Garden.'"

XXV: "You who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the case of people killed: free man for free man, slave for slave, female for female. But if someone is absolved by his brother, blood-money should be claimed with correctness and paid with good will. That is an easement and a mercy from your Lord. Anyone who goes beyond the limits after this will receive a painful punishment." (2:178)

"'Ufiya" means left.

4228. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was heard to say, "Retaliation existed among the tribe of Israel, but they did not have blood-money. Allah Almighty said to this community: 'Retaliation is prescribed for you in the case of people killed: free man for free man, slave for slave, female for female. But if someone is absolved by his brother,' and that remission is that he accept the blood money for murder, 'blood-money should be claimed with correctness and paid with good will.' he should demand it correctly and pay it with good will. 'That is an easement and a mercy from your Lord,' in relation to what was prescribed to those before you, 'Anyone who goes beyond the limits after this will receive a painful punishment." (2:178) This is killing after accepting blood money."

4229. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Retaliation is prescribed in the Book of Allah."

4230. It is related from Anas that his aunt, ar-Rubayya', broke the tooth of a slavegirl and they asked her to grant remission and they refused. So they offered compensation and they refused. They went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and refused anything except retaliation. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded retaliation. Anas ibn an-Nadr said, "O Messenger of Allah, will the tooth of ar-Rubayya' be broken? No, by the One who sent you with the truth, her tooth will not be broken!" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O Anas, the Book of Allah prescribes retaliation." Then the people were pleased and granted remission. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are slaves of Allah who, if they were to make an oath, Allah would fulfil it."

XXVI: "You who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you – so that perhaps you will be godfearing ." (2:183)

4231. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The people of the Jahiliyya used to fast the Day of 'Ashura'. Then when Ramadan was revealed, he said, 'Anyone who wishes to fast it may do so and anyone who wishes to can not fast it.'"

4232. It is related from 'A'isha, "'Ashura' used to be fasted before Ramadan. When Ramadan was revealed, he said, 'Anyone who wishes to fast it may do so and anyone who wishes to not fast can do so."

4233. It is related that 'Abdullah said that al-Ash'ath visited him while he was eating and said, "Today is 'Ashura'?" He said, "It used to be fasted before Ramadan was revealed. When Ramadan was revealed, it was abandoned, so eat then."

4234. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Quraysh used to fast the Day of 'Ashura' in the Jahiliyya and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to fast it. When he came to Madina, he fasted it and commanded that it be fasted. When Ramadan was revealed, Ramadan was made obligatory and 'Ashura' was left. Anyone who wished to fast it did so and anyone wished did not fast it."

XXVII: His words, "(Fasting) for a specified number of days. But any of you who are ill or on a journey should fast a number of other days. For those who are able to fast, the reparation is to feed the poor. And if someone does good of his own accord, it is better for him. But that you should fast is better for you, if you only knew." (2:184)

'Ata' said, "It can be broken on account of any illness as Allah Almighty says."

Al-Hasan and Ibrahim said about the nursing woman and the pregnant woman, "If they fear for themselves or their child, they break the fast and then make it up. As for the very old person, when he is unable to fast, [he feeds]. After he was elderly, for one or two years, Anas used to feed a poor person every day with meat and bread when he did not fast.

The common reading which is more frequent is "yutîqûnahu".

4235. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas used to recite, "For those who can do it (yutawwaqûnahu) (with hardship), the reparation is to feed the poor." Ibn 'Abbas said, "It is not abrogated. This refers to the old man and old woman who cannot fast. They feed a poor person in place of each day."

XXVIII: "Any of you who are resident for the month should fast it." (2:185)

4236. It is related that Ibn 'Umar recited, "the reparation is to feed the poor" and said that it is abrogated.

4237. It is related that Salama said, "When it was revealed, 'For those who are able to fast, the reparation is to feed the poor,' whoever wanted to used to break the fast and ransom until the ayat after it was sent down which abrogated it."

Abu 'Abdullah said that Bukayr died before Yazid.

XXIX: "On the night of the fast it is lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives. They are clothing for you and you for them. Allah knows that you have been betraying yourselves and He has turned towards you and excused you. Now you may have sexual intercourse with them and seek what Allah has written for you." (2:187)

4238. It is related that al-Bara' was heard to say, "When the fast of Ramadan was sent down, they used to not go near women during all of Ramadan and the men feared for themselves, so Allah sent down, 'Allah knows that you have been betraying yourselves and He has turned towards you and excused you.'" (2:187)

XXX: "Eat and drink until you can clearly discern the white thread from the black thread of the dawn Then complete the fast until the night appears. But do not have sexual intercourse with them while you are in retreat in the mosques." (2:187)

"'Akif" (22:25) means resident.

4239. It is related that ash-Sha'bi said, "'Adi took a white string and a white string and after part of the night, he looked and could not distinguish them. In the morning he said, 'Messenger of Allah, I put them under my pillow.' He said. 'Your pillow is very wide then if the white thread and black are under your pillow!'"

4240. It is related that 'Adi ibn Abi Hatim said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, what is the white thread from the black thread? Are they two threads?' He replied, 'You are a thick-head if you look at the two threads.' Then he added, 'No, rather it is the blackness of night and the white of day.'"

4241. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "When 'Eat and drink until you can clearly discern the white thread from the black thread,' was sent down and 'of the dawn' had not been sent down, some men who wanted to fast would tie a white thread and a black thread to their legs and would continue to eat until they could see them clearly. Allah later revealed 'of the dawn' and they then knew that it meant night and day."

XXXI: "It is not devoutness for you to enter houses by the back. Rather devoutness is possessed by those who fear Allah. So come to houses by their doors and fear Allah, so that perhaps you will be successful." (2:189)

4242. It is related that al-Bara' said, "In the Jahiliyya, they used houses from the back. Then Allah revealed: 'It is not devoutness for you to enter houses by the back. Rather devoutness is possessed by those who fear Allah. So come to houses by their doors.'" (2:189)

XXXII: "Fight them until there is no more fitna and the deen belongs to Allah alone. If they cease there should be no enmity towards any but wrongdoers." (2:193)

4243. It is related from Nafi' that two men came to Ibn 'Umar during the sedition of Ibn az-Zubayr and said, "The people are being lost and you are the son of 'Umar and the Companion of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. What prevents you from going forth?" He said, "What prevents me is that Allah has made the blood of my brother unlawful." They both said, "Did not Allah say, 'Fight them until there is no more fitna' (2:193)?" He said, "We fought until there was no fitnaand the deen belonged to Allah, but you desire to fight until there is fitna and the deen belongs to other than Allah."

Nafi' said that a man came to Ibn 'Umar and said, "Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman! What impels you to make hajj one year and 'umra one year and to abandon jihad in the way of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic when you know what Allah encouraged?" He said. "Nephew, Islam was built on five: belief in Allah and His Messenger, the five prayers, the fast of Ramadan, paying the zakat and hajj to the House." He said, "Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman! Do you not hear what Allah mentions in His Book, 'If two parties of the believers fight, make peace between them. But if one of them unjustly attacks the other, fight the attackers until they revert to Allah's command,' (49:9) and 'And fight them until there is no more fitna' (2:193)?" He said, "We did so in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when Islam had few [people] and a man would be put to the test about his deen when he would either be killed or tortured. Then Islam had many followers and so there was no fitna." He said, "So what do you say about 'Ali and 'Uthman?" He said, "Allah has pardoned 'Uthman while you* dislike that he should be pardoned. 'Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." Then he pointed with his hand, saying, "This is his house which you see."

[*The questioner was one of the Kharijites.]

XXXIII: "Spend in the way of Allah. Do not cast yourselves into destruction. And do good: Allah loves good-doers." (2:195)

"Tahluka" and "halak" (destruction) have the same meaning.

4244. It is related that Hudhayfa said that "Spend in the way of Allah. Do not cast yourselves into destruction," (2:195) was sent down about spending [in the way of Allah.]

XXXIV: "If any of you are ill or have a head injury..." (2:196)

4245. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Ma'qal said, "I sat with Ka'b ibn 'Ujra in this mosque (meaning the mosque of Kufa) and asked him about "the expiation is fasting". He said, 'I was carried to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with the lice falling on my face.' He said, 'I did not think that your struggle could reach what I see in you. Can you get a sheep?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Fast for three days or feed six poor people with half a sa' for every poor person.' It was sent down about me but it applies generally to you as well."

XXXV: "Anyone who comes out of ihram between 'umra and hajj ..." (2:196)

4246. It is related that 'Imran ibn Husayn said, "The Ayat of Hajj at-Tamattu' was revealed in the Book of Allah and we did it with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and nothing was revealed of the Qur'an which made it unlawful nor forbade it until he died. The man* said whatever he wished by his own opinion."

[* The one who prohibited it.]

XXXVI: "There is nothing wrong with your seeking bounty from your Lord." (2:198)

4247. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Ukaz, Majanna and al-Majaz were markets in the time of Jahiliyya and it was considered a sin to trade there during the festival. It was revealed. 'There is nothing wrong with your seeking bounty from your Lord' (2:198) during the festival of hajj."

XXXVII: "Then press on from where the people press on." (2:199)

4248. It is related from 'A'isha, "The Quraysh and those who had their religion would stay at Muzdalifa and they used to call themselves 'al-Hums'.The rest of the Arabs would stay at 'Arafat. When Islam came, Allah commanded His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to go to 'Arafat and stay there and then to pass on from it. That is the words of the Almighty, 'Then press on from where the people press on.' (2:199)"

4249. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man can do tawaf of the House as long as he is not in ihram until he takes on ihram for the hajj. When he rides to 'Arafa, he takes whatever is feasible for him of sacrificial animals - camels, cattle or sheep, which of that he likes. But if it is not feasible for him, then he fasts three days during the hajj, which is before the day of 'Arafa. If the third day is on the day of 'Arafa, there is nothing wrong in it. Then he should proceed to stand at 'Arafa from the 'Asr prayer until it becomes dark, Then they go from 'Arafa when they pass on from it, until they reached Jam' (Muzdalifa) where they ask Allah for piety. Then they should mention Allah often or say the takbir and 'There is no god but Allah' frequently before morning. Then they pass on. The people used to pass on and Allah Almighty says, 'Then press on from where the people press on and ask Allah's forgiveness. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.' (2:199) You continue until you stone the Jamra."

XXXVIII: "And there are others who say, 'Our Lord, give us good in this world, and good in the Next World, and safeguard us from the punishment of the Fire.'" (2:201)

4250. It is related that Anas said, "A frequent supplication of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was, 'O Allah! Our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and defend us from the torment of the Fire.'"

XXXIX: "He is in fact the most hostile of adversaries." (2:204)

'Ata' said that "nasl" (cattle) (2:205) are animals.

4251. It is related (marfu') from 'A'isha that he said, "The most hated of men to Allah is the most contentious of enemies."

Another isnad from 'A'isha from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

XL: "Or did you suppose that you would enter the Garden without facing the same as those who came before you? Poverty and illness afflicted them and they were shaken, to the point that the Messenger and those who believed with him said, 'When is Allah's help coming?' Be assured that Allah's help is very near." (2:214)

4252. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Then when the Messengers despaired and thought themselves denied," (12:110) reading kudhibu, understanding this here. He also recited, "to the point that the Messenger and those who believed with him said, 'When is Allah's help coming?'" (2:214) I met 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr and I mentioned that to them. He said, "'A'isha said, 'I seek refuge with Allah! By Allah, Allah did not promise His Messenger at all but that he knew that it would occur before he died. Affliction afflicted the Messengers until they feared that those with them would deny them.' So she used to recite, 'they thought themselves denied.'" with Form II (kudhdhibu).

XLI: "Your women are fertile fields for you, so come to your fertile fields however you like. Forward good for yourselves." (2:223)

4253. It is related that Nafi' said, "When Ibn 'Umar recited Qur'an, he would not speak to anyone until he had finished it. One day I held the Qur'an and he recited Surat al-Baqara until he reached a certain place. He said, 'Do you about what it was revealed?' I replied, 'No.' He said, 'It was revealed about such-and-such.' Then he continued."

It is related that Ibn 'Umar said about, "Come to your fertile fields however you like" (2:223) means "comes to her in ..."

4254. It is related that Jabir was heard to say, "The Jews used to say, 'When someone has intercourse with her from the back, then the child will be squint-eyed, and it was revealed: 'Your women are fertile fields for you, so come to your fertile fields however you like.' (2:223)"

XLII: "When you divorce women and they reach the end of their waiting-period, do not prevent them from marrying their first husbands." (2:232)

4255. It is related that Ma'qil b. Yasir said, "I had a sister about whom a marriage proposition was made to me."

Another isnad from Ma'qil b. Yasir .

It is related that the husband of the sister of Ma'qil ibn Yasir divorced her and then he left her until her 'idda was over and then proposed marriage to her. Ma'qil refused and it was revealed, "Do not prevent them from marrying their first husbands." (2:232)

XLIII: "Those of you who die leaving wives behind: they should wait by themselves for four months and ten nights. When their waiting-period comes to an end, you are not to blame for anything they do with themselves with correctness and courtesy. Allah is aware of everything you do." (2:234)

"'Afüna" (forgo) means to give.

4256. It is related that Ibn az-Zubayr said, "I said to 'Uthman ibn 'Affan, '"Those of you who die leaving wives behind" (2:234) was abrogated by the other ayat and so why do you write it down?'or 'Why do you leave it?' He said, 'O nephew, I will not change any of it from its place.'"

4257. It is related that Mujahid about "Those of you who die leaving wives behind" (2:234), "The woman was obliged to spend this 'idda with her husband's family. Then Allah revealed, 'Those of you who die leaving wives behind should make a bequest to their wives of maintenance for a year without having to leave their homes. But if they do leave you are not to blame for anything they do with themselves with correctness and courtesy.' (2:240)" He said, "Allah then alloted for her a full year, another seven months and twenty days. If she wishes, she could stay with his executor, and if she wishes, she could leave. It is the words of Allah Almighty, 'without having to leave their homes. But if they do leave you are not to blame.' The 'idda is still obligatory for her as it was." He stated that was from Mujahid.

'Ata' said that Ibn 'Abbas said, "This ayat abrogated her 'idda with her family and she could do 'idda wherever she wished. It is the words of Allah Almighty, 'without having to leave their homes.'" 'Ata' said, "If she wishes he can do 'idda with his family and live with her executor, and if she wishes, she can leave by the words of Allah Almighty, ' you are not to blame for anything they do with themselves.'" 'Ata' said, "Then inheritance came and the dwelling was abrogated and she did 'idda wherever she wished and had no dwelling."

This is related from Mujahid.

It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said "This ayat abrogated her 'idda with her family and she could do 'idda wherever she wished. It is the words of Allah Almighty, 'without having to leave their homes.'"

4258. It is related that Muhammad ibn Sirin said, "I sat in a gathering which contained some of the great Ansar. One of them was 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Layla. I mentioned the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba regarding Subay'a bint al-Harith, and 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, 'But our uncle used to not say that.' I said, 'I would be bold if I were to lie about a man who is in the region of Kufa,'" and he raised his voice. He said, "Then I went our and met Malik ibn 'Amir, or Malik ibn 'Awf, and I asked, 'What did Ibn Mas'ud say about the woman whose husband dies when she is pregnant?' He said, 'Ibn Mas'ud said, "Why do not impose the longer term on her and not impose the indulgence on it? The Shorter Sura of Women (i.e. Surat at-Talaq) was sent down after the longe oner."'"

It is related from Muhammad, "I met Abu 'Atiyya Malik ibn 'Amir."

XLIV: "Safeguard the prayers – especially the middle prayer." (2:238)

4259. It is related from 'Ali...

It is related from 'Ali that on the Day of the Ditch, the Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "They have kept us from the middle prayer until the sun set! May Allah fill their graves and houses – or bellies – with Fire."

XLV: "Stand in obedience to Allah" (2:238)

4260. It is related that Zayd ibn Arqam said, "We used to talk during the prayer, someone saying what he needed to his companion, until it was revealed, 'Safeguard the prayers – especially the middle prayer. Stand in obedience to Allah', and we were commanded to be silent."

XLVI: "If you are afraid, then pray on foot or mounted. But when you are safe, remember Allah in the way He taught you when previously you did not know." (2:239)

Ibn Jubayr said that "His footstool (kursi)" (2:255) is His knowledge. It is said that "basta" (2:247) is increase and abundance. "Afrigh" (pour out) (2:250) is to send down. "Does not tire" (2:255) is that it does not burden Him. "Adinî" means "it burdened me. "Äd" and "ayd" is strength. "Sina" (2:255) is sleep. "It has not gone bad" (2:259) is that they have not changed. "Buhita" (2:258) means his argument came to nothing. "Khawiya" (2:259) means there is no human being in them. "Its roofs" (2:259) is its structures. "How We raise them up" (2:259) is to bring them forth. "I'sâr" (2:266) is a fierce wind which blows from the earth to the sky, like a fire-bearing column.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "saldan" (2:264) is bare, withnothing on it.

'Ikrima said that "wabil" (2:264. 265) is strong rain. "Tall" is dew. This is a metaphor for the actions of the believer. "They go bad" (2:259) is to change.

4261. It is related from Nafi' that whenever Ibn 'Umar was asked about the Fear prayer, he said, "The Imam and a group of the people go forward and the Imam leads them in one rak'at and a group of them who are between them and the enemy do not pray. When those with him have prayed one rak'at they go back to the place of those who have not prayed without saying the taslim. Then those who did not pray go forward and pray one rak'at with him. Then the Imam, who has prayed two rak'ats, finishes his prayer and then each of the two groups comes and pray one rak'at by themselves after the Imam has finished. Thus each of the two groups has prayed two rak'ats. If the fear is even more intense than that, then they pray standing on their feet or mounted, facing the qibla or not facing the qibla."

Malik said that Nafi' said, "I do not think that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar mentioned that except as coming from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

XLVII: "Those of you who die leaving wives behind" (2:240)

4262. It is related that Ibn az-Zubayr said, "I said to 'Uthman, '"Those of you who die leaving wives behind" (2:234) in al-Baqara and 'Those of you who die leaving wives behind' (2:240) were abrogated by the other ayat and so why do you write it down?' He said, 'Leave it, O nephew, I will not change any of it from its place.'"

Humayd said, "Or the like of this."

XLVIII: "When Ibrahim said, 'My Lord, show me how You bring the dead to life.'" (2:260)

"Fa-surhunna" (2:260) is to cut them.

4263. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "We are more entitled to doubt than Ibrahim when he said, '"My Lord,  show me how You bring the dead to life." He asked, "Do you not then believe?" He replied, "Indeed I do! But so that my heart may be at peace."' (2:260)"

XLIX: "Would any of you like to have a garden of dates and grapes ...to ... so that perhaps you will reflect." (2:266)

4264. It is related that 'Ubayd ibn 'Umayr said, "One day 'Umar said to the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'What do you think about this ayat which was revealed: "Would any of you like to have a garden?" (2:266)' They replied, 'Allah knows best.' 'Umar became angry and said, 'Say, "We know," or "We do not know!"' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'I know something about it, Amir al-Mu'minin.' 'Umar said, 'O nephew, speak and do not think little of yourself!' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'A metaphor was made for action.' 'Umar said, 'What action?' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'For action.' 'Umar said, 'A rich man acts in obedience to Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, and then Allah sends shaytan to him and he does acts of rebellion until it overwhelms his good actions.'"

L: "They do not ask people importunately." (2:273)

One uses alhafa, alahha, and alhafa for importunate begging. "Put you under pressure" (47:37) is to strive with you.

4265. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The very poor man is not the one who asks for a date ot two or bite or a morsel ot two, but it is the one who refrains from asking. Recite if you wish His words, 'They do not ask people importunately.' (2:273)"

LI: "Allah has permitted trade and He has forbidden usury." (2:275)

"Mass" meansmadness.

4266. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When the verses at the end of Surat al-Baqara about usury were revealed, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited them to the people and then he prohibited trading in wine."

LII: "Allah obliterates usury" (2:276) i.e. removes it.

4267. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When the last verses of Surat al-Baqara about usury were revealed, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the mosque and recited them to the people and then he prohibited trading in wine."

LIII: "Take note that it means war " (2:279) i.e. know.

4268. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When the verses at the end of Surat al-Baqara were revealed, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited them in the mosque and then he prohibited trading in wine."

LIV: "If someone is in difficult circumstances, there should be a deferral until things are easier. But making a free gift of it would be better for you if you only knew." (2:280)

4269. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When the verses at the end of Surat al-Baqara were revealed, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up and recited them to us and then he prohibited trading in wine."

LV: "Show fear of a Day when you will be returned to Allah." (2:281)

4270. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The last ayat revealed to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the ayat of usury."

LVI: "Whether you divulge what is in yourselves or keep it hidden, Allah will still call you to account for it. He forgives whoever He wills and He punishes whoever He wills. Allah has power over everything." (2:284)

4271. It is related from a man of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was Ibn 'Umar that this ayat was abrogated: "Whether you divulge what is in yourselves or keep it hidden." (2:284)

LVII: "The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord." (2:285)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "isran" (2:286) means compact. It is said that "ghufranaka" (2:285) is "Your forgiveness, so forgive us." (2:286)

4272. It is related from Marwan al-Asfar that it is related from one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, and he said, "I reckon it was Ibn 'Umar," said that "Whether you divulge what is in yourselves or keep it hidden" (2:284) was abrogated by the ayat after it.

LVIII: Tafsir of Surat Ali 'Imran

Tuqa (3:27) and taqiyya (guarding oneself) are the same. "Sirr" (3:117) is cold. "Shafa hufra (on the brink of a pit" (3:103) is like the side of the well, which is its edge. "Tubawwa'" (to instal) (3:121) is to set up a military camp. "Musawwam" (3:14) is something which has a sign in the form of a mark or piece of wool or whatever. "Ribiyyun" (3:146) are groups, the singular being ribbiy. "Tahsuwwunahum" (3:152) is to eradicate them by killing. "Ghuzzan" (3:156) has the singular "ghazi"."We will write down" (3:181) is "We will preserve." "Nuzul" (3:198) is reward and it can be hospitality with Allah, as you say, "I gave him hospitality (anzaltuhu)."

Mujahid said, "horses with fine markings" (3:14) are perfect excellent ones.

Sa'id ibn Jubayr and 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abza said that pasturing animals have markings.

Ibn Jubayr said that "hasur (chaste)" (3:39) means he did not approach women.

'Ikrima said that "suddenly" (3:125) is out of their anger on the Day of Badr.

Mujahid said that "He brings out the living from dead" (93:27) is that one sperm comes out dead and one comes out alive. "Ibkâr" (3:41 is the beginning of dawn. "'Ashiya" (3:41) is the declining of the sun, I think, until it sets.

LIX: "In it are ayats which are clearly explicit." (3:7)

Muhajid said it is the halal and the haram. "others are open to interpretation," some of it confirms others, like the words of the Almighty, "But He only misguides the deviators," (2:26) and like His words, may His mention be exalted, "He places a blight on those who do not use their intellect" (10:100), and like His words, "He increases in guidance those who are already guided and gives them fear of Him." (47:17) "Zaygh" means doubt. "Desiring conflict (ibtigha'a'l-fitna)' are the verses open to interpretation. "Those who are firmly rooted in knowledge," who know, "say, 'We believe.'"

4273. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited this ayat, 'It is He who sent down the Book to you from Him: ayats which are clearly explicit – they are the core of the Book – and others are open to interpretation. Those with deviation in their hearts follow what is open to interpretation in it, desiring conflict, seeking its inner meaning. No one knows its inner meaning but Allah. Those firmly rooted in knowledge say, "We believe in it. All of it is from our Lord." But only people of intelligence pay heed.' (3:7)" She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you see those who follow what is open to interpretation of it, those are the ones whom Allah has named. Beware of them."

LX: " I placed her and her children in Your safekeeping from the Accursed Shaytan." (3:36)

4274. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no child born but that Shaytan touches him when he is born and he lets out a cry because shaytan has touched him - except for Maryam and her son." Then Abu Hurayra Said, "Recite if you wish, 'I placed her and her children in Your safekeeping from the Accursed Shaytan.' (3:36)"

LXI: "Those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price, such people will have no portion in the Next World." (3:77)

"Alîm" (3:77) is grievous, painful, from alam. It is like the active participle.

4275. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever swears to an oath which he is asked to take in order to deprive a Muslim of his property will will meet Allah and He will be angry with him." Allah sent down the confirmation of that: 'Those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price, such people will have no portion in the Next World ...' (to the end of the ayat)" (3:77) He said, "Al-Ash'ath came and said, 'What has Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman [i.e. 'Abdullah] related to you?' We replied, 'Such-and-such.' He said, 'It was sent down about me. I had a well in the land of a cousin of mine and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Give your proof or he takes an oath.' I said, ''Then he will take an oath, Messenger of Allah,' and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever swears to an oath which he is asked to take in order to deprive a Muslim of his property and lies in his oath, will meet Allah and He will be angry with him.'"

4276. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa that a man set up some goods in the market and swore by Allah that he had been offered for them an amount that he had not in fact been offered in order to entice a Muslim man into buying them. So it was revealed, "those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price (3:77)

4277. It is related from Ibn Abi Mulayka that two women where stitching shoes in a house or room. Then one of them emerged with an awl in her palm and she made a claim against the other woman. Their case was presented to Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If people were to given on the basis of their claim, the life and property of the community would vanish.' Remind her by Allah and recite to her, 'Those who sell  Allah's contract ...' (3:77)" They admonished her and she admitted it. Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The oath is taken by the one against whom the claim is made.'"

LXII: "Say, 'O People of the Book! Come to a proposition which is the same for us and you – that we should worship none but Allah'" (3:64)

"Sawa'" means even and fair.

4278. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said that Abu Sufyan ibn Harb informed him directly. "I set out during the period when the the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a truce with me. While I was in Syria, a letter was taken from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to Heraclius. Dihya al-Kalbi brought it and gave it to the governor of Bosra and the governor of Bosra gave it to Heraclius. "Heraclius said, 'Is there anyone here from the people of this man who claims to be a Prophet?' They replied, 'Yes.' I was summoned with a group of Quraysh and we went in to Heraclius and we were made to sit in front of him. He asked, 'Who among you is closest in lineage to this man who claims that he is a Prophet?' I said, 'I am.' So they made me sit in front of him while they sat my companions behind me. Then he summoned his translator and said, 'Tell them that I am going to ask this person about this man. If he tells me a lie, then call him a liar.'"

Abu Sufyan said, "By Allah, if I had not been afraid that they would transmit a lie from me [later on], I would have lied about him. Then he said to his translator, 'Ask him: What is his lineage among you?' I replied. 'He belongs amongst us to a noble lineage.' He asked, 'Was any of his ancestors a king?' I answered, 'No.' He asked, 'Did you suspect him of being a liar before he said what he said?" I replied, 'No.' He asked, 'Do the nobles or the humble people follow him?' I replied, 'The humble people.' He asked, 'Are they on the increase or decrease?' I said, 'They are on the increase.' He asked, 'Does any of them become displeased with his deen and apostatize after entering it?' I said, 'No.' He asked, 'Have you fought him?' I answered, 'Yes.' He went on, 'How did your fight against him go?' I said, 'Success in the war alternated between us - sometimes he would get the better of us and sometimes we of him.' He asked, 'Does he act treacherously?' I said, 'No. We are in a time of truce with him but we do not know what he will do during it.'" Abu Sufyan said, "I could not find anything to add to what I said except this sentence.'

"Then he asked, 'Has anyone of your people ever said what he says before him?' I said, 'No.' Then he said to his translator, 'Say to him: "I asked you about his lineage among you and you said that he has noble lineage; in the same way all the Messengers who were sent came from noble lineage among their peoples. I asked you whether any of his ancestors was a king and you said no. If one of his ancestors had been a king, I would have said that he was a man seeking the kingdom of his ancestors. I asked you whether the nobles or humble people followed him and you said that the humble people followed him. They are always the ones who follow the Messengers. I asked you whether you accused him of being a liar before he said what he said and you said that you did not. I knew that someone who would refuse to lie about people would not then go and tell lies against Allah. I asked you whether anyone had apostatized out of dislike for his deen after he had entered and you said that they had not. That is how it is with belief when its joy mixes with the hearts. I asked you whether they were on the increase or decrease and you said that they were on the increase. That is what happens with belief until it is complete. I asked you whether you had fought him and you said that you had fought him and that success in the war alternated between you - sometimes he would get the better of you and sometimes you of him. Thus are the Messengers tested and then they have the final outcome. I asked you whether he had been treacherous and you said no. That is how it is with the Messengers - they are not treacherous. I asked you whether anyone else among your people had said such a thing and you said they had not. If anyone had said this before him, I would have said that he was a man following the precedent of something said before.'"

He said, "Then he said, 'What does he order you to do?'" He said, "I replied, 'He commands us to pray, to pay zakat, maintain ties of kinship and to be chaste.' He said, 'If what you said about him is true, then he is a Prophet. I knew that he was going to appear, but I did not think that it would be from you. If I knew that I could reach him, I would like to to meet him. If I were with him, I would wash his feet, and his kingdom will extend to what is under my feet.'"

He said, ""Then he called for the letter of the Messenger of Allah and read it out, saying, 'In the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful, from Muhammad, the slave of Allah and His Messenger, to Heraclius, ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon the one who follows guidance. I call you to Islam. If you become Muslim, you will be safe and Allah will double your reward. If you turn away, then you incur the wrong action of your subjects. "O People of the Book! Come to a proposition which is the same for us and you – that we should worship none but Allah and not attribute any partners to Him and not take one another as lords besides Allah. If they turn away, say, "Bear witness that we are Muslims." (3:64)' When he finished reading the letter, voices were raised in his presence and there was a great uproar. We were commanded to be turned out." He said, "When we were turned out, I said to my companions, 'This business of Ibn Abi Kabsha* has become so prominent that he alarms even the King of the Greeks.' Then I became certain that he would be victorious until Allah brought me to Islam."

Az-Zuhri said, "Heraclius summoned the great men of Byzantium and they met in a house of his. He said, 'People of Byzantium! Do you desire success and right guidance forever and for your kingdom to remain firm?' The people ran to the gates like wild asses and found them closed. He said, 'Bring them back to me.' He called them and then said, "I was testing your strength in your deen (religion), and I have seen what I like in you." So they prostrated to him and were pleased with him."

[*Meaning the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. This expression was used in an insulting manner to the Prophet.]

LXIII: "You will not attain true goodness until you give of what you love. Whatever you give away, Allah knows it." (3:92)

4279. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "Abu Talha had more property in palm trees than any of the Ansar in Madina. His favourite property was Bayruha' which was opposite the mosque. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to enter it and drink its sweet water. When this ayat was sent down: 'You will not attain true goodness until you give of what you love.' (3:92) Abu Talha got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, Allah says, 'You will not attain true goodness until you give of what you love.' The property I love the best is Bayruha'. It is sadaqa for Allah whose goodness I hope for and I hope that it will be stored up for me with Allah. Messenger of Allah, dispose of it in whatever way Allah shows you is best.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Excellent! That is a profitable property. That is is a profitable property. I have heard what you have said and I think that you should give it to your relatives.' So Abu Talha divided it among his relatives and cousins."

'Abdullah ibn Yusuf and Rawh ibn 'Ubada said, "That isa profitable (rabih rather than ra'ih) property."

Yahya ibn Yahya related, "I recited to Malik, "a ra'ih property."

It is related that Anas said, "He gave it to Haddan and Ubayy, and although I was a closer relative, he did not allot me any of it."

LXIV: "Say, 'Bring the Torah and read it out if you are telling the truth.'" (3:93)

4280. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Jews brought the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a man and woman among them who had fornicated. He asked them, "What do you do with the one among you who commits fornication?" They said, "We blacken their faces with coal and beat them." He asked, "Do you not find stoning in the Torah?" They said, "We do not find anything it in it." 'Abdullah ibn Salam told them, "You lied. Bring the Torah and recite it if you are speaking the truth." Their teacher who was instructing them put his hand over the verse of stoning and began to read what was under and above his hand and he did not read the verse of stoning. He pulled his hand from the verse of stoning and said, "So what is this?" When they saw that, they said, "It is the verse of stoning." So he commanded that they be stoned close to the place of funerals at the mosque. I saw her companion leaning over her to protect her from the stones."

LXV: "You are the best nation ever to be produced before mankind." (3:110)

4281. It is related from Abu Hurayra regarding, "You are the best nation ever to be produced before mankind," (3:110) "The people who are best for other people are those who drag them with chains round their necks until they enter Islam."

LXVI: "And when two of your clans were on the point of losing heart ." (3:122)

4282. It is related that 'Abdullah used to say, "This was revealed about us: 'And when two of your clans were on the point of losing heart, and Allah was their Protector.' (3:110)" He said, "We were two parites, the Banu Haritha and the Banu Salima, and we wanted (and Sufyan said once, 'it would not delight us') if it had not been revealed since Allah says, 'but Allah was their protector.'"

LXVII: "You have no part in the affair." (3:128)

4283. It is related from Salim's father that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say when he lifted his head from ruku' in the last rak'at of Fajr, "O Allah, curse so-and-so and so-and-so and so-and-so," after he said, "Allah hears whoever praises Him, Our Lord, praise is Yours." Then Allah revealed, "You have no part in the affair. Either He will turn to them or He will punish them, for they are the wrongdoers." (3:128)

4284. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to invoke against anyone or for anyone, he would stand in qanut after ruku'. He might say when he had said, 'Allah hears whoever praises Him,' 'O Allah, Our Lord, praise is Yours. O Allah, rescue al-Walid ibn al-Walid, Salama ibn Hisham and 'Ayyash ibn Abi Rabi'a. O Allah, be hard on Mudar! O Allah, give them years of drought like the drought years of Yusuf!' He said that aloud. He used to say in part of his prayer in the Fajr prayer, 'O Allah! Curse so-and-so and so-and-so,' naming tribes of the Arabs until Allah revealed, 'You have no part in the affair.' (3:128)"

LXVIII: "The Messenger was calling to you from the rear." (3:153)

"Ukhra" is the feminine of "akhir".

Ibn 'Abbas said, "one of the two best things" (9:52) is conquest or martyrdom.

4285. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, put 'Abdullah ibn Jubayr in charge of the infantry in the Battle of Uhud and they returned defeated. That was when the Messenger was calling them from their rear, and only twelve men remained with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

LXIX: "restful sleep" (3:154)

4286. It is related that Anas said that Abu Talha said, "We were overcome with slumber when we were in the lines in the Battle of Uhud." He said, "My sword would fall from my hand and I would pick it up, and it would fall from my hand again an I would pick it up."

LXX: "Those who who did good and were godfearing among those who responded to Allah and the Messenger after the wound had been inflicted will have an immense reward." (3:172)

"Qarh" is a wound. "Istajabu" means "they answered," Form X and Form IV meaning the same.

LXXI: "Those to whom people said, 'The people have gathered against you so fear them.'" (3:173)

4287. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Allah is enough for us and the best of guardians.' Ibrahim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said this when he was thrown into the Fire and Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said it when they said, 'The people have gathered against you so fear them.' But that merely increased them in belief and they said, "Allah is enough for us and the best of guardians."'" (3:173)

4288. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The last words of Ibrahim when he was thrown into the Fire were, "Allah is enough for us and the best of guardians.'"

LXXII: "Those who are tight-fisted with the bounty Allah has given them should not suppose that that is better for them. No indeed, it is worse for them! What they were stingy with will be hung around their necks on the Day of Rising. Allah is the inheritor of the heavens and the earth and Allah is aware of everything you do." (3:180)

"Hung around their necks" is as you clasp on a collar.

4289. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone is given wealth by Allah and does not pay the zakat due on it, then on the Day of Rising it will appear to him in the form of a smooth-headed male viper with two black spots over its eyes. It will coil around his neck and strike at his cheeks saying, 'I am your wealth. I am your treasure."' Then he recited, 'Those who are tight-fisted with the bounty Allah has given them should not suppose that that is better for them....'" (3:180)

LXXXIII: "You will hear many abusive words from those given the Book before you and from those who worship idols." (3:186)

4290. It is related from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that Usama ibn Zayd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rode a donkey with a cloth made in Fadak and Usama ibn Zayd was riding behind him. He went to visit Sa'd ibn 'Ubada in the Banu'l-Harith ibn al-Khazraj before the Battle of Badr. He said, "Then he passed by a gathering which contained 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul, and that was before 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy became Muslim. The gathering contained a mixture of Muslims, idolaters, pagans, and Jews. 'Abdullah ibn Rawaha was in the gathering. When the dust of the donkey reached the gathering, 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy covered his nose with his cloak and then said, "Don't cover us with dust!" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, greeted them and then stopped, He dismounted and invited them to Allah and recited the Qur'an to them. 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul said, "O man! There is nothing better than what you say if it is the truth. So do not annoy us with it in our gatherings. Return to your mount and recount to whoever comes to you." 'Abdullah ibn Rawaha said, "Indeed, Messenger of Allah! Bring it to us in our gatherings. We like that!" So the Muslims, idolaters and Jews abused one another until they were practically fighting. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kept on calming them down until they were quiet. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mounted his animals and went until he visited Sa'd ibn 'Ubada. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "Sa'd, did you not hear what Abu Hubab (meaning 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy) said? He said such-and-such." Sa'd ibn 'Ubada said, "O Messenger of Allah, pardon him and overlook it. By the One who sent down the Book on you, Allah has brought the truth which He sent down on you when the people of this little town had agreed to crown him and bind his head with a (royal) turban. When Allah refused that by the truth which Allah gave you, he was vexed on that account. That is why he did what you saw." So the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pardoned him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his Companions used to pardon the idolaters and the People of the Book as Allah commanded them and they endured harm. Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, said, "You will hear many abusive words from those given the Book before you and from those who worship idols," (3:186) and Allah said, "Many of the People of the Book would love it if they could make you revert to being rejectors after you have believed, showing their innate envy..." (2:109) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to hold to pardon as long as Allah commanded that until Allah gave permission regarding them. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on the Badr expedition, Allah killed the nobles of Quraysh through him and Ibn Ubayy ibn Salul and those of the idolaters and pagans with him, said, "This is a business which has been victorious," and they gave allegiance to the Messenger* in Islam, and became Muslim.

LXXIV: "Do not suppose that those who exult in what they have done..." (3:188)

4291. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, some men of the hypocrites used to stay behind when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out on an expedition. They were happy with their staying behing the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came, they made their excuses to him and took oaths and wanted to be praised for what they had not done. So it was revealed, "Do not suppose that those who exult in what they have done and love to be praised for what they have not done." (3:188)

4292. It is reported from 'Alqama ibn Waqqas that Marwan said to his doorman. "Rafi', go to Ibn 'Abbas and say, 'If every man who rejoices in what he brings and wants to be praised for what he has not done will be punished, then we will all be punished.'" Ibn 'Abbas said, "What does this have to do with you? The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned the Jews and asked them about something and they exulted in the concealment they did." Then Ibn 'Abbas recited, "When Allah made a covenant with those given the Book ... those who exult in what they have done and love to be praised for what they have not done." (3:187-188)

'Abdu'r-Razzaq corroborated it from Ibn Jurayj.

Another isnad to that effect from Humayd ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf about Marwan.

LXXV: "In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are Signs for people of intelligence." (3:190)

4293. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I spent the night with my aunt Maymuna. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, spoke to his wife awhile and they lay down. When it was the last third of the night, he sat up and looked at the sky and said, 'In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are Signs for people of intelligence.' (3:190) Then he got up, did wudu', cleaned his teeth and prayed eleven rak'ats. Then Bilal gave the adhan and he prayed two rak'ats. Then he went out and prayed Subh."

LXXVI: "Those who remember Allah standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth." (3:191)

4294. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I spent the night with my aunt Maymuna. I said, 'I will observe the prayer of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. A pillow was set out for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to sleep lengthwise on it. He began to wipe the sleep from his face and then he recited the last ten ayats of Ali 'Imran until he finished them. Then he went to a hanging waterskin and took it and did wudu'. Then he stood up to prayer and I got up and did the like of what he had done. Then I went and stood beside him. He placed his hand on my head and then took hold of my ear and began to twist. Then he prayed two rak'ats, then he prayed another two rak'ats, and then he prayed another two rak'ats, then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he did the witr."

LXXVII: "Our Lord, those You cast into the Fire, You have indeed disgraced. The wrongdoers will have no helpers." (3:192)

4295. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas reported that he spent the night with Maymuna, the wife of the Prophet, who was his aunt. He said, "I lay down across the pillow and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his wife lay down lengthwise. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, slept until the middle of the night, or a little before it or a little after it, and then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, woke up and began to wipe the sleep from his face with his hands. Then he recited the last ten ayats of Surat Ali 'Imran. Then he went to a hanging skin and did wudu' from it and he did his wudu' well. Then he stood up to pray and I did the like of what he did. Then I went and stood at his side. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, placed his right hand on my head and twisted my ear with his right hand. Then he prayed two rak'ats, then he prayed another two rak'ats, and then he prayed another two rak'ats, then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he did the witr. Then he lay down until the mu'adhdhin came. Then he got up and did two quick rak'ats and then went out and prayed Subh."

LXXVIII: "Our Lord, we heard a caller calling to belief!" (3:193)

4296. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas reported that he spent the night with Maymuna, the wife of the Prophet, who was his aunt. He said, "I lay down across the pillow and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his wife lay down lengthwise. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, slept until the middle of the night, or a little before it or a little after it, and then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, woke up and began to wipe the sleep from his face with his hands. Then he recited the last ten ayats of Surat Ali 'Imran. Then he went to a hanging skin and did wudu' from it and he did his wudu' well. Then he stood up to pray." Ibn 'Abbas said, "Then I got up and I did the like of what he did. Then I went and stood at his side. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, placed his right hand on my head and twisted my ear with his right hand. Then he prayed two rak'ats, then he prayed another two rak'ats, and then he prayed another two rak'ats, then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he prayed another two rak'ats and then he did the witr. Then he lay down until the mu'adhdhin came. Then he got up and did two quick rak'ats and then went out and prayed Subh."

LXXIX: The Tafsir of Surat an-Nisa'

Ibn 'Abbas said that "yastankif" (4:172) is to be proud. "Qiwâm" (4:5) means that your means of support is part of your livelihood. "Ordains another procedure for them" (4:15) means stoning for the one who has been married and flogging for the one who has been not married.

Someone else* said that "two and three" (4:3) means two, three and four, and the Arabs did not exceed four.

[* Abu 'Ubayda.]

LXXX: "If you are afraid of not behaving justly towards orphans." (4:3)

4297. It is related from 'A'isha that a man had a orphan girl and married her. She had palm-trees. He married her on account of that but he felt nothing for her. So it was sent down about him, "If you are afraid of not behaving justly towards orphans." (4:3)

I think that he ('Urwa) said that she was his partner in those palm-trees and his property.

4298. It is related that 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr reported that he asked 'A'isha about the words of Allah Almighty, "If you are afraid of not behaving justly towards orphans." (4:3) She said, "Nephew, this is the orphan girl who is in the care of her guardian and is his partner in his property and he likes her property and her beauty and so her guardian wants to marry her without being fair in her bride-price and giving her the like of what someone else would customarily give her. They were forbidden to marry them unless they were fair to them and gave them the highest customary bride-price. They were commanded to marry women other than them who pleased them." 'Urwa said that 'A'isha said, "After this ayat people asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for a decision, and Allah sent down, 'They will ask you for a definitive ruling about women.' (4:127)" 'A'isha said, "The words of Allah Almighty in another ayat, 'desiring to marry them' (4:127) as one of you does not desire to marry his orphan girl when she has little money and beauty." She said, "They were forbidden to marry those orphan girls they desired for property and beauty unless they did so fairly, because they would not desire them if they were lacking in property and beauty."

LXXXI: "Those who are wealthy should abstain from it altogether. Those who are poor should use it sensibly and correctly. When you hand over their property to them ensure that there are witnesses on their behalf. Allah is enough as a Reckoner." (4:6)

"Bidâran" (4:6) is in haste, and "u'tadnâ" (4:18) means "we prepared, we made equipment ready".

4299. It is related from 'A'isha $about the words of Allah Almighty, "The verse 'Those who are wealthy should abstain from it altogether. Those who are poor should use it sensibly and correctly.' was revealed about a guardians of an orphan. If he was poor, he could consume it in a reasonable manner, in return for looking after him."

LXXXII: "If other relatives or orphans or poor people attend the sharing-out..." (4:8)

4300. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said that "If other relatives or orphans or poor people attend the sharing-out..." (4:8) is an ayat of judgement and it is not abrogated.

Sa'id corroborated it from Ibn 'Abbas.

LXXXIII: "Allah instructs you regarding your children..." (4:11)

4301. It is related that Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr visited me among the Banu Salama and they came on foot. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, found me senseless and he called for water and did wudu' with it and then sprinkled it on me and I woke up and asked, 'What do you command me to do regarding my property, Messenger of Allah?' and it was revealed: '"Allah instructs you regarding your children...' (4:11)"

LXXXIV: "You get half of what your wives leave" (4:12)

4302. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Property used to go to the children, unless there was a will for parents. Then Allah abrogated what He wished of that and appointed the male the like of two females and He appointed a sixth or a third for one of the parents and an eighth and a fourth for the women, and the wife was appointed a half or a fourth."

LXXXV: "It is not lawful for you to inherit women by force. Nor may you treat them harshly so that you can make off with part of what you have given them ..." (4:19)

It is mentioned that Ibn 'Abbas said that "treat them harshly" is to force them. "Hub" (4:2) is sin and "ta'ulü" (4:3) is to incline, and "nihla" (4:4) is dower.

4303. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said about, "O you who believe! It is not lawful for you to inherit women by force. Nor may you treat them harshly so that you can make off with part of what you have given them..." (4:19) "When a man died, his relatives were more entitled to his wife. If one of them wished, he could marry it, and if they wished, they could marry her off, and if they wished, they would not marry her off. They were more entitled to her than her family, and so this ayat was revealed about that."

LXXXVI: "We have appointed heirs for everything that parents and relatives leave. If you have a bond with people, give them their share. Allah is a witness of everything." (4:33)

Ma'mar said that it is relatives of clients and heirs. "If you have a bond with people" is the mawla based on an oath, and it is the ally. The mawla is also the son of the paternal uncle, and the mawla is the one blessed and set free. There is the mawla who was someone set free, the mawla who is the master, and the mawla who has authority in the deen.

4304. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said about, "We have appointed heirs for everything that parents and relatives leave," (4:33) that they are heirs."If you have a bond with people" are the Muhajirun. When they came to Madina, the Muhajir would inherit from the Ansari rather than his relatives on account of the brotherhood which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had established between them. It was abrogated when "We have appointed heirs for everything that parents and relatives leave," was sent down. Then He said, "If you have a bond with people" in help, support and counsel. So inheritance [between them] was removed and one could make a will.

Abu Usama listened to Idris and Idris listened to Talha.

LXXVII: "Allah does not wrong anyone by so much as the smallest mote." (4:40)

i.e. the weight of a speck of dust.

4305. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, some people said, "Messenger of Allah, will we see our Lord on the Day of Rising?" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, "Yes, do you dispute with one another about seeing the sun at noon when it is light and there are no clouds?" They said, "No." He said, "Do you dispute with one another about seeing the moon on the night of the full moon when it is light and there are no clouds?" They answered, "No." He said, "You will not disagree about seeing Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, on the Day of Rising except as you disagree about seeing either of them. On the Day of Rising, an announcer will make a proclamation: 'Let every community follow what they used to worship.' None of those who worshipped other than Allah in the form of idols and figures will remain who does not fall into the Fire until there only remains those who worshipped Allah, pious or impious, and the remnants of the People of the Book. The Jews will be summoned and they will be asked, "What were you worshipping?" They will say, "We used to worship 'Uzayr the son of God." They will be told, "You lied. Allah has not taken consort or son. What are you seeking?" They will say, "We are thirsty, our Lord, so let us drink." An indication will be made, "Will you not be taken to drink?" and they will be gathered to the Fire which will be like a mirage whose parts are consuming one another. They will fall into the Fire. Then the Christians will be summoned and it will be said to them, "What were you worshipping?" They will say, "We used to worship the Messiah son of God." They will be told, "You lied. Allah has not taken consort or son. What are you seeking?" and it will like the first until none remains but those who worshipped Allah, pious or impious. The Lord of the worlds will come to them in the form nearest to the form in which they thought of Him. It will be said, "What are you waiting for? Every community has followed what they used to worship." They will say, "We parted from people in the world in spite of the greatest need for them and did not accompany them. We are waiting for our Lord whom we used to worship. He will say, "I am your Lord." They will say, "We will not associate anything with Allah' twice or three times."

LXXXVIII: "How will it be when We bring a witness from every nation and bring you as a witness against them?" (4:41)

"Mukhtal" and "khattal" (arrogant) (4:36) are the same. "obliterate faces" (4:47) is to oblitrerate them so that they are level with the back of the neck. Tamas in respect of a book is to erase it. "Sa'ir" (4:155) is a blaze.

4306. It is related that 'Abdullah [ibn Mas'ud] said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'Recite the Qur'an to me.' I said, 'O Messenger of Allah, shall I recite to you when it was sent down to you?' He said, 'I want to hear it from someone other than myself.' So I recited Surat an-Nisa' to him until I reached this ayat, 'How will it be when We bring a witness from every nation and bring you as a witness against them?' (4:41) He said, 'That is enough now,' and I turned to him and his eyes were flowing with tears."

LXXXIX: "If you are ill or on a journey, or any of you have come from the lavatory." (4:43)

"Sa'id" (4:43) is the surface of the earth.

Jabir said, "They were the idols to which they used to take their judgement were one in Juhayna, one in Aslam, and one in every tribe. They were soothsayers whom upon shaytans would descend.

'Umar said that "jibt"(4:51) is sorcery and "taghut" is shaytan.

'Ikrima said that "jibt" means shaytan in Abyssinnian. Taghut means soothsayer.

4307. It is related that 'A'isha said, "A necklace belonging to Asma' was lost and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent some men to look for it. The time for the prayer came and they were not in wudu' and could not find water. They prayed without being in wudu' and then Allah sent down the ayat of tayammum."

XC: His words, "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in command among you." (4:59)

4308. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas about, "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in command among you," (4:59) that it was revealed about 'Abdullah ibn Hudhafa ibn Qays ibn 'Adi went the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent him on an expedition.

XCI: "No, by your Lord, they are not believers until they make you their judge in the disputes that break out between them." (4:65)

4309. It is related that 'Urwa said, "Az-Zubayr argued with a man of the Ansar about a stream from al-Harra. The Prophet said, 'Take water, Zubayr, and then release the water to your neighbour.' The Ansari said, 'Messenger of Allah, it is because he is cousin!' His face coloured and then he said, 'Take water, Zubayr, then keep the water until it returns to the wall and then release it to yout neighbour.' So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave az-Zubayr his full right in an explicit judgement annoyed him. He had indicated for them a matter which contained space for them both. Az-Zubayr said, 'I only suppose that these ayats were sent down about that: "No, by your Lord, they are not believers until they make you their judge in the disputes that break out between them." (4:65)'"

XCII: "They will be with those whom Allah has blessed: the Prophets..." (4:69)

4310. It is related that 'A'isha said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'There is no Prophet who had been ill but that he was given a choice between this world and the Next.' In the illness in which he died, he became very hoarse and I heard him say, 'With those whom Allah has blessed: the Prophets, the men of truth, the martyrs and the righteous.' (4:69) So I knew that he had been given a choice."

XCIII: "What reason could you have for not fighting in the Way of Allah, and for those men, women and children who are oppressed?" (4:75)

4311. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was heard to say, "My mother and I were among the oppressed."

4312. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas recited, "those men, women and children who are oppressed." (4:75) He said, "I and my mother were among those Allah excused."

It is mentioned from Ibn 'Abbas that "hasirat" (4:90) is to be constricted. "Talwü" (4:135) is to move their tongues with the testimony.

Someone else said that the muraghim (4:100) is the emigrant and that one says, "Râghamtu" for "I emigrated from my people". Mawqutan (4:103) is a time set for them.

XCIV: "Why is it that you have become two parties regarding the hypocrites, when Allah has returned them to unbelief for what they did?" (4:88)

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Split them up," and a fi'a is a group.

4313. It is related from Zayd ibn Thabit £ about, "Why is it that you have become two parties regarding the hypocrites?" (4:88) that some of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from Uhud and the people fell into two parties about them. One group said, "Kill them!" and another group said no. Then it was revealed: "Why is it that you have become two parties regarding the hypocrites?"

He said, "It is good and it expels the foul as the fire expels the dross of silver."

XCV: "When news of any matter reaches them they spread it about," (4:83) they made it known.

"Tested them" (4:83) is to extract something. "Hasiban" (4:86) means enough. "Illa inathan" (4:117) means lifeless, wither stone or clod of earth and the like. "Maridan (4:117) is recalcitrant. "They will slit" (4:119) is to cut. "Qilan" (4:122) is one word. "Taba'" (4:157) is to seal.

XCVI: "As for anyone who kills a believer deliberately, his repayment is Hell." (4:93)

4314. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr was heard to say, "The people of Kufa disagreed about an ayat and I travelled to Ibn 'Abbas about it and I asked him about it and he said, "This ayat was sent down: 'As for anyone who kills a believer deliberately, his repayment is Hell, ' (4:93) and it was the last to be sent down and nothing abrogated it."

XCVII: "Do not say, 'You are not a believer,' to someone who greets you as a Muslim." (4:94)

"Silm", "salm" and "salam" mean the same.

4315. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said about, "Do not say, 'You are not a believer,' to someone who greets you as a Muslim" (4:94), "A man was with some sheep of his and the Muslims met him and he said, 'Peace be upon you,' and they killed him and took his sheep. So Allah revealed about that to His words, 'simply out of desire for the goods of this world.' Those were the sheep."

He said that Ibn 'Abbas recited "salam".

XCVIII: "Those believers who stay behind – other than those forced by necessity – are not the same as those who do jihad in the way of Allah." (4:95)

4316. It is reported that Zayd ibn Thabit reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had dictated to him, "Those believers who stay behind. . . are not the same as those who do jihad in the way of Allah." (4:95) "Ibn Umm Maktum came to him while he was reciting it to me, and he said, 'Messenger of Allah, if I could do jihad, I would strive in it.' He was blind. Then Allah revealed to His Messenger while his thigh was on my thigh and it became so heavy on me that I feared my thigh would break. Then it left him and Allah had revealed, 'other than those forced by necessity.'"

4317. It is related from al-Bara' that when it was revealed, "Those believers who stay behind are not the same", the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called Zayd and he wrote it down. Ibn Umm Maktum came and complained of his infirmity [blindness] and Prophet revealed, "other than those forced by necessity."

4318. It is related from al-Bara' that when it was revealed, "Those believers who stay behind are not the same", the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Call so-and-so." He came to him with a inkpot and tablet, or shoulder. He said, "Write: 'Those believers who stay behind are not the same . . . are not the same as those who do jihad in the way of Allah.' (4:95) Ibn Umm Maktum was behind the Prophet* and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I am blind.' Then immediately it was revealed, 'Those believers who stay behind – other than those forced by necessity – are not the same as those who do jihad in the way of Allah..'"

4319. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas reported, "Those believers who stay behind are not the same" meant those who stayed and did not go to Badr and those who went out to Badr.

XCIX: "The angels ask those they take while they are wronging themselves, 'What were your circumstances?' They reply, 'We were oppressed on earth.' They say, 'Was Allah's earth not wide enough for you to have emigrated elsewhere in it?''" (4:97)

4320. It is related that Muhammad ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman Abu'l-Aswad said, "Conscription* for an expedition was forced on the people of Madina [by Ibn az-Zubayr] and I was put in it. I met 'Ikrima, the client of Ibn 'Abbas and told him. He forbade him to do that in the strongest possible terms. Then he said, 'Ibn 'Abbas reported to me that some of the Muslims were with the idolaters to increase the size of the idolaters in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. An arrow would be shot and hit one of them and kill him, or he would be struck a blow and killed. Then Allah revealed, 'The angels ask those they take while they are wronging themselves....' (4:97)"

Al-Layth related it from Abu'l-Aswad.

[* This was for an army which was setting out to fight the people of Syria.]

C: "Except for those men, women and children who really are oppressed and do not have any other possibility and are not guided to any way." (4:98)

4321. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said about "Except for those who are oppressed," (4:98), "My mother was among those Allah excused."

CI: "It may well be that Allah will pardon them. Allah is Ever-Pardoning, Ever-Forgiving." (4:99)

4322. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was praying 'Isha' and said, 'Allah hears whoever praises him, he then said before prostrating, 'O Allah, rescue 'Ayyash ibn Abi Rabi'a! O Allah, rescue Salama ibn Hisham! O Allah, rescue al-Walid ibn al-Walid! O Allah, rescue all oppressed believers! O Allah, be hard on Mudar! O Allah, give them years of drought like the drought years of Yusuf!'"

CII: ""There is nothing wrong, if you are bothered by rain or you are ill, in laying your weapons down." (4:102)

4323. If it related that said Ibn 'Abbas about, "if you are bothered by rain or you are ill," (4:102) that 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf was wounded.

CIII: "They will ask you for a definitive ruling about women. Say, 'Allah gives you a definitive ruling about them; and also what is recited to you in the Book about orphan girls...'" (4:127)

4324. It is related that 'A'isha said about "They will ask you for a definitive ruling about women....while at the same time desiring to marry them," (4:127) "A man would have an orphan girl in his care and he would be her guardian and her heir. So she would be his partner in property, even some date-palms. So he would not want to marry her and dislike marrying her to another man who would become his partner in his property as she was, and so he would prevent her from marrying. Therefore this ayat was revealed."

CIV: "If a woman fears cruelty or aversion on her husband's part" (4:128)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "shiqaq" (4:35) is mutual alienation. "But people are prone to selfish greed" (4:128) means that a man's desire for a thing which makes him avid for it. "Suspended" (4:129) is neither without husband nor with a husband. "Nushuzan" is hatred.

4325. It is related that 'A'isha said about, "If a woman fears cruelty or aversion on her husband's part": (4:128) "A man would have a wife would he did not think worth the trouble and wanted to leave her and she would say, 'I put you in the lawful in regard to me,' and this ayat was sent down about that."

CV: "The hypocrites are in the lowest level of the Fire." (4:145)

Ibn 'Abbas said that the lowest part of the Fire. "Nafaqan" (6:35) is a tunnel.

4326. It is related from al-Aswad, "We were in the circle of 'Abdullah [ibn Mas'ud] when Hudhayfa and stood before us and greeted us and then said, 'Hypocrisy befell people who were better than you.' Al-Aswad said, 'Glory be to Allah! Allah says, "The hypocrites are in the lowest level of the Fire." (4:145)' 'Abdullah smiled and Hudhayfa sat down in a corner of the mosque. 'Abdullah got up and his companions split up. He threw some pebbles at me and I went over to him. Hudhayfa said, 'I was surprised at his smile although he understood what I said. Hypocrisy befell people who were better than you and then they repented and Allah turned to them.'"

CVI: "We have revealed to you as We revealed to Nuh." (4:162)

4327. It is related from 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It is not proper for anyone to say that I am better than Yunus ibn Matta."

4328. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever says that I am better than Yunus ibn Matta has lied."

CVII: "They will ask you for a definitive ruling. Say: 'Allah gives you a definitive ruling about people who die without direct heirs: If a man dies childless but has a sister she gets half of what he leaves. And he is her heir if she dies childless." (4:176)

Kilala means someone who does not have a father or child to inherit from him. It is a verbal noun used when lineage comes to an end.

4329. It is related that al-Bara' was heard to say, "The last sura to be revealed was Bara'a (i.e. 9, Tawba), and the last ayat to be revealed was, 'They will ask you for a definitive ruling. Say: "Allah gives you a definitive ruling about people who die without direct heirs."' (4:176)"

CVIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Ma'ida

 

"Hurum" (5:1) has the singular, haram. "Because of their breaking" (5:13) is on account of their breach. "Allah has ordained for you" (5:21) is Allah has assigned. "Tabu'a" (5:29) is to bear. "Da'ira" (5:52) is a turn.

Another said that "ighra'" (5:14) means to hold sway, and "their wages" (5:5) is their mahrs.

Sufyan said, "There is no stronger ayat in the Qur'an than 'You have nothing to stand on until you implement the Torah and the Gospel, and what has been sent down to you from your Lord.'" (5:68)

"Gives life" (5:32) means someone who forbids that he be killed except for a right gives life to all the people. "Shir'a wa minhajan" (5:48) is a path and a sunna.

"Muhaymin" (5;48) is the trusty one. The Qur'an is the trustee of every book before it.

 

CIX: "Today I have perfected your deen for you." (5:3)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "makhmasa" (5:3) is hunger.

4330. It is related from Tariq ibn Shihab that the Jews said to 'Umar, "There is an ayat you recite in your book which, had it been sent down to us, we would have appointed that day a festival." 'Umar said, "I know when it was sent down and where it was sent down and where the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was when it was sent down. It was the Day of 'Arafa and I, by Allah, was at 'Arafa."

Sufyan said, "I am not sure whether or not it was Jumu'a: 'Today I have perfected your deen for you.' (5:3)"

 

CX: His words, "If you cannot find any water, then do tayammum with pure earth." (5:5)

"Tayammamu" is to make for. Ammin (5:2) is to resort to. Ammamtu and tayammamtu mean the same.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "lamastum" (4:2; 5:6), "tamassuhunna" (2:236, 237; 33:49) and "to whom ye have gone in" (4:23) and "ifda'" (4:21) means lawful intercourse.

4331. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on one of his journeys until, when we had reached al-Bayda, or Dhat al-Jaysh, my necklace broke and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stayed to look for it and everyone else stayed with him. There was no water there, so the people went to Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and said, 'Look what 'A'isha has done. She has caused the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and everyone else to halt at a place where there is no water for them nor are they carrying any water with them?' Abu Bakr came and found that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had gone to sleep with his head against my thigh. He said, 'You have held up the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and everyone else in a place where there is no water and they are not carrying any water with them!' Abu Bakr rebuked me saying what Allah wished him to say and started to poke me in the side with his hand and the only reason I did not move was that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was against my thigh. At first light the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did tayammum." Usayd ibn al-Hudayr said, 'Family of Abu Bakr, this is not the first blessing you have brought!'." 'A'isha continued, "We made the camel I was on get up and found the necklace underneath it."

4332. It is related from 'A'isha, "A necklace of mine dropped at al-Bayda' while we were on our way to Madina and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made his camel kneel and dismounted. He laid his head in my lap and slept. Abu Bakr came and hit me hard on the chest and said, 'You have held up the people on account of a necklace!' I kept still as death because of the position of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, although he had hurt me. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, woke up and it was time for Subh. Water was looked for but nnt found. Then it was revealed, 'O you who believe! When you you get up to do the prayer....' (5:6) Usayd ibn Hudayr said, 'Allah has blessed the people on account of you, family of Abu Bakr! You are only a blessing for them.'"

 

CXI: "So you and your Lord go and fight. We will stay sitting here." (5:24)

4333. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "On the day of Badr, al-Miqdad said, 'Messenger of Allah, we will not say to you what the tribe of Israel said to Musa: "So you and your Lord go and fight. We will stay sitting here." (5:24) Go and we are with you.' That seemed to cheer up the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

It is related from Tariq that al-Miqdad said that to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

 

CXII: "The reprisal against those who wage war on Allah and His Messenger, and go about the earth corrupting it, is that they should be killed or crucified,or have their alternate hands and feet cut off, or be banished from the land." (5:33)

Waging war against Allah is rejecting Him.

4334. It is related from Abu Qilaba that he he was sitting behind 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz, and they mentioned this and they mentioned that [about Qasama] and they said various things, saying that the khalifs had taken retaliation on account of it. He turned to Abu Qilaba who was behind him and asked, "What do you say, 'Abdullah ibn Zayd?" or he asked, "What do you say, Abu Qilaba?" "I said, 'I do not know that it is lawful to kill a soul in Islam except for a man who has committed fornication after having been married, or someone who has murdered someone without right, or someone who makes war against Allah and His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' 'Anbasa said, 'And Anas related such-and-such and such-and-such.' I said, 'Anas related to me and said, "Some people came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and spoke to him, saying, 'This land makes us ill.' He said, 'These are some of our camels which are being taken out. So go out with them and drink some of their milk and urine.' So they went out with them and drank some of their milk and urine and recovered their health. Then they turned on the herdsman and killed him and drove off the camels." why should there be any delay with those men? They killed a person and made war against Allah and His Messenger and alarmed the Messenger of Allah. may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' He said, 'Glory be to Allah!' I said, 'Do you suspect me?' He said, 'Anas related that.'" He said,'Then he said, 'O people of such-and-such! You will remain in good as long as this man and his like remain among you.'"

 

CXIII: "Retaliation for wounds.." (5:45)

4335. It is related that Anas said, "Ar-Rubayya', the aunt of Anas ibn Malik, broke the tooth of a girl of the Ansar. The people asked for retaliation and they went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered retaliation. Anas ibn an-Nadr, the uncle of Anas ibn Malik, said, 'No, by Allah, her tooth will not be broken, Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O Anas, the Book of Allah states retaliation.' Then the people were satisfied and accepted compensation. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There are some of the slaves of Allah who, if they took an oath, Allah would fulfil it.'"

 

CLIV: "O Messenger! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord." (5:67)

4336. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Whoever tells you that Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, concealed something of what was revealed to him has lied. Allah says, 'O Messenger! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord.' (5:67)"

 

CLV: "Allah does not take you to task for your inadvertent oaths." (5:89)

4337. It is related from 'A'isha, "This ayat, 'Allah does not take you to task for your inadvertent oaths,' (5:89) was sent down about a man saying, 'No, by Allah,' and 'Yes, by Allah.'"

4338. It is related from 'A'isha that her father used to never break an oath until Allah revealed the expiation for the oath. Abu Bakr then said, 'If I ever see something better than an oath, I will accept the dispensation of Allah and do that which is better.'"

 

CLVI: His words, " O you who believe, do not make unlawful the good things Allah has made lawful for you." (5:87)

4339. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "We used to go on expeditions with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and there were no women with us. We asked, 'Shall we castrate ourselves?' He forbade us to do that and after that made an allowance for us that we could marry a woman for a price. Then he recited, '"O you who believe, do not make unlawful the good things Allah has made lawful for you.' (5:87)"

 

CLVII: His words, "Wine, gambling, stone altars and divining arrows are filth from the handiwork of Shaytan." (5:90)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "azlam" are arrows which used for divination in things and "nusub" are stones set up on which sacrifices are made.

Someone else said that "zalam" is the arrow without a feather, being the singular of azlam. Divination is that the arrows are turned round, and the casting prohibits it, then he leaves, and if it commands it, then he does what it commands. They gave the arrows signs for use in the various matters in which they sought divination. When you do it, you say, "I divined" of which the verbal noun is qusûm. "Yujîl" means to turn round.

4340. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "When the prohibition of wine was sent down, at that time there five kinds of intoxicants in Madina, not one of which was the drink produced from grapes."

4341. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We had no wine except that which you call fadikh (from dates). I was standing giving drink to Abu Talha, so-and-so, and so-and-so when a man came and said, 'Has the news reached you?' They said, 'And what is that?' He said, 'Wine has been made unlawful.' They said, 'Anas, pour out these pots!'" He said, "They did not ask about it nor return to it after the man's news.

4342. It is related that Jabir said, "In the morning of Uhud some people drank wine and they were all killed on that day as martyrs. That was before it was prohibited."

4343. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard 'Umar say on minbar of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Following on from that, O people! The prohibition against wine was sent down and they are from five - from grapes, dates, honey, wheat and barley. Wine is what befuddles the intellect.'"

 

CLVIII: "Those who believe and do right actions are not to blame for what they have eaten." (5:93)

4344. It is related that Anas said, "The wine which was spilled out was fadikh (date wine)."

Anas said, "I was serving the drink to the people in the house of Abu Talha when the prohibition against wine was revealed and someone was commanded to announce it. Abu Talha said, 'So go and see what this noise is.'" He said, "I went out and said, 'This is an announcer annouching that wine has been made unlawful.' He said to me, 'Go and spill it out.'" He said, 'It flowed in the streets of Madina." He said, "Their wine that day was fadikh. Some people said, 'People were killed with wine in their stomachs.' He said, 'So Allah sent down, 'Those who believe and do right actions are not to blame for what they have eaten.' (5:93)"

 

CLIX: "Do not ask about matters which, if they were made known to you, would make things difficult for you." (5:101)

4345. It is related that Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us in a speech the like of which I have never heard. He said, ''If you knew what I know, you would laugh little and weep much.' The Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, covered their faces and sobbed. A man said, 'Who is my father?' He said, 'So-and-so.' Then this ayat was sent down: 'Do not ask about matters which, if they were made known to you, would make things difficult for you.' (5:101)"

4346. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Some people used to question the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in mockery and a said would say, 'Who is my father?' and a man whose camel was lost would say, 'Where is my camel?' and so Prophet sent down this ayat about them: 'Do not ask about matters which, if they were made known to you, would make things difficult for you....' (5:101)"

 

CXX: "Allah did not institute any such thing as bahira or sa'iba or wasila or hami." (5:103)

"Allah will say" (5:116) is "will" [i.e. not past tense]. "Idh' here is a conjunction.

The root of ma'ida (table) is a past particle, like "a pleasing life" ('isha) and final divorce (tatliqa). It means to prepare good for the person, from the verb mâda, yamîdu.

Ibn 'Abbas said thst "mutawaqqika" (3:55) is to make you die.

4347. It is related that Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab said, "The bahira is the camel whose milk is reserved for the idols. No one can milk it. The sa'ib is the nimalthey used to let go free as devoted to their gods, and nothing could be carried on it."

He said that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I saw 'Amr ibn 'Amir al-Khuza'i dragging his intestines in the Fire. He was the first to let animals graze freely [for the idols].' The wasila is the young she-camel whose gives birth first to a she-camel and then a female after a female. They used to let graze freely as devoted to their idols those camels which gave birth to two females with no male in between. The hami was the male camel used for breeding. When its breeding was over, they left it for the idols and exempted it from carrying loads. Nothing was carried on it. They called it the hami."

This is related from Sa'id.

Abu Hurayra said, "I heard the like of it from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

It is related from Abu Hurayra, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

4348. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I saw portions of Jahannam destroying one another and I saw 'Amr dragging his intestines. He was first to let animals graze freely which were devoted to the idols."

 

CXXI: "I was a witness against them as long as I remained among them, but when You took me back to You, You were the Watcher over them. You are Witness of all things." (5:117)

4349. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave a khutba and said, 'O people! You will be gathered to Allah barefoot, naked, uncircumcised. Then He said, 'As We originated the first creation so We will regenerate it. It is a promise binding on Us. That is what We will do.' (21:104) Then he said, 'The first of creatures to be dressed on the Day of Rising will be Ibrahim. Some men of my community will be taken to the left side and I will say, "O Lord, my Companions!" It will be said, "You do not know what they originated after you." I will say as the righteous slave said, "I was a witness against them as long as I remained among them, but when You took me back to You, You were the Watcher over them. You are Witness of all things." (5:117) It will be said, "Those continued to be apostates since the time you left them."'"

 

CXXII: "If You punish them, they are Your slaves. If you forgive them, You are the Almighty, the All-Wise." (5:118)

4350. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You will be gathered and some people will be taken to the left and I will say as the righteous slave said, 'I was a witness against them as long as I remained among them....You are the Almighty, the All-Wise.' (5:118)"

 

CXXIII: Tafsir of Surat al-An'am

Ibn 'Abbas said, "They will have no recourse," (6:23) is their excuse. "Ma'rushat" (6:141) "trellises" is that on which grapes and other plants are displayed, and "hamula" (6:142) is that on which something is carried. "La-labasnâ" (6:9) is to make resemble. "Yan'awna" (6:26) is to keep distant from. "Tubsala" (6:70) "is to be disgraced" and "ubsilu" (6:70) is to be disgraced. "Stretching out their hands" (6:93): "bast" is the blow. "You gained many followers," (6:128): you misguided many. "The crops He has created" (6:136) refers to the fact that they assign to Allah a portion of their fruits and wealth, and assign a portion to Shaytan and the idols. "Or contains" (6:143,4) means: does it enclose other than a male or female? So why do you make some unlawful and some lawful? "Masfühan" (6:146) is spilled. "Sadafa" (6:158) is to turn away.

"Ablisû" (6:44) is to despair and "ubsilû" (6:70) is to surrender. "Saramadan" (28:71, 72) means "always". "Istahwathu" (6:71) is misguided. "Tamtarûna" (6:2) is to doubt. "Waqran" (6:25) is deafness, but wiqr is a burden. "Asâtîr" (6:25 has the singular ustâra and istâra," and they are false stories. "Ba'sa'" (6:42) is from either ba's or bu's. "Jahra" (6:47) is seen by the eye. "Sûr" (6:73) is the plural of sura, like sura and sur. "Malakut" (6:75) is kingdom, like "rahabut" is better than "rahamut", and it is said that to be awed is better than to be shown mercy. "In ta'dil" (6:70) is to take an oath, and it will not be accepted from him on that day. "Jann" (6:76) is to cover with darkness. "Ta'ala" (6:100) is to go high. It is said, "His reckoning is up to Allah," husban meaning hisab. It is also said that "husban" (6:96) are things thrown and "stones for the shaytans" (67:5) "Mustaqirr" (6:97) is in the backbone and "mustawfa'" (6:98) is in the womb. "Qinw" (6:99) are moist dates, and two is "qinawn" and the plural is also "qinawn". like sinw and sinwan. (13:4) "Akinna" (6:45) has the singular of "kinân".

 

CXXIV: "The keys to the Unseen are in His possession. No one knows them but Him." (6:59)

4351. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The keys to the Unseen are five things which Allah has. He has knowledge of the Final Hour. He knows when the rain will come, He knows what is inside the wombs, and no soul knows what it will gain tomorrow, and no soul knows what land it will die in. Allah is All- Knowing, All-Aware.'"

 

CXXV: "Say: 'He possesses the power to send you punishment from above your heads or from underneath your feet.'" (6:65)

"To confuse you in sects" (6:65) is to confuse you, coming from iltibas. "Yalbisü" (6:82) is to confuse. "Shi'a" (6:65) are parties.

4352. It is related that Jabir said, "When the ayat was sent down, 'Say: "He possesses the power to send you punishment from above your heads"' (6:65), the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I seek refuge with Your face,' and he said when He said, 'and underneath your feet,' 'I seek refuge with Your face.' He said, 'or to confuse you in sects and make you taste each other's violence,' and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'This is less,' or 'this is easier.'"

 

CXXVI: "Those who do not mix their belief with any wrongdoing." (6:82)

4353. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "When the words of Allah were revealed, 'Those who do not mix their belief with any wrongdoing,' (6:82) His Companions asked, 'Who among us has not done wrong?' Then Allah revealed, 'Attributing partners to Him is a terrible wrong.'" (31:13)

 

CXXVII: "Yunus and Lut. All of them We favoured over all beings." (6:86)

4354. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No slave should say that I am better than Yunus ibn Matta."

4355. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No slave should say that I am better than Yunus ibn Matta."

 

CXXVIII: His words, "They are the ones Allah has guided, so be guided by their guidance." (6:90)

4356. It is related that Mujahid reported that he asked Ibn 'Abbas, "Is there a prostration in Sad?" He said, "Yes. Then he recited, 'We gave him Ishaq and Ya'qub....so be guided by their guidance.".' (6:84-90) Then he said, 'He was one of them.'"

It is related from Mujahid, "I spoke to Ibn 'Abbas, and he said, 'Your Prophet was one of those whom it is commanded to follow.'"

 

CXXIX: His words, "We made unlawful for the Jews every animal with an undivided hoof. And in respect of cattle and sheep, We made their fat unlawful for them." (6:146)

Ibn 'Abbas that every animal with undivided hoof means camels and the ostriches. "Hawaya" (6:146) are the entrails.

Another said that "Hädü" means to become Jews. His words, "hudna" (7:156) means "we repented", and the ha'id is the one who repents.

4357. It is related that Jabir said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, '"May Allah fight the Jews! When fat was made unlawful for them, they melted it and sold it and consumed the proceeds.'"

It is related from Jabir from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

 

CXXX: His words, "That you do not approach indecency – outward or inward." (6:151)

4358. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "There is none more jealous than Allah. That is why He made shameful deeds unlawful, the outward and the inward. There is nothing He loves more than praise of Allah and that is why He praised Himself." I [Abu Wa'il] asked, "You heard it from 'Abdullah?" He said, "Yes." I said, "Marfu' (going back to the Prophet)?" He said, "Yes."

"Wakil" (6:102) is preserver and one familiar with him. "Qubulan" (6:111) is the plural of qabîl. It means that He made various types of punishment and each type has a tribe. "Specious words" (6:112) is everything that you make beautiful and adorn although it is fake. It is 'zukhruf', "Harthun hijr" (6:137) is unlawful. All that is forbidden is "hijr mahjûr" is every structure you build and hijr is the mare. The intellect is also called "hijr" and "hija". Hijr was the place of Thamud. Whatever land you make forbidden is "hijr". From it the Hatim of the House is called Hijr. It is as if it was derived from mahtüm (smashed). It is like qatîl from maqtûl. The Hajr al-Yamana is a house.

 

CXXXI: "Produce your witnesses" (6:150)

In the Hijazi dialect, "halumma" is used for the singular, dual and plural.

 

CXXXII: "No belief a self professes will be of use to it." (6:158)

4359. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The Hour will not come until the sun rises from the west. When people see it, whoever is one the earth will believe. That is the time when, 'No belief a self professes will be of use to it if it did not believe before.' (6:158)"

4360. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The Hour will not come until the sun rises from the west. When people see it, people will all believe. That is the time with a soul's belief will not profit it,' and he recited the ayat."