The Beginning of the Revelation

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 1: The Beginning of the Revelation

I. How the revelation to the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began and the words of Allah, "We have revealed to you as We revealed to Nuh and the Prophets who came after him." (4:162)

1. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, said on the minbar, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Actions are but judged according to intentions. Every man has what he intends. So whoever emigrates to gain something of this world or to marry a woman, his emigration is for that to which he emigrated.'"

2. 'A'isha, Umm al-Mu'minin, may Allah be pleased with her, said that al-Harith ibn Hisham asked the Messenger of Allah, "Messenger of Allah! How does the revelation come to you?"

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Sometimes it comes to me like the ringing of a bell - and this is the hardest on me - which then leaves me after I have fully understood and retained what was said. Sometimes the angel comes to me in the form of a man and speaks to me and I retain what he says."

'A'isha, may Allah be pleased with her, said, "I saw him when the revelation was descending on him on a very cold day and when it left him his brow was dripping with perspiration."

3. 'A'isha, Umm al-Mu'minin, may Allah be pleased with her, said, "The beginning of the revelation to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took the form of the true dream. Whenever he had this kind of dream, it was clear like the break of day [and was true]. Then he was made to love retreat and used to go into retreat in the cave of Hira' where he would devote himself to the worship of Allah alone, continuing in this worship for a number of nights until he felt inclined to return to his family. He would take provision for his stay. Then he would return to Khadija to restock with provision to do the same again. This lasted until the Truth came to him while he was in the cave of Hira'.

The angel came to him and said, 'Read!' He said, 'I cannot read.'"

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "He seized me and squeezed me until all the strength went out of me and then released me and said, 'Read !' I said, 'I cannot read.' Then he seized me and squeezed me a second time until all the strength when out of me and then released me. Then he seized me and squeezed me a third time and then released me, and then he said, 'Recite: In the Name of your Lord who created, created man from a blood clot. Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous.'"

[She went on,] "Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,returned with that and his heart was quaking. He came to Khadija bint Khuwaylid, may Allah be pleased with her, and said, 'Wrap me up! Wrap me up!' They wrapped him up until the state of terror had left him and then he told Khadija what had happened and said, 'I am afraid for myself.' Khadija said, 'No, by Allah, Allah would never bring disgrace upon you. You maintain ties of kinship, bear people's burdens, help the destitute, give hospitality to your guests and help those who have been afflicted by calamities.'

"Khadija then went with him to Waraqa ibn Nawfal ibn Asad ibn 'Abdu'l-'Uzza, Khadija's cousin, who had become Christian during the Jahiliyya. He could write in Hebrew and wrote in Hebrew as much of the Gospel as Allah willed. He was an old man who had gone blind. Khadija said to him, 'Cousin! Listen to your nephew.' Waraqa said to him, 'Nephew, what have you seen?' The Messenger of Alla, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him what he had seen. Waraqa said to him, 'This is the Namus [Jibril] which Allah sent to Musa. I wish that I were still young. I wish I might still be alive when your people drive you out!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, 'Will they drive me out?' He said, 'Yes, no man has brought anything similar to what you have brought without being treated with hostility. If I am still alive on that day, I will give you my strong support.' Shortly after that, Waraqa died and there was a pause in the revelation."

4. Jabir ibn 'Abdullah al-Ansari said that while speaking about the intermission of the revelation that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "While I was out walking, I suddenly heard a voice from heaven. I raised my eyes and there was the same angel who had come to me at Hira'. He was sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I was afraid of him and returned home and said, 'Wrap me up! Wrap me up!' Then Allah sent down, 'O you enveloped in your cloak! Arise and warn.'.... up to 'and shun all filth.' After that revelation became intensive and continuous."

['Abdullah ibn Yusuf and Abu Salih corroborated with him. Hilal ibn Raddad corroborated with him in relating from az-Zuhri. Yunus and Ma'mar used the word bawadiruhu instead of fu'aduhu.]

5. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that Ibn 'Abbas said about the words of Allah the Almighty, "Do not move your tongue trying to hasten it" (75:16): "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to experience hardship while receiving the revelation and he used to move his lips [for committing it into memory instantly]." Ibn 'Abbas said, "I am moving my lips for you as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, moved his." Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I am moving my lips as I saw Ibn 'Abbas moving his," and he moved his lips.

"So Allah the Almighty sent down, 'Do not move your tongue trying to hasten it. Its collection and recitation are Our responsibility.' He said that 'collecting it' means 'in your heart and your reciting it [as it was revealed]'. 'So when We recite it, follow its recitation,' means 'listen and be silent'. 'Then its explanation is also Our responsibility' means that it is up to Us when you recite it. After that, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would listen when Jibril came to him. When Jibril left, then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,would recite it as Jibril had recited it."

6. Ibn 'Abbas related saying, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the most generous of people, and he was even more generous in Ramadan when Jibril met him. He used to met him every night in Ramadan to go through the Qur'an with him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was more generous with good than the blowing wind."

7. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said that Abu Sufyan ibn Harb informed him that Heraclius had sent a message to him while he was with a Qurayshi caravan composed of merchants who were trading in Syria during the period when the the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a truce with Abu Sufyan and the unbelievers of Quraysh. So they went to Heraclius who was in Ilya' [Jerusalem] and he invited them into his assembly where he was surrounded by the great men of Byzantium. He called for his translator and said, "Who among you is closest in lineage to this man who claims that he is a Prophet?" Abu Sufyan said, "I am the nearest to him in lineage." Heraclius said, "Give him leave to come near to me and bring his companions near and put them behind him." Then he said to his translator, "Tell them that I am going to ask him about this man. If he tells me a lie, then call him a liar."

Abu Sufyan said, "By Allah, if I had not been afraid that they would transmit a lie from me [later on], I would have lied about him. The first question he asked me about him was, 'What is his lineage among you?' I replied. 'He belongs amongst us to a noble lineage.' Then he asked, 'Has anyone of your people ever said what he says before him?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Was any of his ancestors a king?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Do the nobles or the humble people follow him?' I replied, 'The humble people.' He asked, 'Are they on the increase or decrease?' I said, 'They are on the increase.' He asked, ' Does any of them become displeased with his religion and apostatize after entering it?' I said, 'No.' He asked, 'Did you suspect him of being a liar before he said what he said?" I said, 'No.' He asked, 'Does he act treacherously?' I said, 'No. We are in a time of truce with him but we do not know what he will do during it.' I could not find anything to add to what I said except this sentence.' He asked, 'Have you fought him?' I said, 'Yes.' He went on, 'How did your fight against him go?' I said, 'Success in the war alternated between us - sometimes he would get the better of us and sometimes we of him.' He said, 'What does he order you to do?' I replied, 'He tells us to worship Allah alone and not associate anything with Him and to abandon what our ancestors said. He commands us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste, and to maintain ties of kinship.'

"Heraclius told the translator to say: 'I asked you about his lineage and you mentioned that he has noble lineage; in the same way all the Messengers who were sent came from noble lineage among their peoples. I asked you whether anyone else among your people had said such a thing and you said they had not. If anyone had said this before him, I would have said that he was a man following the precedent of something said before. I asked you whether any of his ancestors was a king and you said no. If one of his ancestors had been a king, I would have said that he was a man seeking the kingdom of his ancestors. I asked you whether you accused him of being a liar before he said what he said and you said that you did not. I do not understand how someone would refuse to lie about people and then tell lies against Allah. I asked you whether the nobles or humble people followed him and you said that the humble people followed him. They are always the ones who follow the Messengers. I asked you whether they were on the increase or decrease and you said that they were on the increase. That is what happens with belief until it is complete. I asked you whether anyone had apostatized out of dislike for his religion after he had entered and you said that they had not. That is how it is with belief when its joy mixes with the hearts. I asked you whether he had been treacherous and you said no. That is how it is with the Messengers. I asked you what he commanded and you mentioned that he commanded you to worship Allah and not associate anything with him and forbade you to worship idols, and he commanded you to pray, speak truthfully, and be chaste. If what you said is true, then he will soon control this place where my feet are now standing. I knew that he was going to appear, but I did not know that it would be from you. If I knew that I could reach him, I would set out to meet him. If I were with him, I would wash his feet.'

"Then he called for the letter of the Messenger of Allah which Dihya had brought to the governor of Busra, who in turn passed it on to Heraclius. He read it out, saying, 'In the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Compassionate, from Muhammad, the slave of Allah and His Messenger, to Heraclius, ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon the one who follows guidance. I call you to Islam. If you become Muslim, you will be safe and Allah will double your reward. If you turn away, then you incur the wrong action of your subjects. "O People of the Book! Come to a proposition which is the same for us and you – that we should worship none but Allah and not attribute any partners to Him and not take one another as lords besides Allah. If they turn away, say, "Bear witness that we are Muslims." (3:64)'"

Abu Sufyan said, "When Heraclius finished saying what he had said and had read the letter, there was a great uproar there and voices were raised. We were turned out. When we were turned out, I said to my companions, 'This business of Ibn Abi Kabsha has become so prominent that he alarms even the King of the Greeks.' Then I became certain that he would be victorious until Allah brought me to Islam."

Ibn an-Nazur was the governor of Ilya' (Jerusalem) under Heraclius and was the head of the Christians of Syria. Ibn an-Nazur relates that when Heraclius came to Jerusalem, he got up one day in the morning in an ill-temper. Some of his priests said, "Your appearance causes us concern." Ibn an-Nazur said that Heraclius was an astrologer who looked at the stars. When they questioned him, he said, "Last night when I looked at the stars, I saw that the king of the circumcised had appeared. Who among this nation practise circumcision?" They said, "Nobody except the Jews and you should not be worried about them. Write to the cities under your command ordering the execution of all the Jews in them." While they were discussing it, a man sent by the King of Ghassan came to Heraclius to tell him the news about the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

When Heraclius learned about it, he said, "Go and see whether the messenger is circumcised or not." They looked at him and told him that he was circumcised. Heraclius asked him about the Arabs and he said that they practised circumcision. Heraclius said, "It is the sovereignty of this nation which has appeared." Then Heraclius wrote to a friend of his in Rome who was his equal in knowledge. Heraclius went to Homs and stayed in Homs until he received a letter from his friend agreeing with Heraclius' opinion about the emergence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and that he was indeed a Prophet. Heraclius invited the great men of Byzantium to a villa of his in Homs. Then he commanded that the doors be shut and came out and said, "People of Byzantium! If you desire success, right guidance and for your kingdom to remain firm, then offer allegiance to this Prophet [by following him]." The people ran to the gates like wild asses and found them closed. Heraclius saw their aversion and despaired of their believing. He said, "Bring them back to me." He then said, "What I just said was to test your strength in your deen (religion), and I have seen it." So they prostrated to him and were pleased with him. That was the end of the business which is related about Heraclius.

[Salih ibn Kaysan, Yunus and Ma'mar related this hadith from az-Zuhri.]

Chapter 2. The Book of Belief (Iman)

I. On belief and the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Islam is based on five things."

Belief is both word and action, and it increases and decreases. Allah the Almighty says, "Thus increasing their belief with more belief" (48:4) and "We increased them in guidance" (18:13) "Allah increases those who are guided with greater guidance." (19:76) "He increases in guidance those who are already guided and gives them fear of Him." (47:17) "So those who believe might increase in their belief." (74:31) "'Which of you has this increased in belief?' As for those who believe, it increases them in belief." (9:124) Allah says, 'The people have gathered against you so fear them.' But that merely increased them in belief " (3:177) Allah says, "It only increased them in faith and in submission." (33:22)

Loving for the sake of Allah and hating for the sake of Allah is part of belief.

'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz wrote to 'Adi ibn 'Adi, "Belief includes obligations (fara'id), laws, legal limits of forbidden things (hudud), and things preferred to do (sunan). Whoever fulfills all of them has perfected his belief, and whoever does not fulfill them has not perfected his belief. If I live, I will make them clear to you so that you can act on them. If I die, however, I am not eager for your company."

Ibrahim (the Prophet) said, "But so that my heart may be at peace." (2:260)

Mu'adh said, "Let us sit for a time [to renew and increase our] belief."

Ibn Mas'ud said, "Certainty is complete belief."

Ibn 'Umar said, "A slave cannot attain to the reality of taqwa until he removes all intrigue from his breast."

Mujahid said , "'Allah has laid down the deen for you' (42:13) means: 'O Muhammad! We commanded you to the same deen as We commanded him (Nuh).'" Ibn 'Abbas said explaining the words of Allah, "shir'atan wa minjahan" (5:48) "Shir'a means sunan, the way and method, and sabil means path."

"Your call" means "your belief" in the words of Allah, "Say: 'What has My Lord to do with you if you do not call on Him?'" (25:77)

8. It is related from Ibn 'Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,* said, "Islam is based on five: the testifying (shahada) that there is no god except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; establishing the prayer (salat); paying the zakat (wealth-tax), the Hajj and the fast (sawm) of Ramadan.

II. On matters concerning belief

And the words of Allah, "It is not devoutness to turn your faces to the East or to the West. , those with true devotion are those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, the Angels, the Book and the Prophets, and who, despite their love for it, give away their wealth to their relatives and to orphans and the very poor, and to travellers and beggars and to set slaves free, and who establish the prayer and pay zakat; those who honour their contracts when they make them, and are steadfast in poverty and in illness and in battle. Those are the people who are true. They are the godfearing.." (2:177) and the words of Allah, "The believers are successful.." (23:1)

9. It was related from Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Belief has over sixty branches. Modesty is a branch of belief."

III: On the Muslim being the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe.

10. It was related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe. An emigrant (muhajir) is someone who abandons what Allah has forbidden."

IV: On whose Islam is best.

11. Abu Musa, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "They said, 'Messenger of Allah, whose Islam is best?' He said, 'The one from whose tongue and hands the Muslims are safe.' "

V: On feeding people being part of Islam

12. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "A man asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Which aspect of Islam is best?' He said, 'Feeding people and greeting those you know and those you do not know.'"

VI: On part of Islam being to want for one's brother what one wants for oneself.

13. It was related from Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you can truly be said to believe until he wants for his brother what he wants for himself."

VII: On love for the Messenger being part of belief

14. It was related from Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "By the One who has my life in His hand, none of you will believe until he loves me more than his father and his children."

15. It was related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you will believe until he loves me more than his father, his children and all people."

VIII: On the sweetness of belief

16. It was related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever possesses three attributes will experience the sweetness of belief: that he loves Allah and His Messenger more than anything else; that he loves someone for the sake of Allah alone; and he hates reverting to disbelief as much as he would hate being thrown into a fire."

IX: On love for the Ansar being a sign of belief

17. It was related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Love for the Ansar is a sign of belief and hatred of the Ansar is a sign of hypocrisy."

18. 'Ubada ibn as-Samit, may Allah be pleased with him, who was at the Battle of Badr and was one of the leaders on the Night of 'Aqaba, said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a group of his Companions around him and said, "Give homage to me based on not associating anything with Allah, not stealing, not committing adultery, not killing your children, not making a false accusation of adultery which you forge yourselves and not being disobedient regarding anything good. Any among you who fulfill this will be rewarded by Allah. Any who fall short regarding any of these things and are punished in this world, that will be an expiation for them. Whoever falls short regarding any of these things and Allah conceals it, then it will be up to Allah. If He wishes, He will pardon him, and if He wishes, He will punish him." 'Ubada said, "We gave him our allegiance on those conditions."

X: On fleeing from civil strife (fitan) being part of belief.

19. It was related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The time will soon come when the best property of a Muslim will be some sheep which he takes to the peaks of the mountains and to places where the rain falls, in order to flee out of the fear that his deen will be tempted."

XI: On the words of the Prophet, "I am the one of you with the most knowledge of Allah."

True knowledge is an action of the heart. Allah says, "He will take you to task for the intention your hearts have made." (2:225)

20. 'A'isha said that whenever the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave people a command, he commanded them to perform actions according to what they were able to do. They said, "Messenger of Allah! We are not like you. Allah has forgiven you your past and future wrong actions." [They wanted to do more difficult deeds.] He became angry so that anger could be seen in his face. Then he said, "I am the one among you who is the most godfearing and has the most knowledge of Allah!"

XII: On part of belief being hating to revert to disbelief as much as being thrown into a fire.

21. It was related from Anas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,"Whoever possesses three attributes will experience the sweetness of belief: whoever loves Allah and His Messenger more than anything else; whoever loves someone for the sake of Allah alone; and whoever hates reverting to disbelief as much as he would hate being thrown into a fire."

XIII: Grading of the superiority of the believers is based on their deeds

22. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the people of the Garden enter the Garden and the people of the Fire enter the Fire, Allah Almighty will then say, 'Bring out anyone who has the weight of a grain of mustard-seed of belief in his heart,' and they will be brought out of it, having been blackened by it. Then they will be thrown into the rain river or life (Malik has doubt about the exact word, this or that) and they will grow like a grain beside the bank of a torrent. Don't you see that it comes up yellow and twisted?"

Wuhayb said that 'Amr said "life" and said "mustard-seed of good."

23. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri was heard to say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "While I was asleep, I dreamed I saw some people who were shown to me and who were wearing shirts some of which reached to their breasts and some of which were shorter than that. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab was shown to me wearing a shirt that was trailing on the ground." They asked, "How do you interpret that, Messenger of Allah?" He said, "The deen."

XIV: On modesty being part of belief

24. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by one of the men of the Ansar who was warning his brother about being too modest. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Leave him. Modesty is part of belief."

XV: On Allah's words, "If they turn in repentance and establish the prayer and pay zakat, let them go on their way." (9:5)

25. Ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I have been commanded to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and establish the prayer and pay the zakat. If they do that, their lives and property are protected from me except for the right of Islam, and their reckoning is up to Allah."

XVI: On saying that belief lies in actions since Allah says, "That is the Garden you will inherit for what you did." (43:72)

A number of the men of knowledge have said that the words of Allah, "By your Lord, We will question them all, every one of them, about what that they did!" (15:92) are about the words, "There is no god but Allah."  He says:  "It is for the like of this that all workers should work!" (37:61)

26. Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, "What action is the best?" He replied, "Belief in Allah and His Messenger." He was asked, "Then what?" He replied, "Jihad in the way of Allah." He was asked, "And then what?" He replied, "An accepted hajj."

XVII: On when Islam is not genuine, but is on account of submission or out of fear of being killed, as in the words of Allah, "The desert Arabs say, 'We believe.' Say: 'You do not believe. Say rather, "We have become Muslim."'" (49:14) If Islam is genuine, it is based on His words, "The only deen with Allah is Islam." (3:19)

27. Sa'd [ibn Abi Waqqas], may Allah be pleased with him, said that once he was sitting with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was distributing things to a group of people. "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left out a man whom I admired. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, what about that person? By Allah, I see him to be a believer (mu'min).'

The Prophet said, 'Or just a Muslim?' I was silent for a while and then what I knew about him became too much for me and I repeated what I had said. I replied, 'What about that person? By Allah, I see him to be a believer.' He said, 'Or just a Muslim?'

[I was silent for a while.] Then what I knew about him became too much for me again and I repeated what I had said and the Messenger of Allah repeated what he had said. Then he said, 'Sa'd, I give to one man [and leave out] another I love more than him out of fear that Allah might throw him on his face into the Fire.' "

Yunus, Salih, Ma'mar and Ibn Akhi az-Zuhri related it from az-Zuhri.

XVIII: On greeting widely being part of Islam.

'Ammar said, "Whoever possesses three characters has possessed all belief: gives other people what is due to them, gives the greeting to everyone, and spends [in the way of Allah] even when he is poor."

28. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, "What aspect of Islam is best?" He replied, "To feed people and to greet those you know and those you do not know."

XIX: On [women's] ingratitude to their husbands, and ingratitude after ingratitude.

Something related by Abu Sa'id al-Khudri deals with in this subject.

29. Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I was shown the Fire and most of its inhabitants were women who were practising kufr (disbelief/ingratitude).' He was asked, 'Did they practise disbelief (kufr) in Allah?' He replied, 'They were ungrateful to their husbands and ungrateful for charity received. Even if you were always to be good to one of them and then she saw something (else) from you, she would say, "I have never had anything good from you at all!" ' "

XX: On acts of disobedience being part of the Jahiliyya

However, someone disobeys Allah does not become an unbeliever unless he associates others with Allah since the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said [to Abu Dharr] "You are a man who still has some of the Jahiliyya in him," and Allah Almighty says, "Allah does not forgive partners being attributed to Him but He forgives whoever He wills for anything apart from that." (4:48)

30. Al-Ma'rur said, "I met Abu Dharr at ar-Rabadha. He was wearing a cloak and his slave had a cloak on too. I asked him about this and he said, 'I was exchanging insults with a man and abused him by insulting his mother. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, "Abu Dharr! You abused him by insulting his mother! You are a man who still has some of the Jahiliyya in you. Your slaves are your brothers whom Allah has placed under your authority. Anyone who has authority over his brother should feed him from what he eats and clothe him from what he wears and you should not oblige his brothers to do what is too much for them. If you ask that of them, then give them a hand."'"

[ar-Rabadha: a place close to Madina]

XXI: "If two parties of the believers fight, make peace between them." (49:9) Allah calls them "believers".

31. Al-Ahnaf ibn Qays said, "As I was on my way to give my support to this man (i.e. 'Ali), I met Abu Bakra and he said, 'Where are you going?' He said, 'To give my support to this man.' He said, 'Go back, for I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "When two Muslims fight each other with their swords, then both the killer and killed are in the Fire." I said to him, "Messenger of Allah, I can understand this with regard to the killer, but what about the murdered man?" He replied, "He wanted to kill his companion."'"

XXII: On one injustice being able to be less than another injustice.

32. 'Abdullah said, "When the words of Allah were revealed, 'Those who believe and do not mix their belief with any wrongdoing,' (6:82) the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, 'Who among us has not done wrong?' Then Allah revealed, 'Attributing partners to Him (shirk) is a terrible wrong.'" (31:13)

XXIII: On the signs of the hypocrite

33. Abu Hurayra related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are three signs of a hypocrite: whenever he speaks, he lies; whenever he makes a promise, he breaks it; and whenever he is trusted, he betrays his trust."

34. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone has four characteristics, he is [like] a pure hypocrite, and if anyone has one of them, he has an aspect of hypocrisy until he gives it up: whenever he is trusted, he betrays his trust; whenever he speaks, he lies; when he makes an agreement, he breaks it; and when he quarrels, he deviates from the truth speaks falsely.

Shu'ba corroborated with him in relating from al-A'mash.

XXIV: On performing the prayer on the Night of Power being part of belief

35. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who performs prayer on the Night of Power motivated by belief and in anticipation of being rewarded will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

XXV: On Jihad being part of belief

36. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah turns to the one who goes forth in His way, and [Allah says] 'I will repay the one who only goes forth because of his belief in Me and affirmation of My Messengers either with a reward or booty or by admitting him into the Garden.'" [The Prophet said,] "If it were not that it would be difficult for my community, I would not stay behind on any expedition. I would love to be slain in the way of Allah and then brought to life and then slain again and then brought to life and then slain again ."

XXVI: On voluntary prayers in Ramadan being part of belief

37. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever prays in Ramadan motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

XXVII: On fasting Ramadan in expectation of reward being part of belief

38. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever fasts in Ramadan motivated by belief and in anticipation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

XXVIII: On the deen (religion) being ease

And the words of the Prophet, "The deen which Allah loves the most is the tolerant Hanifiyya [natural unitary belief and correct behaviour] one."

39. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The deen is easy. Whoever makes the deen too hard for himself will be overpowered, so direct yourselves to what is right, follow a middle course, accept the good news of the reward for right action, and seek help [to reach your goal by being constant in worshipping] in the morning, evening and some of the night."

XXIX: On prayer being part of belief

And the words of Allah, "Allah would not let your belief go to waste," (2:143) meaning your prayer at the House [which had been offered in the past towards the Masjid al-Aqsa]

40. Al-Bara' related that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina, he first stayed with the family of his grandfather or maternal uncle who was from the Ansar. He prayed facing Jerusalem for sixteen or seventeen months, all the time wishing that his qibla was the House. The first prayer he prayed towards the Ka'ba was the 'Asr prayer in congregation. Then one of the men who had prayed with him left and passed by some people in a mosque who were bowing in ruku'. He said, "I testify by Allah that I prayed with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, facing Makka." They immediately turned towards the House. The Jews and the People of the Book had been pleased because the Prophet was praying towards Jerusalem. When he turned towards the House, they disliked that.

Al-Bara' said that some men had died or been slain before the qibla was changed and we did not know what to say about them. Then Allah revealed, "Allah would not let your belief go to waste." (2:143)

XXX: On the excellence of a man's Islam

41. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "When someone becomes Muslim and his Islam is sound, Allah wipes out all his previous evil deeds. After that the accounting is that every good deed gets ten to seven hundred like it, while every evil deed gets its equivalent unless Allah forgives it."

42. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the Islam of any of you is sound, then each good deed he does has ten to seven hundred times the reward is written for him and every evil deed has its equivalent written for him."

XXXI: On the deen which Allah loves best being that which is most constant.

43. It is related from 'A'isha that once the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came when a woman was with her. He asked, "Who is this?" She replied, "So-and-so," and told him about the amount she prayed. He said, "Stop! You must only do what you are able. By Allah, Allah does not grow weary [of giving rewards] as you grow weary, and the deen He likes best is the one in which there is constancy."

XXXII: On belief increasing and decreasing

And the words of Allah, "We increased them in guidance," (18:13) "So that those who believe might increase in their belief," (74:31) and "Today I have perfected your deen for you." (5:3) When something is left out of something which is perfect, then it becomes imperfect.

44. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever says 'There is no god but Allah' and has a barley-corn's weight of good in his heart will come out of the Fire. Whoever says 'There is no god but Allah' and has a wheat-grain's weight of good in his heart will come out of the Fire. Whoever says 'There is no god but Allah' and has a atom's weight of good in his heart will come out of the Fire."

Abu 'Abdullah said iman (belief) instead of khayr (good).

45. Once a Jewish man said to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, "Amir al-Mu'minin! There is an ayat you recite in your book which, had it been sent down to us Jews, we would have appointed that day a festival." He asked, "What is this ayat?" The Jew replied, "Today I have perfected your deen for you and completed My blessing upon you and am pleased with Islam as a deen for you." (5:3) 'Umar said, "We know the time and place it was revealed to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He was standing at 'Arafa on a Friday."

XXXIII: On zakat being part of Islam

And the words of Allah, "They were only ordered to worship Allah, making their deen sincerely His as people of pure natural belief, and to establish the prayer and pay zakat – that is the correct deen." (98:5)

46. Talha ibn 'Ubaydullah said that a man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from the people of Najd. His hair was unkempt. The sound of his voice could be heard, but they could not understand what he said until he drew near. He was asking about Islam. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It is five prayers a day." He asked, "Do I have to do any more?" He said, "No, unless you want to do voluntary prayers."

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then said, "And you must fast the month of Ramadan."

He asked, "Do I have to do any more?"

He said, "No, unless you want to do so voluntarily." Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned zakat to him. He said, "Do I have to do any more?" He said, "No, unless you want to do so voluntarily." The man withdrew, saying, "By Allah, I will not do more than this nor less than this." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If he speaks the truth, he will have success." [i.e. he will be granted Paradise]

XXXIV: On following funerals being part of belief

47. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who follows the funeral procession of a Muslim motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward and stays with it until the prayer has been said over him and his burial is over, comes back with the reward of two qirats. Each qirat is the size of Uhud. And whoever prays over him and leaves before he is buried, comes back with one qirat."

'Uthman corroborated with him.

XXXV: On the believer's fear that his actions will come to nothing without his being aware of it.

Ibrahim at-Taymi said, "When I compare my words with my actions, I fear that I may be called a liar." Ibn Abi Mulayka said, "I met thirty Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,, and all of them were afraid of becoming hypocrites. None of them said that he had the belief of Jibril or Mika'il." Al-Hasan al-Basri said, "Only a believer is afraid and only a hypocrite feels secure." One should be wary about persisting in hypocrisy and rebellion without repenting to Allah as Allah says, "They do not knowingly persist in what they were doing." (3:135)

48. It is related from 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Insulting a Muslim is going off the path (fusuq) and killing him is disbelief."

49. Anas said that 'Ubada ibn as-Samit informed him that once the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to tell people about the Night of Power (Laylatu'l-Qadr). There were two Muslim men quarrelling with one another. He said, "I came out to tell you about the Night of Power and these two here were quarrelling, and thus its knowledge was taken away. It may be that it is better for you. Seek for it on the twenty-seventh, twenty-ninth and twenty-fifth of the month."

XXXVI: On Jibril asking the Prophet, Messenger of Allah about belief, Islam and Ihsan and the knowledge of the Hour and the explanation which the Prophet gave him.

Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, "Jibril came to teach you your religion (deen)." So he called all of that deen. And what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, explained to the delegation of 'Abdu'l-Qays about belief and the words of Allah, "If anyone desires anything other than Islam as a deen, it will not be accepted from him." (3:85)

50. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day to the people and Jibril came to him and asked, "What is belief?" He said, "Belief is that you believe in Allah and His angels, in the meeting with Him, and in His Messengers and that you believe in the Resurrection." Then he asked, "What is Islam?" He replied, "Islam is that you worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him, perform the prayer [perfectly], pay the obligatory poor-tax, and fast Ramadan." He asked, "What is Ihsan?" He said, "To worship Allah as if you were seeing Him. For even if you do not see Him, [be aware that] He sees you." He asked, "When is the Last Hour?" He answered, "The one who is asked does not know more than the asker, but I will tell you its signs: when the slave-girl gives birth to her master and when the herdsmen of black camels begin to rival one another erecting in tall buildings. And there are five things which only Allah knows." Then the Prophet recited, "Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour..." (31:34) Then the man turned away. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Call him back," but they could not see him anywhere. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "That was Jibril who came to teach people their deen." Abu 'Abdullah said, "He considered all of these things part of belief."

51. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas that Abu Sufyan had informed him that Heraclius had said to him, "I asked you whether they were on the increase or decrease and you claimed that they were on the increase. That is what happens with belief until it is complete. I asked you whether anyone had apostatized out of dislike for his deen after he had entered and you claimed that they had not. That is how it is with belief when its joy mixes with the hearts. No one ever dislikes it."

XXXVII: On the excellence of the one who exercises prudence in his religion (deen).

52. An-Nu'man ibn Bashir was heard to say that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The halal is clear and the haram is clear. But there are doubtful things between the two about which most people have no knowledge. Whoever shows caution with regard to what is doubtful, exercises prudence in respect of his deen and his honour. Whoever gets involved in the doubtful things is like a herdsman who grazes his animals near a private preserve (hima). He is bound to enter it. Every king has a private preserve and the private preserve of Allah on His earth are the things that He has made forbidden. There is piece of flesh in the body, the nature of which is that when it is sound, the entire body is sound, and when it is corrupt, the entire body is corrupt - it is the heart."

XXXVIII: On paying the khums being part of belief

53. Abu Jamra said, "I used to sit with Ibn 'Abbas and he made me sit on his bed. He said, 'Stay with me so that I can give you some of what I have.' I stayed with him for two months, and part of what he said was that when the delegation of the tribe of 'Abdu'l-Qays came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he asked them, 'Who (or what delegation) are you?' They replied, 'Rabi'a.' He said, 'Welcome to the people (or delegation). May you not suffer disgrace nor regret!' They said, 'Messenger of Allah! We can only come to you in the sacred months since there is a district of the unbelievers of Mudar between us and you. Give us some clear instructions which we can convey to those we left behind and by which we may enter Paradise.' They asked him about drinks. The Prophet commanded them to do four things and forbade them to do four things. He commanded them to believe in Allah alone and asked them, 'Do you know what belief in Allah alone is?' They said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.' He said, "To testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to establish the prayers, to pay the zakat, to fast Ramadan and to pay the khums (fifth).' He forbade them four things: hantam, dubba', naqir and muzaffat or muqayyar. [different kinds of wine vessels] He said, 'Remember these and convey them to the people you left behind.' "

XXXIX: On what has come about "Actions are by intentions" and "sincere expectation of reward," and "every man has what he intends."

This includes belief, wudu', the prayer, zakat, hajj, fasting and ordinances. Allah's words, "Each man acts according to his nature" (17:84) , means "according to his intention". A man's spending on his family for which he hopes to be rewarded [by Allah] is sadaqa. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ["There is no emigration after the Conquest [of Makka], but jihad and the intention."

54. It is related from 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Actions are but judged according to intentions. Every man has what he intends. Whoever emigrates to Allah and His Messenger, his emigration is to Allah and His Messenger. So whoever emigrates to gain something of this world or to marry a woman, his emigration is for that to which he emigrated."

55. It is related from Abu Mas'ud that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a man spends on his family and sincerely hopes to be rewarded for it, it is sadaqa."

56. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You will be rewarded for whatever you spend on your family desiring by it for the sake of of Allah, even for the morsel you put in your wife's mouth."

XL. On the words of the Prophet, "The deen is sincere counsel for Allah, His Messenger, the Imams of the Muslims and the common Muslims, and Allah's words, "provided they are true to Allah and His Messenger ." (9:91)

57. 'Abdullah ibn Jarir said, "I offered allegiance to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the condition that I would perform the prayer, pay the zakat and offer sincere counsel to every Muslim."

58. Jarir ibn 'Abdullah was heard speaking on the day when al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba died. He stood up, praised and glorified Allah, and said, "You must have fearful awareness of Allah alone who has no partner. You must demonstrate self-possession and tranquillity until a new amir arrives and he will arrive soon. Ask the forgiveness of Allah for your [previous] amir, for he used to love to pardon." Then he said, "I went to the Prophet and said, 'I give you my allegiance in Islam,' and he said I had to give sincere counsel to every Muslim, and I gave him my allegiance with that undertaking. By the Lord of this mosque, I have advised you sincerely." Then he asked for Allah's forgiveness and stepped down.