Proofs for Visitation of the Graves by Women

Proofs for Visitation of the Graves by Women

by Shaykh Gibril F. Haddad

“The most correct position is that the dispensation (rukhsa)
 for the visitation of graves is firmly established for women.”
– Ibn ‘Àbidïn  [1]

 

In his Advice to our Brothers the Scholars of Najd, Sayyid Yusuf al-Rifà‘ï states: “You forbid women from vis­iting the noble Baqï‘ with no agreed-upon, clear and explicit proof from the Law!” The following is a dem­onstration of the permis­si­bility of visits to al-Baqï‘ according to the princi­ples of Sacred Law and the proof-texts of the Sunna.

Those who object to the visitation of graves by women adduce chiefly three h .adïths as their proof, two of these being the weak-chained narra­tions, (a) “Allàh curses the women who visit the graves” [2] (la‘ana Allàhu zà’iràt al-qubur) and (b) “Allàh curses the women who visit the graves and take them for places of worship and candles,” [3] the third one being, (c) “Allàh curses the women who fre­quently visit the grave s” [4] (la‘ana Allàhu zawwà­ràt al-qubur).

As indicated by Sayyid al-Rifà‘ï, the above narrations do not constitute “agreed-upon, clear and explicit proof from the Law” for the prohibition of women from visiting graves in Islàm. Accordingly, the majority of the Ulema concur that women are permitted to visit the graves if there is no danger of temptation and sin. [5] This is established by the following proofs:

1.       The Prophet said: “I forbade you to visit the graves but [now] do visit them!” [6] There is no proof for restricting this absolute permission to men alone.

2.       ‘À’isha  ) #  said: “The Prophet eforbade the visitation of graves then permitted it, and I think he said: ‘For, truly, they remind you of the hereafter.’” [7] ‘À’isha’s practice and further comments confirm that she understood this Prophetic dispensation as absolute.

3.       ‘À’isha  ) #  came to Makka after her brother’s death saying, “Where is the grave of my brother?” Then she came to the grave and prayed over him, a month after his death. [8] Another version states that Ibn Abï Mulayka said: “‘À’isha’s brother died six miles away from Makka, so we carried him until we reached Makka and buried him there. ‘À’isha came to us after that and reproached us for doing so. Then she said: ‘Where is the grave of my brother?’ We showed it to her and she alighted in her howdah and prayed at his grave.” [9]

4.       When ‘Abd Allàh ibn Abï Mulayka saw ‘À’isha  ) #  visiting the grave of her brother ‘Abd al-Ra h .màn he said to her: “Did not the Prophet eforbid this [vi­sitation of graves]?” She replied: “Yes, he had forbidden it. Then he or­dered to visit them.” [10] Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr mentions that Imàm A h .mad ad­duces this report as proof that women are permitted to visit the graves. [11]

The wording and verb tenses used by the Prophet eand the Compan­ions in the above narrations show that these narrations explicitly abrogate the narrations that express prohibi­tion. This is confirmed by al- H .àkim who nar­rated the h .adïth: “Allàh curses the women who fre­quently visit the graves” then said: “Those narrations pertaining to prohi­bition from visiting the graves are abrogate d, the abrogator being the h .adïth of ‘Alqama ibn Marthad, from Sulaymàn ibn Burayda, from his father, from the Prophet e: ‘I for­bade you to visit the graves but [now] do visit them!’” [12]

5.       Due to her strictness and, perhaps, in confirmation of Ibn Abï Mulayka’s remark, ‘À’isha  ) #  disliked to visit the grave of her brother as is evident from her remark in al-Tirmidhï’s report of her visitation to ‘Abd al-Ra h .màn: “If I had been present at the time of your death I would have never visited you [now].” [13] Yet this is an­other proof that she did not un­derstand the Prophet’s eprohibition as absolute – were it not abrogated – since she did allow her­self the visitation of her brother despite it.

6.       The Prophet epassed by a woman who was weeping next to a grave and said: “Fear Allàh and be steadfast!” She replied: “Leave me alone! You were not afflicted with my affliction” – without recognizing him. Then she was told this was the Prophet e. She came to see him and, not finding anyone at the door she [entered directly and] said, “I did not recognize you!” He said: “Steadfastness is only at the first shock.” [14] If women were prohibited from visiting graves, the Prophet ewould have prohibited her in the first place.

7.       ‘À’isha  ) # asked: “What should I say, Messenger of Allàh [at al-Baqï‘]?” He re­plied: “Say: ‘Greeting to you, people of the abodes among the men and women believers! May Allàh grant mercy to those of you and us who went ahead and those who tarried back! Truly we shall – if Allàh wills – join up with you.’” [15]

Al-Bayhaqï, Ibn H .ajar and al-Nawawï said that the above narrations show that it is per­mitted for women to visit the graves in confirmation of ‘À’isha’s visitation of her brother, as the Prophet eonly admonished the mourning woman to be stead­fast without for­bidding her from visiting the grave, and he gave instructions to ‘À’isha ) #  on what to say when visiting the graves. [16]

8.       The Prophet esaid: “I had forbidden you to visit the graves but Mu h .am­mad has been permitted to visit the grave of his mother, so visit them, for truly, they remind you of the hereafter.” [17]

9.       Another version states: “I had forbidden you to visit the graves but do visit them for they truly remind one of the hereafter.” [18]

10.    Another version states: “Whoever wants to visit the graves [may], truly they remind of the hereafter.” [19]

11.    Another version states: “I had forbidden you to visit the graves but do visit them, for they help to renounce the world and they remind of the hereafter.” [20]

12.    Another version states: “I forbade you to visit the graves then it appeared to me that they soften the heart, bring tears to the eyes, and remind one of the hereafter. Therefore, visit them, but do not say reprehensible things!” [21]

13.    It is established the Prophet placed a rock on top of ‘Uthmàn ibn Maz‘an’s t grave saying: “With it I shall designate the grave of my [milk-]brother and later bury in it who­ever dies among my relatives.” [22]

The proof for the visitation of women in the above five narrations is that the positive effects of remembering the hereafter, weeping, and softening the heart are not exclusively lim­ited to men but extend to women as well. There­fore women are also addressed by these narrations which are to be taken in the most general, inclusive sense. This is confirmed by the practice of Fàtima – Allàh be well-pleased with her! – the daughter of the Prophet as shown in the following two narrations:

14.    Imàm Ja‘far al- Sàdiq narrated with his chain from al- Hasan  ibn ‘Alï  that Fàtima the daughter of the Prophet e– may Allàh be well-pleased with all of them! – used to visit the grave of her uncle Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib every Jumu‘a [23] and she used to pray and weep there. [24] An­other version adds that she had marked the grave with a rock in order to rec­ognize it. [25] Another version states that she used to tend the grave and repair any damage it had incurred. [26]

15.    The women wept over Ruqiyya – Allàh be well-pleased with her! – when she died, so ‘Umar tried to forbid them but the Messenger of Allàh said, “Wait, ‘Umar!” Then he said: “[Women,] beware of the devil’s croaking! As long as it comes from the eye and the heart, it is coming from mercy; and as long as it comes from the tongue and the hand, [27] it is coming from Satan.” Whereupon, Fàtima began to weep over the grave of Ruqiyya and the Prophet was wiping her tears from her face with his hand – or, the narrator said, his sleeve. [28]

In the Hanafï School, it is permitted for women to visit the grave as long as they are properly dressed and ensure that there is no undue intermixing with non-ma h .ram men and that they do not behave inappropriatel y, such as wailing. The Fatàwà Hindiyya (5:350), one of the foremost references for fatwa in the School, says: “The Scholars differed about women visiting graves. Al-Sarakhsï said that the soundest position is that it is not wrong.” Al-Sarakhsï states in al-Mabsat (24:10): “The soundest opinion in our School is that the dispensation (to visit graves) is present for both men and women, because it has been related that ‘À’isha ) #  used to visit the grave of the Messenger of Allàh eat all times, and that when she went on Hajj she visited the grave of her brother ‘Abd al-Rahmàn” This is confirmed by Ibn Nujaym in his al-Bahral-Rà’iq. Ibn ‘Àbidïn said in his super commentary on this work, Minhat al-Khàliq Hàshiyat al-Bahral-Rà’iq (2:210), that al-Ramlï said: “As for women, if they visit graves to renew their sorrows, or to cry and wail, as is the customary practice of many, it is not allowed for them to visit graves. This is how the Prophetic hadïth “Allàh has cursed women who visit graves,” is understood. As for if they visit for contemplation, compassion, and seeking baraka by visiting the graves of the righteous, then it is not wrong if they are elderly. It is disliked if they are young [i.e. there is fear of fitna from their attending]. Among that which shows that women’s visiting graves is not unlawful is the hadith narrated by Anas tthat, “The Prophet passed by a woman who was crying by a grave. He said, ‘Fear Allàh and be patient.’” The permissibility is implied, said the Fuqahà’, because he did not forbid her from visiting the grave; had it been unlawful it would have been obligatory for the Prophet to forbid her. [29]

Even if we should consider the first two of the three hadïths adduced by the objectors (a and b) authentic as a handful of scholars did, they do not form proof for prohibition, for two reasons. First, they are abro­gated accord­ing to the correct view as demonstrated. Second, they elucidate one an­other and are elucidated by the third hadïth adduced (c), in the sense that the curse does not concern women who visit the graves in absolute terms, but only those women who both (1) visit exces­sively and (2) commit certain rep­re­hen­sible acts during visita­tion as stated by al-Tirmidhï, al-Baghawï, al- Tahàwï, al-Qurtubï, and others. [30] This qualified prohibition is confirmed by the fact that the soundest version of the prohibition hadïth states, “Allàh curses the women who frequently visit the graves,” in which case the prohibition is patently restrictive, concerning only a specific group of women and not all of them.

Another confirmation is that this qualified prohibition extends to men as well, as stated in the hadïth of the Prophet e: “Allàh curse the Jews and Christians! They took the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.” [31] This men-inclusive qualified prohibi­tion is further con­firmed by the version stating: “I forbade you from visiting the graves and now [allow you to] visit them, but do not utter words that make your Lord angry!” [32]

The gist of this documentation is not that Muslim women today are in­differently per­mitted to visit the graves, since temptation and sin abound in our time and there is little or no obser­vance of the etiquette of Sacred Law shown by either Muslim men or women who visit the graves. To say the least, as al-Bayhaqï said: “If women keep themselves clear from following fu­neral processions, going out to cemeteries, and visiting graves, it would be healthier for their Re­ligion – and from Allàh comes success.” [33] Al- Hakïm al-Tirmidhï elaborated upon it in Asl 15 of his Nawàdir al-Usul.

Yet, the negative situation of contemporary Muslim visitors to city and country cemeteries hardly ap­plies to the women pilgrims who visit al-Baqï‘ and the Prophet in Madïna, where the effusion of emotion is somehow counter-balanced by the natural deco­rum of Madïna al-Munawwara. There­fore their status there should be that of allow­ance together with male Mus­lims rather than pro­hi­bition as confirmed by the fatwà of the Ulema and contrary to the claims of a handful of Wahhàbï dissenters such as the late ‘Abd al-‘Azïz ibn Baz, Muhammad ibn Ibràhïm ibn ‘Abd al-Latïf, Hammàd al-An sàrï and his student Bakr Abu Zayd, Abu Bakr al-Jazà’irï, and others of those with religious jurisdiction of the Two Sanctuaries.

As for the absolute prohibition, including the Mosque and al-Baqï‘ in Madïna, insisted upon by the Saudi Bakr Abu Zayd in his epistle titled Juz’ fï Ziyàrat al-Nisà’ lil-Qubur [34] and his odd claims that (a) the narrations prohibiting women from fol­lowing the funeral bier apply to prove the prohibition of visi­tation and (b) zawwàràt is incorrect and must be read zuwwàràt in the sense of female visitors, without the sense of frequency: [35] such claims stem from an un­rea­sonable, stub­born rejection of the evi­dence and a blind following of the familiar founts of originality and noncon­formity – Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim. But truth is more de­serv­ing of being fol­lowed than famous figures.

A book by the title Morals and Manners in Islàm: A Guide to Islamic Àdàb (Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 1986, reprinted 1989 and 1991) by Marwàn Ibràhïm al-Kaysï contains the following errors with regard to the visitation of cemeteries and their architecture:

  1. The author states [p. 171]: “There are two main purposes for a Muslim to visit a cemetery: to pray for the dead, and to remind himself of the Hereafter.” A third purpose is to obtain baraka or blessing, and a fourth is to supplicate for one’s needs at places of particular blessing, espe­cially through the visitation of the Prophet e and the Awliyà’ such as the Companions etc. There is Con­sensus in Islàm that travel to visit the Prophet eis a desirable act of worship (qurba) as stipulated in Qàdi‘Iyàd’s al-Shifà’ and it is authentically related from Imàm al-Shàfi‘ï that he used to pray next to Imàm Abu Hanïfa’s grave in Baghdàd in order to ask for the fulfill­ment of his needs there. [36]
  2. On the same page the author makes the poorly-phrased statement that “Violating Islamic teachings while at the cemetery is forbidden.” Surely, it is not allowed at any time or place! This is the danger of departing from the meticulous phrasing of the experts in Fiqh.
  3. On the same page the author says: “Nothing is to be said over the grave other than [‘Peace be upon the Muslim and faithful inhabitants of the abode s. May God show mercy to those of us who go before and those who go after and God willing, we will meet you’], except to pray for the dead.” Further down [p. 179] he claims: “It is an innova­tion to admonish the dead person after his death.” This is all incorrect, as it is desirable (mustahabb) or Sunna to give talqïn or instruction to the dead after burial, even according to Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhàb in his Ahkàm Tammanï al-Mawt. There is extensive evidence for this as presented in the Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine and The Reliance of the Traveller (p. 921-924 w32.1-2). The fact that a person is dead and buried does not mean he cannot hear the living. It is a salient feature of modernists that they deny many beliefs and practices connected with ghayb.
  4. The author also claims [p. 171]: “It is forbidden to touch any grave with the intention of gaining a blessing from it.” This is also incorrect and the correct ruling is that it is disliked, although some – such as Imàm Ahmad ibn Hanbal – declared there was no harm in touching or even kissing the Prophet’s grave. Al-Dhahabï even labeled as Khawàrij those who would dispute this fact.
  5. The author claims [p. 184]: “Upright tombstones on the grave itself are forbidden.” If by the upright tombstones are meant the grave’s signposts (shàhidàn) then this claim is utterly rejected and disproved by age-old Islamic practice from East to West.
  6. On the same page he states: “No form of construction should be erected on graves… Graves must not be plastered with gypsum.” The truth is there is difference of opinion on this subject and two reasons were mentioned for the permissibility of building up the grave or plastering it with gypsum: to protect it from collapse generally speaking, and to keep it in the public view if it is the grave of a Shaykh, a Scholar, or someone from the family of the Prophet e as mentioned in Ibn ‘Àbidïn’s Hàshiya (1:601). Shaykh Ismà‘ïl Haqqï said in his Qur’anic commentary Ruhal-Bayàn under the verse The mosques of Allàh may only be built and maintained by those who believe in Allàh and the Day of Judgement, perform the prayers and give zakàt, and are afraid of none other than Allàh and they are those who are guided(9:18):

Shaykh ‘Abd a l-Ghanï a l-Nàbulusï said in Kashf al-Nur ‘an Ashàb al-Qubur (“The Unveil­ing of Light from the Occupants of the Graves”) the sum of which is that a good innovation that agrees with the objectives of the Sacred Law is called a sunna. Thus, building domes over the graves of Scholars, friends of Allàh (awliyà) and the righteous and placing covers, turbans and cloth over them is permissible if the objective therein is to create reverence in the eyes of ordinary people so that they will not disdain the occupant of that grave.

If the above were not the case, or if it were not in conformity with the Sunna, then ponder the statement of our Mother ‘À’isha in Abu Dàwud’s Sunan: “When the Negus died, we were told [i.e. by the Prophet e] that a light would be seen perpetually at his grave.”

May Allàh enlighten our understandings, our hearts, and our graves with His kindness and forgiveness! Wa- sallà Allàhu ‘alà Sayyidinà Muhammadin wa-‘alà Àlihi wa- Sahbihi wa-Sallam.

 

[1]Ibn ‘Àbidïn, Hàshiya (1386/1966 ed. 2:242).

[2]Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Ibn Hibbàn in his Sahïh (7:452 #3178) with a weak chain because of ‘Umar ibn Abï Salama ibn ‘Abd al-Ra hmàn al-Zuhrï who is weak as stated by al-Arna’ut and Ma‘ruf in Tahrïr al-Taqrïb (3:74 #4910). Also narrated from Hassàn ibn Thàbit from the Prophet by Ibn Abï Shayba (3:31) with a weak chain because of ‘Abd al-Ra hmàn ibn Bahman who is of unknown rank as a narrator (majhul). The hadïth itself is acceptable as “fair due to witness and corrobo­rating chains and versions” ( hasan lighayrih) as stated by al-Arna’ut in the Musnad (5:128 n. 2).

[3]Narrated from Ibn ‘Abbàs by al-Tirmidhï ( hasan), Abu Dàwud, al-Nasà’ï in both in al-Sunan and al-Sunan al-Kubrà (1:657 #2174), Ahmad, Ibn Abï Shayba (2:151, 3:30), al- Tahàwï in Sharh Mushkil al-Àthàr (12:178-179 #4741-4742), al-Baghawï in Sharh al-Sunna (2:416-417 #510), Ibn Hibbàn (7:452-454 #3179-3180), al- Hàkim (1990 ed. 1:530) who indicated its weakness, al-Bayhaqï in al-Sunan al-Kubrà (4:78 #6992), Ibn al-Ja‘d in his Musnad (p. 224), al- Tabarànï in al-Kabïr (12:148), and al-Haythamï in Mawàrid al- Zam’àn (p. 200), all with the same weak chain containing Abu Sàlih Mawlà Umm Hàni’ who is weak as stated by Ibn Hajar in al-Mundhirï’s al-Targhïb (1997 ed. 4:190) and al-Arna’ut in Sahïh Ibn Hibbàn and the Musnad (5:128 #2984). However, the hadïth itself is acceptable since al-Tirmidhï and al-Baghawï declared it “fair”; while Ibn al-Sakan included it among the sound ( sahïh .) narrations as stated by Ibn al-Mulaqqin in Tuhfat al-Muhtàj (2:31).

[4]Narrated from Abu Hurayra by al-Tirmidhï ( hasan sahïh ), Ibn Màjah, and Ahmad; from Ibn ‘Abbàs by Ibn Màjah with a weak chain because of Abu Sàli h; and from Hassàn ibn Thàbit by Ibn Màjah and Ahmad with a weak chain because of ‘Abd al-Ra hmàn ibn Bahmàn. Note: Ibn Màjah’s versions have zuwwàràt.

[5]As stated by Ibn Hajar in Fat hal-Bàrï (1959 ed. 3:148), al-Shawkànï in Nayl al-Aw tàr (chapters on burial and the rulings pertaining to graves), and al-Mubàrakfurï in Tu hfat al-A hwadhï (4:139).

[6]Narrated as part of a longer hadïth: from Burayda by Muslim, al-Tirmidhï (hasan sahïh), Abu Dàwud, al-Nasà’ï, ‘Abd al-Razzàq (3:569), and others; from Abu Sa‘ïd al-Khudrï by Ahmad with a chain of sound narrators as stated by al-Haythamï (3:58), Màlik, al- Hàkim (1990 ed. 1:530) who declared it sound by Muslim’s criterion, al-Bayhaqï in al-Sunan al-Kubrà (4:77 #6984), and al-Bazzàr with a chain of sound narrators as stated by al-Haythamï (3:58); from Ibn Mas‘ud by Ibn Màjah, al-Dàraqu tnï in his Sunan (4:259), ‘Abd al-Razzàq (3:572-573), Ibn Hibbàn (3:261), al- Hàkim (1990 ed. 1:531), and al-Bayhaqï in al-Sunan al-Kubrà (4:77 #6983) all with weak chains according to al-Arna’ut from Anas by Ahmad and al-Bazzàr with chains containing al- Hàrith ibn Nabhàn who is weak according to al-Haythamï (4:27), al- Hàkim (1990 ed. 1:531-532), and al-Bayhaqï in al-Sunan al-Kubrà (4:77 #6984).

[7]Narrated by al-Bazzàr with a chain of trustworthy narrators as stated by al-Haythamï (3:58).

[8]Narrated from Ibn Abï Mulayka by al-Bayhaqï in al-Sunan al-Kubrà 4:49).

[9]Narrated by ‘Abd al-Razzàq (3:518) and Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhïd (6:261).

[10]Narrated by Abu Ya‘là (8:284) with a sound chain, al- Hàkim (1990 ed. 1:532), al-Bayhaqï in al-Sunan al-Kubrà (4:78 #6993), and Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhïd (3:233).

[11]Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, al-Tamhïd (3:234).

[12]Al- Hàkim (1990 ed. 1:530).

[13]Narrated from ‘Abd Allàh ibn Mulayka by al-Tirmidhï.

[14]Narrated from Anas in all the Six Books.

[15]Narrated as part of a longer hadïth by Muslim and al-Nasà’ï.

[16]Al-Bayhaqï, al-Sunan al-Kubrà (4:78), Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bàrï (1959 ed. 3:184); al-Nawawï, Sharh Sahïh Muslim (7:41-42).

[17]Narrated from Burayda by al-Tirmidhï ( h .asan s .a h .ï h .).

[18]Part of a longer hadïth narrated from Burayda by Ahmad.

[19]Part of a longer hadïth narrated from Burayda by al-Nasà’ï.

[20]Narrated from Ibn Mas‘ud by Ibn Màjah.

[21]Part of a longer hadïth narrated from Anas by Ahmad.

[22]Narrated from an unnamed Companion by Abu Dàwud and al-Bayhaqï in al-Kubra (3:412) with fair chains cf. Ibn Hajar, Talkhï sal- Habïr (2:134); Ibn al-Mulaqqin, Tuhfat al-Muhtàj (2:29), and al-Arna’ut’s edition of Ibn al-Qayyim’s Zàd al-Ma‘àd (1:506). The complete report states that the Prophet asked a man to place a rock on top of Ibn Ma z‘un’s grave; when he was unable to move it, he rolled up his sleeves and helped him and the whi­teness of his arms was visible. Ibn Ma z‘un was the first of the Muhàjirun buried in Baqï‘ al-Gharqad Ibràhïm, the Prophet’s son, was buried next to him.

[23]Narrated to here from Ja‘far ibn Muhammad, from his father, without mention of al- Hasan by ‘Abd al-Razzàq (3:572) with a broken (munqa ti‘) chain.

[24]Narrated by al- Hàkim (1990 ed. 1:533, 3:30) who declared its chain sound, al-Bayhaqï, al-Sunan al-Kubrà (4:78), and Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhïd (3:234) al­though al-Dhahabï condemns it strenuously while al-Bayhaqï alludes to its weakness.

[25] Al-Athram and Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr narrated it as mentioned by al-Qurtubī in his Tafsīr (10:381); also ‘Abd al-Razzāq (3:574) with a very weak chain because of al-Asbagh ibn Nubata, who is discarded (matrūk) as a narrator.

[26] Al-Hakīm al-Tirmidhī in Nawādir al-Usūl (Asl 15)

[27] A reference to imprecations and the slapping of the cheeks still exhibited today by mourning Arab Christian women and other non-Muslims.

[28] Narrated from Ibn ‘Abbās by Ahmad, al-Tayālisī (2:351) and al-Bayhaqī in al-Sunan al-Kubrā (4:70 #6946) with a chain containing ‘Alī ibn Zayd ibn Jud‘ān. Al-Bayhaqī considers this hadīth sound as it is confirmed by established narrations. It is partly narrated – but with an identical chain by al-Hākim. (3:190 1990 ed 3:210) where al-Dhahabī said: “Its chain is passable (sālih),” however, in his Mīzān (3:129) he grades the report “rejected” (munkar) due to Fā tima’s presence at the burial..

[29] This paragraph from Shaykh Farāz Rabbānī with slight editing..

[30] Cf. al-Tirmidhī in his Sunan after narrating the hadīth of zawwārāt from Abū Hurayra; al-Tahāwī in Sharh Mushkil al-Āthār (12:179-186); al-Baghawī in Sharh al-Sunna (2:417, 5:464); and al-Qurtubī in his Tafsīr (20:170), as cited by al-Shawkānī in Nayl al-Awtar (chapters on burial and the rulings pertain­ing to graves)..

[31] Narrated from ‘Ā’isha by al-Bukhārī and Muslim..

[32] Narrated from Abū Sa‘īd by al-Bazzār with a chain of sound narrators as stated by al-Haythamī (3:58); from Ibn ‘Abbās by al-Azdī in his Musnad (p. 194); and from Anas by Ahmad, Abū Ya‘lā (6:372), and Ibn Abī Shayba (3:29)..

[33] Al-Bayhaqī, al-Sunan al-Kubrā (4:78)..

[34] In his al-Ajzā’ al-Hadīthiyya (p. 107-141)..

[35] Even al-Mu‘allimī reads it zawwārāt and defines it as “those who frequently visit” in his ‘Imārat al-Qubur (p. 156)

[36] Narrated by al-Khat ībin Tārīkh Baghdād (1:123) and Ibn Abīal-Wafā’in Tabaqātal-Hanafiyya.(p.519)