On the obligation to obey those in authority as long as it is not a wrong action, and the prohibition against obeying them in an act of rebellion against Allah

Riyad as-Salihin (The Meadows of the Righteous)

by Imam Nawawi

80. Chapter: On the obligation to obey those in authority as long as it is not a wrong action, and the prohibition against obeying them in an act of rebellion against Allah

Allah Almighty says, "O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those in command among you." (W4:58; H4:59)

663. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A Muslim man must hear and obey both in respect of what he likes and dislikes, unless he is commanded to do a wrong action. If he is commanded to do a wrong action, he should not hear or obey." [Agreed upon]

664. Ibn 'Umar said, "When we used to give allegiance to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to hear and obey, he would say to us, 'In so far as you are able.'" [Agreed upon]

665. Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Anyone who removes his hand from obedience will meet Allah on the Day of Rising with no proof. Anyone who dies without having given the oath of allegiance will die the death of the Jahiliyya.'" [Muslim]

In a variant of his, "Whoever dies split off from the community will die the death of Jahiliyya."

666. Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Hear and obey, even if an Abyssinian slave with a head like a raisin is appointed over you." [al-Bukhari]

667. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You must hear and obey both in your hardship and your ease and with regard to what pleases you and what you dislike and even if you do not get your due." [Muslim]

668. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "Once we were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey and we halted to pitch camp. Some of us were mending wool tents and some of us were shooting arrows against one another, and some of us were with their camels. Then the caller of the Messenger of Allah called out, 'The prayer will be done together.' So we gathered round the Messenger of Allah and he said, 'There was no Prophet before me but that it was a duty for him to direct his community to a good that he knew for them and to warn them against an evil that he knew for them. The well-being of this community of mine has been put at its beginning while the last of it will be afflicted by trials and matters which you dislike. Seditions will come and each will seem worse than the one before it. A sedition will come and the believer will say, "This is my destruction," and then it will depart. And another sedition will come and the believer will say, "This is it! This is it!." Anyone who wants to be removed from the Fire and to enter the Garden and to have death come to him while he believes in Allah and the Last Day should give to other people what he wants to be given to himself. Whoever gives allegiance to an Imam, let him give it with the clasp of his hand and the core of his heart. Let him obey him if he can. If another comes to depose him then strike the neck of that other.'" [Muslim]

669. Abu Hunayda Wa'il ibn Hujr said, "Salama ibn Yazid al-Ju'fi asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'O Prophet of Allah! What is your opinion if amirs are put in charge of us who ask us for their rights and deny us our rights? What do you command us to do?' He turned from him. Then he asked him and the Messenger of Allah said, 'Hear and obey. They owe what they are charged with and you owe what you are charged with." [Muslim]

670. 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'After I am gone there will be misappropriation and matters of which you disapprove.' They said, 'O Messenger of Allah, what do you command us to do?' He said, 'To fulfil the rights you owe to others and to ask Allah for what is owed to you.'" [Agreed upon]

671. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever obeys me has obeyed Allah and whoever disobeys me has disobeyed Allah. Whoever obeys the amir has obeyed me and whoever disobeys the amir has disobeyed me.'" [Agreed upon]

672. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Anyone who dislikes something from his amir should be patient. Anyone who abandons obedience to the amir for even a short time dies the death of the Jahiliyya." [Agreed upon]

673. Abu Bakra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Anyone who demeans the Sultan will be demeaned by Allah.'" [at-Tirmidhi]