General Behaviour

Al-Adab al-Mufrad Al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

XXIX.General Behaviour

247. What a man does in his house

538. Al-Aswad said, "I asked 'A'isha, may Allah be pleased with her, 'What did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do when he was with his family?' She replied, 'He would do chores for his family, and when it was time for the prayer, he would go out.'"

539. Hisham ibn 'Urwa said that his father said, "I asked 'A'isha, may Allah be pleased with her, 'What did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do in his house?' She replied, 'He mended his sandals and worked as any man works in his house.'"

540. Hisham said, "I asked 'A'isha, 'What did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do in his house?' She replied, 'He did what one of you would do in his house. He mended sandals and patched garments and sewed."

541. 'Amra reported that 'A'isha was asked, "What did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do in his house?" She replied, "He was a man like other men. He removed the fleas from his garment and milked his sheep."

248. When a man has love for his brother he should tell him

542. Al-Miqdam ibn Ma'dikarib reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you has love for his brother, he should inform him that he loves him."

543. Mujahid said, "One of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, met me and took hold of my shoulder from behind. He said, 'I love you,' and he went on to say, 'The One for whose sake I love you loves you.' He continued, 'If it had not been that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a man has love for another man, he should tell him that he loves him," I would not have told you.'"

544. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When two men have love for one another, the better of them is the one who has the strongest love for his companion."

249. When someone has love for a person, he should not quarrel with him not ask about him

545. Mu'adh ibn Jabal said, "When you have love for your brother, do not quarrel with him or treat him badly nor ask questions about him, It may be that an enemy of his will appear and say something about him which is not true and will thereby cause a split between you."

546. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who has love for his brother in Allah and for Allah should say, 'I love you for Allah,' and they will both enter the Garden. The one who has love for someone in Allah has a degree over the one he loves because of his love."

250. The intellect is located in the heart

547. 'Iyad ibn Khalifa heard 'Ali say at Siffin, "The intellect is located in the heart. Mercy is located in the liver, Compassion is located in the spleen. The self (nafs) is located in the lungs."

251. Pride

548. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "We were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a bedouin man wearing a robe with a border approached him until he stood before the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, 'Your companion has debased every horseman and elevates every shepherd.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took hold of the folds of his robe and said, 'I see that you are wearing the clothes of someone who is without intelligence.' Then he went on, 'When the Prophet Nuh, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he told his son, "I will give you some instructions. I command you to things and I forbid you two things. I command you to say, 'There is no god but Allah.' If the seven heavens and the seven earths were a dark ring, they would be cut by 'There is no god but Allah' and 'Glory be to Allah and by His praise.' It is the prayer of every thing and by it everything has its provision. And I forbid you to associate others with and Allah and to be proud.'

"I asked (or "it was asked"), 'Messenger of Allah, we know about shirk (associating others with Allah), but what is pride? Is it that one of us has a robe which he wears?' The Prophet replied, 'No.' 'Is it that one of us has a pair of fine sandals with two good straps?' I asked. 'No,' he replied. 'Is it that one of us has an animal which he rides?' I asked. 'No,' he replied. 'Is it that one of us has companions who come and sit with him?' I asked. 'No,' he replied. I asked, 'Messenger of Allah, so what is pride then?' He replied, "It is ignoring the truth and being ungrateful to people.'"

549. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone behaves insolently or walks with an arrogant, he will meet Allah Almighty covered with His anger."

550. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Someone who eats with his servant, rides a donkey in the markets, and ties up his sheep and milks it is not proud."

551. Salih, the garment-seller, reported that his grandmother said, "I saw 'Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, buy fates for a dirham and put them in his blanket. I said to him (or a man said to him), 'I will carry it for you, Amir al-Mu'minin.' He said, 'No, the father of the family is the one who is the most entitled to carry it.'"

552. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that Allah Almighty said, "Might is My wrapper and pride is My cloak. I will punish anyone who contends with Me over either of them."

553. An-Nu'man ibn Bashir was heard to say on the minbar, "Shaytan has snares and traps. The snares and traps of Shaytan are to exult ungratefully in the blessings of Allah, to boast about the gifts of Allah, to have pride at the expense of the slaves of Allah, and to follow passion for other than the sake of Allah."

554. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Garden and the Fire quarrelled and the Fire said, 'The tyrants will enter me and the proud will enter me.' The Garden retorted, 'The weak will enter me and the poor will enter me.' Allah Almighty said to the Garden, 'You are My mercy and I show you to whomever I will.' Then He said to the Fire, 'You are My punishment with which I will punish whomever I will. Each of you will have your fill.'"

555. Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, "The Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were neither niggardly nor weak (in worship). They used to recite poems to one another in their gatherings and they mentioned matters of the Jahiliyya. But when one of them was asked about something concerning Allah, his eyes went around as if he were mad."

556. Abu Hurayra reported that a man who was handsome came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "I love beauty and I have been given what you see so I do not want anyone to be superior to me (and he either said 'by the strap of a sandal' or 'by a red sandal-thong'). Is that pride?" "No," he replied. "Pride is when someone disdains the truth and is contemptuous of people."

557. 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb reported via his father that his grandfather related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising, the proud will be gathered like specks in the form of men. Abasement will envelop them on every side. They will be driven to a prison in Jahannam called Bulas. The hottest of fires will rise over them. They will have to drink the pus of the people of the Fire, the foul fluid that their skins excrete."

252. Someone who takes revenge for injustice

558. 'A'isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Go ahead, take revenge."

[It is clear that this is part of the next hadith, but with a different wording.]

559. 'A'isha reported that the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent Fatima to the Prophet and she asked for permission to enter while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was with 'A'isha, may Allah be pleased with her, who was wearing a wool dress. He gave her permission to enter and she came in. She said, "Your wives have sent me to ask you for justice regarding the daughter of Abu Quhafa (i.e. 'A'isha)." He said, "Daughter, do you love what I love?" "Yes," she replied. He said, "Then love this woman."

She got up and left and told them. The wives said, "You have not helped us at all. Go back to him." She said, "By Allah, I will never speak to him about her again!"

'A'isha said, "So they sent Zaynab, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and she asked for permission to go in and he gave her permission. She said the same thing to him, and then Zaynab began to disparage and revile me, so I looked to see whether the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would give me permission. I waited until I saw that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not averse to me taking my revenge. I attacked Zaynab and I did not hesitate to inflict a severe defeat on her. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, smiled and said, 'You are indeed the daughter of Abu Bakr.'"

253. Mutual help in scarcity and famine

560. Abu Hurayra said, "There will be a famine at the end of time and whoever encounters it will not be just to those with hungry stomachs."

561. Abu Hurayra reported that the Ansar said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Divide the palm trees between us and our brothers." "No," he replied. He said, "Spare us the trouble of their upkeep and we will let you share in the fruit." They replied, "We hear and obey."

562. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reported that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab spoke in the Year of the Drought*, which was a severe, disastrous year, after 'Umar had done his best to help the Bedouins with camels, wheat and oil from the fields to the point where all the fields were dried up as a result of those efforts. he stood up to make supplication, saying, "O Allah! Provide them at the tops of the mountains!" Allah answered that supplication for him and the Muslims. When abundant rain fell, he said, "Praise belongs to Allah! By Allah, if Allah had not given us relief, I would not have left the people of any Muslim's house with wealth without putting a like number of poor people with him. Two will not die with food which will support one person."

[* 18 AH, a year in which many people and animals perished due to a long drought in which the earth became like ashes.]

563. Salama ibn al-Akwa' reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "As for your sacrifices, none of you should have any of it left in his house after a period of three days. When the following year came, they aid, 'Messenger of Allah, should we do the same as we did last year?' He said, 'Eat and store up, That was a year in which we were in difficulty and I wanted you to help."

254. Trials

564. Hisham ibn 'Urwa reported that his father said, "I was sitting with Mu'awiya and he muttered to himself and then came to his senses. [This is when he was ill.] He said, 'No one has forbearance without it being put to the test.' He repeated that three times."

565. Abu Sa'id said, "No one is forbearing unless he himself has made a mistake., No one is wise unless he himself has been tested."

This is related from Abu Sa'id from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

255. Someone who feeds one of his brothers for Allah

566. 'Ali said, "I prefer to have a group of my brothers join around a sa' or two of food to going out to the market and setting a slave free."

256. The Alliance of the Jahiliyya

567. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I was present with my uncles at the alliance of the clan of Muttalib. I would not wish to break it, even for red camels."

257. Brotherhood

568. Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, formed a pact of brotherhood between Ibn Mas'ud and az-Zubayr."

569. Anas ibn Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, formed an alliance between Quraysh and the Ansar in my house in Madina."

258. There is no alliance in Islam

570. 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb reported via his father that his grandfather, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat down on the steps of the Ka'ba in the year of Conquest* and praised and glorified Allah. Then he said, 'Whoever is party to an alliance made in the Jahiliyya, Islam only increases its strength. There is no hijra after the Conquest.'"

[* The Conquest of Makka]

259. Someone seeking the blessing of the rain when it first begins to fall

571. Anas said, "Rain fell on us while we were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took of his garment so that the rain could fall on him. We said, 'Why did you do that?' He said, 'Because it has newly come from its Lord.'"

260. Sheep are a blessing

572. Humayd ibn Malik ibn Khuthaym said, "I was sitting with Abu Hurayra on some land he owned at 'Aqiq when some of the people of Madina came to him on their animals and dismounted. Abu Hurayra said, 'Go to my mother and tell her, "Your son sends you greetings and asks you to give us something to eat."'"

Humayd went on, "She put three barley loaves, some oil and salt on a platter and I put it on my head and carried it to them. Abu Hurayra said, 'Allah is greater and praise belongs to Allah who has given us our fill of this bread after our only food was the two black ones ­ dates and water.' The other people did not eat any of this food. When they left, he said, 'Nephew, be goof to your sheep. Brush the dust off of them. Make their evening pasture good and pray near them, They are among the animals of the garden. By the One who has my soul in His hand, it has almost reached the point when a time will come in which it will be better for someone to have many sheep than to be in the house of Marwan.'"

573. 'Ali reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "One sheep in a house is a blessing, two sheep are two blessings and more sheep are all blessings.:

261. Camels are a cause of pride in their owners

574. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The head (or summit) of disbelief lies towards the east and the pride and arrogance lie in people who possess horses and camels who are also coarse ­ the bedouins. Tranquillity lies in people who possess sheep."

575. Ibn 'Abbas said, "I never cease to wonder at dogs and sheep. Such-and-such a number of sheep were slaughtered in the year and such-and-such a number were sacrificed for hajj. One bitch has a litter of such-and-such a number of puppies, and sheep have more than the dog."

576. Abu Dhubyan related that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab asked him, "Abu Dhubyan, how large is your (soldier's) stipend?" "2500," he replied. He told him, "Abu Dhubyan, it was taken from agriculture and increased livestock before the lads of Quraysh were appointed over you. They do not consider the stipend to be income."

577. 'Abda ibn Hazn said, "The people of camels and the people of sheep vied with one another for glory. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Musa was sent, and he was a shepherd. Da'ud was sent, and he was a shepherd. I was sent, and I used to herd sheep for my people at Ajyad.'"

262. A man going back to live as a Bedouin

578. Abu Hurayra said, "There are seven major wrong actions. The first of them is to associate things with Allah, then killing someone, slandering chaste women, and going back to live as a Bedouin after having made hijra."

263. Someone who lives in villages

579. Thawban said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told me, 'Do not live the suburbs. The person who lives in the suburbs is like someone who lives in the graves.'"

The transmitter said that "kufur" or "suburbs" are the villages which are next to great cities.

264. Going out to water-courses

580. Shurayh said, "I asked 'A'isha about going out to the desert. I said, 'Did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, go out to the desert?' 'Yes,' she replied, 'Yes, he went out to those hillside streams.'"

581. 'Amr ibn Wahb said, "I saw Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah ibn Usayd riding when he was in ihram. He placed his garment on his shoulder and he placed it on his thighs. I said, 'What is this?' He replied, 'I saw 'Abdullah act like this.'"

265. Someone who wants to conceal secrets and to sit with a group of people and recognise their qualities

582. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Abdu'l-Qari reported that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and an Ansari man were sitting together when 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Abdu'l-Qari came and sat with them. 'Umar said, "We do not want to stop our conversation." 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, "I will not sit with those people, Amir al-Mu'minin." 'Umar said, "Sit with so-and-so and so-and-so and do not stop our conversation. Then he asked the Ansari, "Who do you think should be the khalif after me?" The Ansari counted off some men among the Muhajirun, but did not mentioned 'Ali. 'Umar asked, "What do they have against Abu'l-Hasan (i.e. 'Ali)? By Allah, if he were in charge of them, he would be the best suited to set them on the Path of the Truth."

266. Deliberation in Affairs

583. Al-Hasan related that a man died and left a son and a mawla. He appointed the mawla as his son's guardian. This was not remiss and continued to look after the lad until he came of age an then he found him a wife. Then the boy said to him, "Equip me so that I can seek for knowledge." He fitted him out. The boy then went to a man of knowledge and asked him to teach him. The man said, "Tell me when you want to leave and I will teach you." The boy said, "I feel should leave, so instruct me." The scholar said, "Have taqwa of Allah. Have patience. Do not be hasty." Al-Hasan remarked that this contains all good.

He left and he could hardly forget these things for there were only three of them. When he reached his family, he dismounted. When he entered the house, there was a man sleeping apart from his wife who was asleep there. He exclaimed, "By Allah, what am I am waiting for with this man!" He went back to his mount and wanted to pick up his sword, but then he repeated, "Have taqwa of Allah. Have patience. Do not be hasty." So he went back until he was standing at the man's head and then said, "I will not wait at all to deal with this man!" He went back to his mount and again wanted to take up his sword, but he again remembered the words. He went back again and while he was standing at the man's head he woke up. When the man woke up, he ran to him, embraced him and kissed him. he asked him, "What happened to you after (you left) me?" He replied, "By Allah, I received a lot of blessing. By Allah, after I left you, I reached the point where I spent the night going three times between my sword and your head, and it was the knowledge which I have obtained which kept me from killing you."

267. Deliberation in Affairs

584. Ashajj 'Abdu'l-Qays said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'You have two qualities which Allah loves.' I asked, 'What are they, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,?' He said, 'Forbearance and modesty.' I asked, 'Have I had them for a long time or are they new?' He replied, 'You have had them for a long time.' I said, 'Praise be to Allah who fashioned me with two qualities which Allah loves!'"

585 and 586. As 584.

587. Mazida al-'Abdi said, "Ashajj came and took the hand of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and kissed it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him, 'You have two qualities which Allah and His Messenger love.' He asked, 'Was I born with them or are they characteristics which I have acquired?' He said, 'No, they are part of the natural character on which you were formed.' Ashajj said, 'Praise belongs to Allah who has created me with what Allah an His Messenger love!'"

268. Tyrannical Behaviour

588. Ibn 'Abbas said, "If one mountain had acted tyrannically towards another mountain, the aggressor would have been pulverised."

589. See hadith 554.

590. Fadala ibn 'Ubayd reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not ask about three: a man who parts company with the community, rebels the ruler and dies while he is a still a rebel. Do not ask about him. Or a slave or slavegirl who runs away from his master. Or a woman whose husband is absent and who has sufficient provision and then displays her adornments to strangers and mixes freely. Do not ask about three: a man who contends with Allah regarding His cloak. His cloak is pride and His wrapper is His might. Also a man who doubts the command of Allah. and someone who despairs of Allah's mercy."

591. Bakkar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz reported from his grandfather that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah will defer whatever wrong actions He wills until the Day of Rising except for tyrannical behaviour, disobeying parents or cutting off relatives. He will punish the one who commits those things in this world before he dies."

592. Abu Hurayra said, "One of you looks at the mote in his brother's eye while forgetting the stump in his own eye."

593. Mu'awiya ibn Qurra said, "I was with Ma'qil al-Muzn when he removed something harmful from the road. Then I saw something and went over to it. He asked. 'What made you do that, nephew?' He replied, 'I saw you do something, so I did it.' He said, 'Nephew, you have done well. I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Whoever removes something harmful from the road of the Muslims has a good deed written for him. Anyone who has his good deed accepted will enter the Garden."'"

269. Accepting gifts

594. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Give gifts and you will love one another."

595. Anas said to his son, Thabit, "My son, exchange gifts, it will bring about love between you."

270. Someone who does not accept a gift when there is hatred towards people

596. Abu Hurayra said, "A man from the Banu Fazara gave a camel tot he Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he gave him something in exchange for it. That angered the man and I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, state on the minbar, 'One of you gives a gift and when I give him something in exchange he becomes angry. By Allah, after this year, I will never accept a gift from any Arab except for Quraysh, the Ansar, a Thaqifi or a Dawsi!'"

271. Modesty

597. Abu Mas'ud 'Uqba reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Part of what people have learned from the words of prophethood is the statement: 'If you do not feel ashamed, do whatever you like."

598. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Faith consists of sixty (or seventy) branches. The best of them is 'There is no god but Allah.' The lowest of them is to remove harmful things from the road. Modesty is also a branch of faith."

599. Abu Sa'id said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had more modesty than a virgin in her tent. When he disliked something, that could be seen in his face."

600. Sa'id ibn al-'As reported that 'Uthman and 'A'isha told him that Abu Bakr asked for permission to come in to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was lying of 'A'isha's bed, wearing 'A'isha's woollen shirt. He gave Abu Bakr permission to enter while he was like that. he gave him what he needed and then Abu Bakr left. Then 'Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, asked for permission to come in and he gave him permission to come in while he was like that. He gave him what he needed and then 'Umar left. 'Uthman said, "Then I asked for permission to come in and he sat up and told 'A'isha, 'Take your garment.' I told him what I needed and then I left.' 'A'isha asked, 'Messenger of Allah, why did I see that you did not do for Abu Bakr and 'Umar what you did for 'Uthman?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ''Uthman is a modest man and I feared that if I gave him permission to come in while I was in that state he would not tell me what he needed.'"

601. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whenever there is modesty in a thing, it adorns it. Whenever there is outrage in a thing, it debases it."

602. Salim reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a man who berating his brother about his modesty. He told him, "Let him be. Modesty is part of faith."

Another variant has Ibn 'Umar saying, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a man who was berating his brother about his modesty to the point where he told him, 'I will beat you!' The Prophet said, 'Let him be. Modesty is part of faith.'"

603. 'A'isha said, "The Prophet was lying down in my room with his thigh uncovered when Abu Bakr asked for permission to enter. He gave him permission to enter, remaining as he was. Then 'Umar asked for permission to come in and he gave him permission, remaining as he was. Then 'Uthman asked for permission to enter and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat up and arranged his garment and then came in and spoke. When he left, I said, 'Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr came in and you did not exert yourself nor concern yourself with him. Then 'Umar came in and you did not exert yourself nor concern yourself with him. Then 'Umar came in and you sat up and arranged your garment.' He said, 'Should I not be modest before a man before whom the angels are modest?'"