The Book of Holding Fast to the Book and the Sunna

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

99. The Book of Holding Fast to the Book and the Sunna

6840. Qays ibn Muslim related that Tariq ibn Shihab said, "A Jewish man said to 'Umar, 'Amir al-Mu'minin, if this ayat had been sent down on us, we would have appointed that day a festival. It is: "Today I have perfected your deen for you and completed My blessing upon you and I am pleased with Islam as a deen for you." (5:3)' 'Umar said, 'I know the day when this ayat was revealed. It was revealed on the Day of 'Arafa on a Friday.'"

Sufyan heard Mis'ar and Mis'ar heard Qays and Qays Tariq.

6841. Ibn Shihab reported that Anas ibn Malik heard 'Umar on the morning when the Muslims gave allegiance to Abu Bakr. He went up the minbar of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said the shahada before Abu Bakr and then said, "Following on from that, Allah choose for His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that which is with Him to that which is with you. This is the Book by which Allah guided His Messenger, so take it and you will be guided by that by which Allah guided His messenger."

6842. 'Ikrima related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, embraced me and said, 'O Allah, teach him the book!'"

6843. 'Awf was heard to say that Abu'l-Minhal reported to him that he heard Abu Barza say "Allah has enriched you ‚ or elevated you ‚ with Islam and Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

Abu 'Abdullah[al-Bukhari] said, "He used 'enriched' here and it is 'elevated you', as seen in the basis of the Book of Clinging."

6844. 'Abdu'l-Malik related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar wrote to 'Abdu'l-Malik ibn Marwan to give him his allegiance: "I affirm by that to hear and obey according to the sunna of Allah and the sunna of His Messenger as much as I am able."

I. The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "I was sent with the comprehensive words"

6845. Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I was sent with the comprehensive words, and I was helped by terror. While I was asleep, I was given the keys to the treasures of the earth which were placed in my hand."

Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has gone and you are consuming them, or nourished by them," or a similar word.

6846. Sa'd related from his father from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no Prophet who has not been given Signs by the like of which people were safe or believed. That which I was given was the Revelation which Allah revealed to me. I hope that I will have the most followers on the Day of Rising."

II. Modelling oneself on the sunnas of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

The words of Allah Almighty, "make us a good example for those who have taqwa" (25:74) He (Mujahid) said, "[Make us] leaders so that we follow those before us and those after us follow us."

Ibn 'Awn said, "There are three things which I love for myself and for my brothers: this sunna which they learn and ask about, the Qur'an which they seek to understand and ask about, and leaving people except for something good."

6847. Wasil related that Abu Wa'il said, "I was sitting with Shayba in this mosque [al-Masjid al-Haram] when he said, ''Umar sat with here where you are sitting and said, "I wanted to not leave any gold or silver in it [the Ka'ba] which I did not distribute among the Muslims." I said, "You should not do it." "Why?" he asked. I replied, "Your two companions [the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr] did not do it." He said, "They are the two people who must be imitated."'"

6848. Zayd ibn Wahb related: "I heard Hudayfa say, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related to us, "Trustworthiness descended from heaven into the roots of the hearts of men. The Qur'an was then revealed, so recite the Qur'an and learn the sunna.'"

6849. Murra al-Hamdani said that 'Abdullah said, "The best speech is the Book of Allah. The best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The worst of matters are innovations and 'What you are promised will come about and you can do nothing to prevent it.' (6:134)"

6850. 'Ubaydullah related that Abu Hurayra and Zayd ibn Khalid said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he said, 'I will judge between you by the Book of Allah.'"

6851. 'Ubaydullah related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, all of my community will enter the Garden except for the one who refuses." They asked, "Messenger of Allah, who will refuse?" He answered, "The one who obeys me will enter the Garden. The one who disobeys me, refuses."

6852. Sa'id ibn Mina' related that he related or heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say, "The angels came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was asleep. One of them said, 'He is asleep.' Another said, 'The eye is asleep while the heart is awake.' They said, 'There is an example for this companion of yours.' So make an example for him.' One of them said, 'He is asleep.' another said, 'The eye sleeps but the heart is awake.' They said, 'His example is that of a man who builds a house and holds a feast in it. He sends out someone to invite people. Whoever responds to the one who invites them enters the house and eats from the feast. Whoever does not respond to the one who invites them does not enter the house and does not eat from the feast.' They said, 'Interpret it for him so that he can understand it.' One of them said, 'He is asleep.' Another of them said, 'The eye is asleep but the heart is awake.' They said, 'The house is the Garden and one who invites people is Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Whoever obeys Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has obeyed Allah. Whoever disobeys Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has disobeyed Allah. Muhammad differentiates between the people.'"

Qutayba corroborated it from Khalid from Sa'id ibn Abi Hilal from Jabir: "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us..."

6853. Hammam related that Hudhayfa said, "Company of reciters! Go straight and you come first by a great distance. But if you veer to the right or the left, then you will be very greatly astray."

6854. Abu Burda related from Abu Musa that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "My example and that of the what Allah sent me with is like a man who comes to some people and says, 'I have seen the army with my own eyes. I am naked warner. Save yourselves!' One group of his people obey him and leave at the beginning? of the night, slowly and carefully, and are saved. Another group of them deny him and remain where they are and then the army comes on them in the morning and destroys them and eliminates them. This is the example of the one who obeys me and follows what I have brought and the example of the one who disobeys me and denies what I have brought of the truth.'"

6855. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba related that Abu Hurayra said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died and Abu Bakr became the khalif after him, some of the Arabs rejected Islam. 'Umar asked Abu Bakr, 'How can you fight the people when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I am commanded to fight people until they say: 'There is no god but Allah.' Whoever says that, his property and life are safe from me, except if there is a legal right, and his reckoning is up to Allah."' He replied, 'I will fight anyone who makes any distinction between the prayer and zakat. Zakat is what is due from property. By Allah, if they refuse me as much as a hobble which they used to pay to the Messenger of Allah, I will fight them for refusing to pay it.' 'Umar said, 'By Allah, it is only that I saw that Allah had opened Abu Bakr's heart to fight and I recognised that he was right.'"

Ibn Bukayr and 'Abdullah related "as much as a young goat" from al-Layth, and it is sounder.

6856. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said, "'Uyayna ibn Hisn ibn Hudhayfa ibn Badr came and stayed with his nephew, 'Umar brought near to him. The reciters were the people of the assembly and council of 'Umar no matter whether they were mature men or young men. 'Uyayna said to his nephew, 'Nephew, do you have access to this amir, so that you can ask him for permission for me to see him.' He replied, "I will ask him for permission for you to see him.'" Ibn 'Abbas said, "Al-Hurr asked permission for 'Uyayna and he entered and said, 'O Ibn al-Khattab! By Allah, it is that you do not give enough to us and you do not judge justly between us.' 'Umar was so angry that he wanted to beat him. Al-Hurr said to him, 'Amir al-Mu'minin, Allah Almighty said to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Make allowances for people, command what is right, and turn away from the ignorant" (7:199) This is one of the ignorant.' By Allah, 'Umar did not do less than that when he recited it. He acted in accordance with the Book of Allah."

6857. Hisham ibn 'Urwa related from Fatima bint al-Mundhir that Asma' bint Abi Bakr said, "I went to 'A'isha when there was a solar eclipse. The people were standing in prayer and she was also standing in prayer. I asked, 'What are the people doing?' She pointed towards the sky and said, 'Glory be to Allah!' I asked, 'A sign?' She indicated with her head that it was so. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished (the prayer), he praised Allah and lauded Him and then said, 'Anything which I did not see before I saw just now while standing here, including the Garden and the Fire. . It was revealed to me that you will be tested in the graves with a like trial to that of the False Messiah. The believer - or Muslim - [I do not know which exactly Asma' said] will say, 'He is Muhammad who brought us the clear signs. So we responded to him and believed.' He will be told, "Sleep, O virtuous one! We know that you had certainty.' As for the hypocrite or the doubter - [I do not know which Asma' said] he will say, "I do not know. I heard people saying something and so I said it too.'"

6858. Al-A'raj related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Leave me alone regarding what I have not mentioned to you. People before you were destroyed on account of their questioning and disagreeing with their Prophets. If I forbid you something, then avoid it. If I command you something, then do it as much as you can."

III. What is disliked of asking too many questions and burdening oneself with that which does not concern one

The words of the Almighty, "Do not ask about matters which, if they were made known to you, would make things difficult for you." (5:101)

6859. 'Amir ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas related from his father that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Muslim with the greatest sin is the one who asks about something which has not been forbidden and then it was forbidden because of his asking."

6860. Busr ibn Sa'id related from Zayd ibn Thabit that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stayed in a small room made of straw mats in the mosque. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed in it for some nights until some people joined him. Then one night they did not hear his voice and thought that he had gone to sleep. Some of them started humming, hoping that he would come out to them. He said, "You continued doing what I saw you doing until I feared that it would be made mandatory for you. If it were made mandatory for you, you would not perform it. So, people, pray in your houses. A man's best prayer is the one he prays in his house with the exception of the obligatory prayer."

6861. Abu Burda related that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about things which he disliked. When they asked too many questions, he became angry and said, 'Ask me!' A man stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, who is my father?' He replied, 'Your father is Hudhafa.' Then another man got up and asked, 'Who is my father, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'Your father is Salim, the mawla of Shayba.' When 'Umar saw the anger in the face of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he said, 'We repent to Allah, exalted and majestic is He!'"

6862. 'Abdu'l-Malik related that Warrad, the scribe of al-Mughira, said, "Mu'awiya wrote to al-Mughira, 'Write for me something which you heard from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' He wrote to him, 'The Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say after every prayer, "There is no god but Allah alone with no partner. The kingdom and praise belong to Him and He has power over all things. O Allah, none can prevent what You give and none can give what You withhold. The wealth of someone with wealth will not help him with You."'"

He wrote to him that he used to forbid chit-chat, asking a lot of questions, and wasting money. He used to forbid disobeying mothers, burying daughters alive, and asking [people] for what one does not need.

6863. Thabit related that Anas said, "While we were with 'Umar, he said, "We were forbidden to overburden ourselves."

6864. Az-Zuhri related from Anas ibn Malik: "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out after the sun had declined and prayed Dhuhr. After he said the salam, he stood on the minbar and mentioned the Final Hour and mentioned that there would terrible events before it. Then he said, 'whoever wants to ask about something should ask. By Allah, do will not ask me about anything as long as I am where I am standing but that I will tell you about it.'"

Anas said, "The people wept a lot. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kept saying, 'Ask me!' A man rose and asked, 'Where will I enter, Messenger of Allah?' 'The Fire,' he answered. Then 'Abdullah ibn Hudhafa got up and asked, 'Who is my father, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'Your father is Hudhafa.' Then he kept repeating, 'Ask me! Ask me!' Then 'Umar knelt and said, 'We are pleased with Allah as a Lord, with Islam as a deen and with Muhammad as a Prophet.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, fell silent when 'Umar said that. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Better. By the One who has my soul in His hand, the Garden and the Fire were made to appear before me so that I saw them just beyond this wall while I was praying. I have never seen a day like today in good and evil.'"

6865. Musa ibn Anas reported that he heard Anas ibn Malik say, "A man said, 'Prophet of Allah, who is my father?' He replied, 'Your father is so-and-so,' and then the ayat was revealed: 'O you who believe! Do not ask about matters ä' (5:101)"

6866. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman said that he heard Anas ibn Malik say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "People will continue to ask questions until they say, 'This is Allah who created everything, so who created Allah?'"

6867. 'Alqama related that Ibn Mas'ud said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in a field in Madina while he was leaning on a palm-branch. He passed by a group of Jews and some of them said, 'Ask him about the ruh.' Others said, 'Do not ask him. Then he will not let you hear what you dislike.' They went to him and said, 'Abu'l-Qasim! Tell us about the ruh (soul).' He stood for a time, waiting and I recognised that he was receiving revelation. I kept back until the revelation was lifted. Then he said, 'They will ask you about the Ruh. Say: 'The Ruh is my Lord's concern. You have only been given a little knowledge.'(17:85)"

IV. Following the actions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

6868. 'Abdullah ibn Dinar related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, starting wearing a gold ring and then people started wearing gold rings. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I used a gold ring.' He then threw it away and said, 'I will never wear it.' So the people threw their rings away."

V. What is disliked of going deeply into and arguing about knowledge, and excess in the deen and innovations

Allah Almighty says, "People of the Book! do not go to excess in your deen. Say nothing but the truth about Allah." (4:171)

6869. Abu Salama related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not fast continuously (wisal, i.e. not breaking it at sunset)." They said, "You fast continuously." He said, "Which of you is like me? When I sleep my Lord gives me food and drink.' When they did not stop fasting continuously, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, fasted continuously with them for two days ‚ or two nights ‚ and when they saw the new moon, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "If it had been delayed, I would have made the period longer for you,' as if it was a punishment for them.

6870. Ibrahim at-Taymi related that his father said: "'Ali gave a khutba while he was on a minbar constructed of brick, wearing a sword from which a paper was hanging. He said, "We have no book which is read except for the Book of Allah and what is on this paper." He unrolled it and it contained the ages of camels. It also contained: "Madina is a sanctuary between 'Ayr and such-and-such place. if anyone commits an improper action in it, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him." It also contained: "The dhimma [covenant] of the Muslims is the one and the same. It is effected by the least of them. If anyone betrays treacherously towards a Muslim, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him"' It also contained: "If someone accepts the protectorship of other than his masters, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him."

6871. Muslim related from Masruq that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did something and made an allowance for people to do it. Some people refrained from it out of caution. The Prophe, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about that and addressed the people. He praised Allah and then said, 'What is wrong with some people who refrain from going something I do out of prudence? By Allah, I know Allah better than they and have a stronger fear of Him!'"

6872. Nafi' ibn 'Umar related that Ibn Abi Mulayka said, "The two good men were about to be destroyed: Abu Bakr and 'Umar. When the delegation of the Banu Tamim came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,, one of them suggested that he appoint al-Aqra' ibn Habis al-Hanzali, the brother of the Banu Mujashi', and the other suggested someone else. Abu Bakr said to 'Umar, 'You just wanted to contradict me.' 'Umar said, "I did not want to contradict you," and they raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Then it was revealed: 'You who believe! do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet and do not be as loud when speaking to him as you are when speaking to one another, lest your actions should come to nothing without your realising it. Those who lower their voices when they are with the Messenger of Allah are people whose hearts Allah has tested for taqwa. They will have forgiveness and an immense reward.' (49:2-3)?" Ibn Abi Mulayka said, that Ibn az-Zubayr said, "Afterwards ‚ and he did not mention the same about his grandfather, i.e. Abu Bakr ‚ whenever 'Umar spoke to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about something, he spoke to him like someone confiding a secret which he could not hear and had to ask him to repeat it."

6873. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha, the Umm al-Mu'minin, said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said in his final illness, 'Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.' A'isha said, 'Abu Bakr is a gentle man. If he stands in your place, he will not be able to make the people hear because of his weeping, so tell 'Umar to lead the people in prayer." He repeated, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer." 'A'isha said, "I said to Hafsa, 'Say [to him], "If Abu Bakr stands in your place, he will not be able to make the people hear because of his weeping, so tell 'Umar to lead the people in prayer."' Hafsa did that and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'You are the companions of Yusuf! Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.'" Hafsa said to 'A'isha, "I have never got any good from you."

6874. Az-Zuhri related that Sahl ibn Sa'd as-Sa'idi said, "'Uwaymir went to 'Asim ibn 'Adi and asked, 'What do you say about a man who finds another man with his wife? Should he kill him and then you kill him? What else should he do? 'Asim, ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that.' He asked him and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disliked the questions and disapproved of them. 'Asim, went back and told him that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disliked the questions. 'Uwaymir said, 'By Allah, I will go to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' He went and Allah had revealed the Qur'an after 'Asim left. He told him: 'Allah has sent down revelation about you.' The Prophet then summoned the couple and they came and carried out the li'an. Then 'Umaymir said, 'I would be lying about her if I were to keep her, Messenger of Allah.' He divorced her while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had not commanded him to divorce her. It became the sunna for those who carry out a li'an. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Wait and see. If she has a short reddish child like the wahra lizard [which is white with reddish spots], then I can only think that he has lied about her. If she brings a black child with dark eyes, large buttocks and fleshy legs, then I can only suppose that he spoke the truth about her.' She bore that which disliked."

6875. Ibn Shihab said that Malik ibn Aws an-Nasiri said (and Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Mut'im mentioned something of that to me and I visited Malik and asked him and he said), "I went and entered where 'Umar was. His chamberlain Yarfa' came to him and said, 'Will you admit 'Uthman, 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf, az-Zubayr, and Sa'd ibn al-Waqqas who are asking to enter?' He said, 'Yes.' He gave them permission and they entered and greeted him and sat down. Then Yarfa' said, 'Will you admit 'Ali and 'Abbas?' He said, 'Yes.' He gave them permission. 'Abbas said, 'Amir al-Mu'minin! Judge between me and this unjust one!' They verbally abused one another. The group of 'Uthman and his companions said, 'O Amir al-Mu'minin! Judge between them and relieve one of the other.' 'Umar said, 'Be patient. I adjure you by Allah by whose permission the heaven and earth subsist, do you know that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "We do not bequeath inheritance. What we leave is sadaqa," and that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, meant himself?' The group said, 'He said that.'

"'Umar turned to 'Ali and 'Abbas, and said, 'I adjure you by Allah, do you know that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about something, said that?' They both said, 'He said that.' He said, 'I will talk to you about this matter. Allah singled out His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in these spoils something which he did not give anyone else. Allah says, "Whatever booty from them Allah has given to His Messenger ‚ and you spurred on neither horse nor camel in its acquisition..." (59:6) This was specially for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about something. Then, by Allah, he did not appropriate it to your exclusion, and he did not prefer himself with it against you. He gave it to you and distributed it among you until this property remained of it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about something, used to spend on his family the maintenance of a year from this property. Then what remained he made the property of Allah. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about something, did that during his lifetime. I adjure you Allah, do you know that?' 'They all said, 'Yes.' He said to 'Ali and 'Abbas, 'I adjure you Allah, do you know that?' They both answered, 'Yes.'

"He said, 'Then Allah took the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr said, "I am the guardian of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' So Abu Bakr took it and acted with it as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had acted, and you both were there.' Then he turned to 'Ali and 'Abbas and said, 'You both claim that Abu Bakr did this and that, and Allah knows best that in it he was truthful, pious, right-guided, following the truth. Then Allah took Abu Bakr and I said, "I am the guardian of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr. I held it under my control for two years during which I acted in it as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr acted. Then you two came to talk to me, and you both said the same thing and had the same case. You ('Abbas) came to me, and asked for your share from your nephew and this one ('Ali) asked me for the share of his wife from her father. I said, "If you wish, I will hand it over to you on the basis that you take the pledge and pact of Allah to act in it as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, acted in it and as Abu Bakr acted in it and as I acted in it since I took charge. Otherwise, do not speak to me about it," and you both said, "Hand it over to us on that basis," and I handed it over to you on that basis.' The group said, 'Yes.' 'Umar turned to 'Ali and 'Abbas and said, 'I adjure you by Allah, did I hand it over to you on that basis?' They both answered, 'Yes.' He said, 'So are you now seeking from me a decision other than that? By the One by whose permission the heaven and earth subsist, I would not give a decision in it other than that until the Last Hour comes! If you are incapable of it, then give it to me and I will spare you of it.'"

VI. The wrong action of someone who gives refuge to an innovator

'Ali related it from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

6876. 'Abdu'l-Wahid related that 'Asim said, "I asked Anas, 'Did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, make Madina a Haram?' 'Yes,' he answered. 'Make it from such-and-such to such-and-such. Its trees are not to be cut down. Whoever innovates something in it, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people.'"

'Asim said, "Musa ibn Anas reported to me that he said, "Or give shelter to an innovator."

VII. What is mentioned of censure of personal opinion and artificial analogy [i.e. that which is not based on the Book, Sunna or consensus]

"Do not pursue what you have no knowledge of. " (17:36)

6877. 'Urwa said, "'Abdullah ibn 'Amr passed by while on hajj and I heard him say, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, " Allah will not take away knowledge after He has given it to you, but it will be taken away by the death of scholars with their knowledge. There will remain ignorant people who will be asked something and will give a decision (fatwa) and will misguide and be misguided."' I related it to 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Then 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr went on hajj later and she said, 'Nephew, go to 'Abdullah and ask him to confirm for me what you related from him.' I went and asked him and he related to me the like of what he had related before. I went back to 'A'isha and told her. She was surprised and said, 'By Allah, 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr has indeed remembered!'"

6878. Abu Hamza related that he heard al-A'mash say, "I asked Abu Wa'il, 'Were you present at Siffin?' He said, 'Yes, and I heard Sahl ibn Hunayf say...

al-A'mash related that Abu Wa'il said, " Sahl ibn Hunayf said, 'People! Have doubts about your opinion about your deen*! I remember how I was on the day of Abu Jandal [Hudaybiyya*]! If I had been able to defy the order of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I would have defied it. We have not put our swords on our shoulders in the case of something which outraged us but that they made the matter easy for us ‚ except for this business of ours now.'" Al-A'mash said that Abu Wa'il said, "I was present at Siffin and Siffin was a wretched business."

[* Al-Qastallani says: "Your fighting your brothers in Islam based on your ijtihad.

*Hudaybiyya: after the treaty had been concluded with Quraysh, Abu Jandal arrived arrived in camp, dragging his chains. His relative demanded his return according to the terms of the treaty and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned him to them.]

VIII. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about something about no revelation had been sent down, he would say, "I do not know" or he would not answer until revelation was revealed to him, and he did not speak based on opinion or analogy

This is based on the words of Allah, "...so that you can judge between people according to what Allah has shown to you." (4:105) Ibn Mas'ud said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about the ruh and was silent until the ayat was revealed.

6879. Ibn al-Munkadir was heard to say that he heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say, "I fell ill and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr came on foot to visit me. They found me unconscious. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace did wudu' and then poured his wudu' water on me. I regained consciousness and said, 'Messenger of Allah [Sufyan said that he may have said 'ayy' instead of 'ya'], how should I settle my property? What shall I do with my property?' He did answer me until the Ayat shall I do with my property?' He did answer me until the Ayat of Inheritance was revealed."

IX. The manner in which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, taught his community, men and women, in what Allah taught him, not by personal opinion or comparison [i.e. qiyas]

6880. Abu Salih Dhakwan related from Abu Sa'id: "A woman went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, the men have appropriated speaking with you, so appoint for us a day when we can come to you when you can teach us some of what Allah has taught you.' He replied, ' Meet on such-and-such a day.' They met and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to them and taught them some of what Allah had taught him. Then he said, 'There is no woman who has three of her children die but that they will act as a screen for her from the Fire.' A woman of them asked, 'Messenger of Allah, and two?' She repeated it twice to him and then he said, 'And two, two, and two.'"

X. The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "A group of my community will remain victorious in the truth." They are the people of knowledge.

6881. Qays related from al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A group of my community will remain victorious until the command of Allah comes upon them while they are victorious."

6882. Ibn Shihab reported that Humayd told him, "I heard Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan giving a khutba in which he said, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "If Allah desires good for someone, He gives him understanding in the deen. I distribute, but Allah gives. This community will remain straight until the Final Hour comes (or until the Command of Allah comes."'"

XI. The words of Allah Almighty, "... or to confuse you in sects ." (6:65)

6883. 'Amr said that he heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say, "When it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Say: "He possesses the power to send you punishment from above"....' (6:65), he said, 'O Allah! I seek refuge with Your face!, after 'or from beneath your feet', he said, 'O Allah! I seek refuge with Your face!' When it was revealed, '...or to confuse you in sects, and make you taste one another's violence...' he said, 'These two are easier ‚ or less .'"

XII. Whoever compares a known matter to a clear matter. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made their ruling clear so that the asker would understand

[One variant has mubham (ambiguous) rather than mubin (known).]

6884. Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman related from Abu Hurayra that a desert Arab came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "Messenger of Allah, my wife has given birth to a black boy." " He asked, 'Do you have camels?' 'Yes," he answered. He asked, "What colour are they?" He answered, "Red." He said, "Are there any grey ones?" "Yes," he answered. He asked, "Where did that come from?" He answered, "I think that it is a throwback in the bloodline." He said, "Perhaps this son of yours is a throwback." He did not allow him to deny his paternity.

6885. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that a woman came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "My mother made a vow to perform hajj, but she died before she could go on hajj. Can I perform hajj on her behalf? "Yes," he answered, "Perform hajj on her behalf, If your mother owed a debt, would you not have paid it? Pay Allah. Allah has more right to be paid off.'"

XIII. What has come about using ijtihad in rendering judgement by what Allah has revealed

This is based on His words, "Those who do not judge by what Allah has sent down, such people are wrongdoers." (5:45)

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, praised the person with wisdom when he judges by wisdom and teaches it and does not apply artificial personal reasoning.

The khalifs consulting and asking the people of knowledge

6886. Qays related from 'Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There can be no envy except in respect of two people: a man to whom Allah gives wealth and also the ability to spend it in the way it should be spent, and a man to whom Allah gives wisdom and who then makes decisions according to it and teaches it other people."

6887. 'Urwa related that al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba said, "'Umar ibn al-Khattab asked about the case of a woman who had a miscarriage because of a blow to the stomach. He said, 'Which of you has heard something from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on it?' I answered, 'I have.' He asked, 'So what is it?' I said, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "She is owed a good slave, male or female."' 'Umar said, 'do not leave until you bring someone who will testify to what you said.' I went out and found Muhammad ibn Maslama. I brought him and he testified with me that he had heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "She is owed a good slave, male or female."'"

Ibn Abi'z-Zinad corroborated it from his father from 'Urwa from al-Mughira.

XIV. The words of the Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace,"You will follow the customs of those before you."

6888. Al-Maqburi related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Final Hour will not take place until my Community follows the customs of the generations before it, hand by hand and arm by arm." He was asked, "Messenger of Allah, like Persia and Byzantium?" He said, "And what people would it be besides these?"

6889. 'Ata' ibn Yasar related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You will follow the customs of those before you hand by hand and arm by arm to such an extent that if they were to go into the hole of a lizard, you would follow them." We asked, "O Messenger of Allah, is it the Jews and the Christians?" He replied, "Who else?"

XV. The wrong action of someone who invites others to misguidance or institutes an evil custom

By the words of Allah Almighty, "...and some of the burdens of those they misguided without knowledge. " (16:25)

6890. Masruq related from 'Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No soul is killed unjustly without the first son of Adam bearing a portion of the blame. (Sufyan may have said, "his blood".) That is because he was the first person to introduce murder."

XVI. What the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned and encouraged regarding the agreement of the people of knowledge, and that on which the people of the two Harams, Makka and Madina, agreed, and the places where events took place concerning the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Muhajirun and Ansar there, and the place of prayer of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the minbar and the grave

6891. Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir relate from Jabir ibn 'Abdullah as-Sulami that a desert Arab gave his allegiance to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for Islam and the Arab came down with a fever in Madina and the Arab went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "Messenger of Allah, rescind my allegiance for me." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, refused and then he came to him again and said, "Rescind my allegiance for me." He refused. Then he came to him yet again and said, "Rescind my allegiance for me." He refused. The Arab left and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, " Madina is like a furnace - it expels its impurities and purifies its good."

6892. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I used to teach Qur'an to 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf. When 'Umar performed his last hajj, 'Abdu'r-Rahman said to me at Mina, 'Would that you had seen the man who came to the Amir al-Mu'minin today! He said, "Someone says, 'If the Amir al-Mu'minin were to die, we would give my allegiance to so-and-so.'" "Umar said, ' I will stand this evening among the people and warn them about those who want to usurp their affairs.' I said, 'Do not do it. The Hajj festival brings the riffraff and base people. They are those who will keep others from being near you when you stand up among the people. I fear that they will misreport it and it will be spread in all directions from you. Wait until you reach Madina, the Abode of the Hijra and the Sunna. You will be among the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from the Muhajirun and Ansar. They will understand what you say and put it in its proper place.' He said, 'By Allah, Allah willing, I will do that as the first thing I undertake in Madina.'"'" Ibn 'Abbas said, " We reached Madina and he said, 'Allah sent Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with the truth and sent down the Book to him. Part of what was revealed was the Ayat of Stoning."

6893. Ayyub [as-Sakhtiyani] related that Muhammad [ibn Sirin] said, "We were with Abu Hurayra who was wearing two linen garments dyed with red clay. He blew his nose and said, 'Excellent! Excellent! Abu Hurayra is blowing his nose with linen. I can recall when I fell down unconscious between the minbar of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and 'A'isha's room. Someone who came would put his foot on my neck, thinking that I was mad. I was not mad. It was only hunger.'"

6894. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Abis said, "Ibn 'Abbas was asked, 'Were you present at the 'Id prayer with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,' He said, 'Yes and if it had been for my place with him, I would not have attended it,' i.e. because of his youth. 'He went to the waymark by the house of Kathir ibn as-Salt and gave a khutba without an adhan or iqama. Then he commanded people give sadaqa (charity). The women took the jewellery from their ears and necks. He ordered Bilal to go to them after which he returned to the Prophet, , may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'"

6895. Sufyan related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go to Quba either walking or riding.

6896. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha said to 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr, "Bury me with my female companions [i.e. the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in al-Baqi']. Do not bury me with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the house. I dislike to be considered pure."

6897. 'Urwa related that 'Umar sent a message to 'A'isha, saying, "Give me permission to be buried with my two companions." She answered, "Yes, by Allah". He said, "When one of the Companions sent a message to her, she would say, 'No, by Allah, I will not ever give any of them preference.'"

6898. Ibn Shihab said that Anas ibn Malik reported to him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray 'Asr and then go to al-'Awali was the sun was still high.

Al-Layth added from Yunus, " Al-'Awali was about four or three miles away."

6899. Al-Ju'ayd said, "I heard as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid say, "The sa' in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was a mudd a third of your mudd today. Its size was increased.

Al-Qasim ibn Malik heard al-Ju'ayd.

6900. Ishaq ibn 'Abdullah ibn Abi Talha related from Anas ibn Malik that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O Allah, bless them in their measure and bless them in their sa' and mudd,"meaning the people of Madina.

6901. Nafi' related from Ibn 'Umar that the Jews brought a man and woman who had committed adultery to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he commanded that they be stoned near to the place where biers were placed at the mosque.

6902. 'Amr, the client of Anas ibn Malik said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had Uhud appear to him and he said, "This is a mountain which loves us and we love it. O Allah, Ibrahim made Makka a haram and I make a haram of that which is between the two lava beds."

It is corroborated by Sahl from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about Uhud.

6903. Abu Hazim related from Sahl that the distance between the wall of the mosque on the side of the qibla and the minbar was enough for a sheep to pass through.

6904. Hafs ibn 'Asim related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "That which is between my house and my minbar is one of the meadows of the Garden and my minbar is on the Basin."

6905. Nafi' related that 'Abdullah [ibn 'Umar] said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, organised a horse race between trained horses which started at al-Hafya' and ended at Thaniyatu'l-Wada' and between untrained horses, which started at ath-Thaniya and ended at Mosque of the Banu Zurayq." 'Abdullah was one of those who raced.

6906. Ash-Sha'bi related that Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard 'Umar speaking on the minbar of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

6907. Az-Zuhri related that as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid reported to him that he heard 'Uthman ibn 'Affan giving a khutba on the minbar of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

6908. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha said, "This tub was set out for me and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we both took water directly from it [with our hands]."

6909. 'Asim al-Ahwal related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made an alliance between the Ansar and Quraysh in my house in Madina, and he did the qunut invocation against some tribes of the Banu Sulaym for a month."

6910. Burayd related that Abu Burda said, "I came to Madina and 'Abdullah ibn Salam met me and said to me, 'Come to my house so that I can let you drink from a cup from which which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, drank and you can pray in a mosque in which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed.' I went with him and he gave me sawiq (gruel) to drink and fed me some dates and I prayed in his mosque."

6911. 'Ikrima related from Ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar related to him that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related to him: "Someone came to me in the night from my Lord at al-'Aqiq: 'Pray in this blessed valley and say, "both 'umra and hajj".'"

Harun ibn 'Isma'il related from 'Ali, "An 'umra in the hajj."

6912. 'Abdullah ibn Dinar related from Ibn 'Umar: "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, set the miqat for the people of Najd at Qarn, for the people of Syria at al-Juhfa, and for the people of Madina at Dhu'l-Hulayfa." He said, "I heard this from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it reached me that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is Yalamlam for the people of the Yemen.' Iraq was mentioned and Ibn 'Umar said, 'There was no Iraq at that time.'"

6913. Salim ibn 'Umar related from his father that the Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a dream when he was in his shed at Dhu'l-Hulayfa in which he was told, "You are in a blessed valley."

XVII. The words of Allah Almighty, "You have no part in the affair." (3:128)

6914. Salim related from Ibn 'Umar that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say in the Dawn prayer after coming up from ruku', 'O Allah, our Lord, and praise is ours,' and heard him say in the last, "O Allah curse so-and-so and so-and-so,' and then Allah Almighty revealed, 'You have no part in the affair. Either He will turn towards them or He will punish them, for they are wrongdoers.' (3:128)"

XVIII. The words of the Almighty, "But, more than anything else, man is argumentative!" (18:54)

And the words of the Almighty, "Only argue with the People of the Book in the kindest way " (29:46)

6915. 'Ali ibn Husyan related that Husayn ibn 'Ali informed him that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had visited him and Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at night and said to them, "Will you not pray?" 'Ali said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, our souls are in the hand of Allah. If He wishes to make us get up, He will get us up.'" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left when he said that to him and did not reply to him at all. Then 'Ali heard him retreating, striking his thigh, saying, "But, more than anything else, man is argumentative!." (18:54)

Abu 'Abdullah [al-Bukhari] said, "One says tariq [referring to 86:1-3] for something which comes to you at night. It is said 'at-tariqu'n-najm' (the night-comer, the star) and ath-thaqib means "the shining." The verb is used for lighting a fire.

6916. Sa'id [al-Maqburi] related from his father that Abu Hurayra said, "While we were in the mosque, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us and said, 'Go to the Jews.' We left with him and went to the Bayt al-Madaris [where the Torah was taught]. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood there and called to them, 'Company of Jews! Become Muslim and you will be safe!' They said, 'You have conveyed it, Abu'l-Qasim.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to them, 'That is what I want. Become Muslim and you will be safe!' They replied, 'You have conveyed it, Abu'l-Qasim.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to them, 'That is what I want,' and he repeated it a third time and then said, 'Know that the land belongs to Allah and His Messenger and I want to exile you from this land. Whoever of you has any property should sell it. Otherwise, know that the land belongs to Allah and His Messenger.'"

XIX. The words of the Almighty, "In this way We have made you a middlemost community"

What the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded of holding fast of the Community, who are the people of knowledge

6917. Abu Salih related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Nuh will be brought on the Day of Rising and will be asked, 'Did you convey it?' He will reply, 'Yes, Lord.' His community will be asked, 'Did he convey to you?' and they will reply, 'No warner came to us.' He will say, 'Who are your witnesses.' He will answer, 'Muhammad and his community.' Then you will be brought and you will testify.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited, 'In this way We have made you a middlemost community ‚ and he explained that it means just ‚ so that you may act as witnesses against mankind and the Messenger as a witness against you.' (2:143)"

Another transmission of this from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

XX. Chapter. When a governor or ruler uses ijtihad and differs from the Messenger unknowingly, his ruling is rejected.

This is based on the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "If anyone does an action we have not commanded, it is rejected."

6918. Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent the brother of the tribe of 'Adi al-Ansari and appointed him over Khaybar. He brought some janib dates. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked him, "Are all the dates of Khaybar like this?" He answered, "No, by Allah, Messenger of Allah. We sell one sa' for two sa's of mixed dates." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not do it. Rather it is like for like, or sell one sa' of this and use its price to buy that. That is how it is in weighing.

XXI. The reward of a judge when he strives and is correct or errs

6919. Abu Qays, the client of 'Amr ibn al-'As, related that 'Amr ibn al-'As heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "When a judge makes a judgement and makes every effort to be correct and is correct, he has two rewards. If he judges, making every effort to be correct and is wrong, he has one reward."

Yazid ibn 'Abdullah (the transmitter) said, "I related this hadith to Abu Bakr ibn 'Amr ibn Hazm and he said, "That is how Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu-Rahman related it to me from Abu Hurayra." 'Abdu'l-'Aziz ibn al-Mutallib said the like of it from 'Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr from Abu Salama from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'"

XXII. The argument against the one who says, "The rulings of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were evident to people" and the fact that some of the Companions were absent from the events involving the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and matters of Islam.

6920. 'Ata' related that 'Ubayd ibn 'Umayr said. "Abu Musa asked for permission to enter where 'Umar was and he seemed to him that he was busy and so he left. 'Umar said, 'Did I not hear the voice of 'Abdullah ibn Qays? Give him permission to come in.' He had him summoned to him and asked, 'What made you do that you did?' He answered. 'We were ordered to do that.' 'Umar said, 'Bring me clear proof of that or I will do something to you.' He went to the assembly of the Ansar and asked them and they said, "Only the youngest of us, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, will testify.' Abu Sa'id al-Khudri got up and said, 'We were ordered to do this.' 'Umar said, 'This command of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was concealed from me. Dealing in the marketplace distracted me.'"

6921. Az-Zuhri reported that he heard al-A'raj say, "Abu Hurayra reported to me: 'You say that Abu Hurayra relates many hadiths from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Our appointment is with Allah. I was a poor man staying with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to fill my stomach. The Muhajirun were occupied with their business in the markets and the Ansar were busy with their property. One day I was present when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If anyone spreads out his cloak until I finish what I am saying here, and then folds it up, he will not forget anything which he has heard from me.' I spread out the garment I was wearing. By the One who sent him with the Truth, I did not forget anything which I heard from him.'"

XXIII. The one who thought that the fact that the Prophet did not object to something was a proof, but that was not true of another person

6922. Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir said, "I saw Jabir ibn 'Abdullah swearing by Allah that Ibn as-Sayyad was the Dajjal. I said, 'Do you swear by Allah?' He replied, 'I heard 'Umar swear to that in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peacem and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not object to it.'"

6923. Malik related from Zayd ibn Aslam from Abu Salih as-Samman from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Horses are for three purposes. They are a reward for one man, and a shelter for another man and a burden for another man. As for the one who has a reward, that is the man who ties them in the way of Allah and gives them a long tether in pasture or meadow. He will have good deeds for whatever it gets from the pasture or the meadow for the extent of its tether. If it breaks its tether and crosses a hill or two, then he has good deeds for its tracks and dung. If it crosses a river and drinks from it, that will be good deeds for him even if he did not intend to give it water. . There is a man who ties them up in order to be self-sufficient (from people), as a shelter and to be able to refrain from asking from them, and then he does not forget the right of Allah on their necks (i.e. zakat) and their backs (i.e. overloading them), they are a shelter for him. There is a man who ties them up out of boasting and showing-off and enmity towards the people of Islam, so they are a burden."

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about donkeys and said, "Nothing has been revealed to me about them except this general all-inclusive verse, 'Whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it. Whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it.' (99:7-8)"

6924. Mansur ibn Safiyya related from Safiyya [bint Shayba] that 'A'isha that a woman [Asma' bint Shakal] asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace...

Mansur ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Shayba related from his mother [Safiyya bint Shayba] from 'A'isha that a woman asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about mesntruation and how to perform the ghusl after it. He said, "Take a piece of cloth scented with musk and clean yourself with it." She asked, "How should I clean myself with it, Messenger of Allah?" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Clean yourself with it." She repeated, "How should I clean myself with it, Messenger of Allah?" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Clean yourself with it." 'A'isha said, "I recognised what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, meant, so I pulled her to me and taught her."

6925. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related from Ibn 'Abbas that Umm Hufayd bint al-Harith ibn Hazm gave the Prophet some ghee, dried curd and lizards. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called for them and they were eaten on his table. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left them as if he found them distasteful. If they had been unlawful, they would not have been eaten at his table and he would not have commanded that they be eaten.

6926. 'Ata' ibn Abi Rabah related from Jabir ibn 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who eats garlic and onions should keep away from us (or he said, "should keep away from our mosque") and he should stay in his house." Jabir said, "The Prophet was brought a plate of cooked vegetables at Badr and found that it had an unpleasant smell. He asked about it and was told what vegetables it contained. He said, 'Bring it near [to so-and-so].' Then it was brought near to one of his Companions who was with him. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw it, he did not want to eat it and said, 'Eat, for I have to converse privately with people with those you do not have to converse.'"

It is related from Ibn Wahb, "A pot of vegetables." Al-Layth and Abu Safwan did not mention the story of the pot from Yunus. I do not know whether it is part of what az-Zuhri said or part of the hadith itself.

6927. Muhammad ibn Jubayr related that his father, Jubayr ibn Mut'im told him that a woman went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and spoke to him about something and he commanded something for her. She asked, "What do you think I should do if I do not find you, Messenger of Allah?" He said, "If you do not find me, then go to Abu Bakr."

Al-Humaydi added from Ibrahim ibn Sa'id, "It was as if she meant his death."

XXIV. The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Do not ask the People of the Book about anything*."

[*al-Qastallani says: "'Do not ask the People of the Book about anything' connected to Shari'a because our Shari'a is not in need of anything. If there is no text on something, then there are blessings in investigation and deduction. The prohibition does not extend to asking about reports which affirm our Shari'a and reports about past nations."]

Az-Zuhri reported that Humayd ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman that he heard Mu'awiya speaking to a group of Quraysh in Madina. He mentioned Ka'b al-Ahbar and said, "He was the most truthful of those who related from the People of the Book, and yet we found some errors in what he said."

6928. Abu Salama related that Abu Hurayra said, "The People of the Book used to recite the Torah in Hebrew and comment on it in Arabic to the people of Islam. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do not either confirm nor deny the People of the Book. Say: "We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us ..." (2:137)'"

6929. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "O company of Muslims! How can you ask the People of the Book about anything [of the Shari'a] when your Book which was sent down on His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is more recent? You recite it pure and unsullied. Allah has reported to you that the People of the Book have altered the Book of Allah and changed it. They wrote the Book with their own hands and then said, 'It is from Allah' in order to sell it for a small price. Does not the knowledge that has come to you prevent you from asking them? No, by Allah, we have not seen a man among them asking you about what was revealed to you!'"

XXV. Dislike of disagreement

6930. Abu 'Imran al-Jawfi related that Jundub ibn 'Abdullah al-Bajali said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Recite the Qur'an as long as your hearts are in harmony, When you disagree [i.e. about the its meanings] then stop it."

Abu 'Abdullah said, "'Abdu'r-Rahman listened to Sallam."

6931. Abu 'Imran al-Jawfi related that Jundub ibn 'Abdullah al-Bajali said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Recite the Qur'an as long as your hearts are in harmony, When you disagree, then stop it."

Another isnad from Jundub from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

6932. 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was dying. there were some men in the house, one of whom was 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ' 'Come! I will write for you something after which you will never go astray.' 'Umar said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is overcome with pain. We have the Qur'an, and the Book of Allah is enough for us.' So the people in the house disagreed and argued. Some of them said, 'Come near so that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, may write something for you after which you will never go astray,' and some of them said what 'Umar said. When the hubbub and disagreement increased, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Get up and leave me.'"

'Ubaydullah said that Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "A complete disaster. Only their disagreement and hubbub prevented the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from writing that document for them."

XXVI. The Prophet's prohibition makes soemthing forbidden unless there is something* known that renders it allowable. The same is true of his command.

[*in the context, circumstances or actual proof that it is a recommendation or something else.]

An example of this is seen in his words when people came out of ihram, "Have intercourse with your wives." Jabir said, "He did not oblige hem to do that, but he made their wives lawful for them."

Umm 'Atiyya said, "He forbade us to join funeral processions, but did not make it a rigid prohibition for us."

6933. 'Ata' related that he heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say when he had some people with him, "We, the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, assumed ihram for hajj alone not mixed with 'umra." 'Ata' said that Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived on the morning of the fourth of Dhu'l-Hijja. When we arrived, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded us to come of ihram, saying, 'Come out of ihram and go to your wives.'" 'Ata' said that Jabir sayd, "He did not oblige it for them, but allowed women to them. It reached him that we were saying, 'There is only five days until 'Arafa. Does he order us to come out of ihram and go to our wives so that we come to 'Arafa with our penises dripping with sperm?' (Jabir indicated this by moving his hand.) So the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up and said, 'You know that I the one among you with the most fear of Allah and I am the most truthful and pious of you. Were it not for my sacrificial animals, I would have come out of ihram as you will do, so come out of ihram. If I had known before of my business what I know now, I would not have brought sacrificial animals.' So we came out ihram and heard and obeyed (him)."

6934. Abu Burayda related from 'Abdullah al-Muzani that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "Pray before Maghrib." He said in the third time, "Whoever wishes to" out of dislike that the people take it as a sunna.

XXVII. The words of Allah Almighty, "... who manage their affairs by mutual consultation" (42:38) and "consult with them about the matter." (3:159

Consultation occurs before resolve and before clarification, based on His words, "Then when you have reached a firm decision, put your trust in Allah. " (3:159)

When the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has made a firm decision, no human being should put himself before Allah and His Messenger.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, consulted his Companions on the Day of Uhud about whether to stay or go out and they thought that they should go out. When he put on his armour and resolved to go out, they said, "You should stay.' He did not incline to that after having already decided and said, "It is not proper for a Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to put on his armour and then take it off until Allah has rendered judgement."

He consulted 'Ali and Usama about the slanders that the people of the Lie made about 'A'isha and he listened to both of them until the Qur'an was revealed. He flogged the slanderers and did not pay any attention to their dispute, but judged by what Allah commanded.

The imams after the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, consulted those who were trustworthy among the people of knowledge about permissible mater so that they could adopt the easiest of them, but when the Book or the Sunna stipulated something, they did not go beyond it to anything else, thus imitating the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Abu Bakr thought that he should fight those who refused to pay zakat. 'Umar said, "How can you fight people when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I was commanded to fight people until they say, "There is no god but Allah." When they say, "There is no god but Allah", then their blood and property are safe from me except for a right they owe, and their reckoningis up to Allah'?" Abu Bakr answered, "By Allah, I will fight whoever separates what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has joined together." After that 'Umar followed him, and Abu Bakr did not pay attention to any consultation since he had the ruling of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about those who make a distinction between the prayer and zakat and wanted to change the deen and its rulings." The Prophet * said, "Kill anyone who changes his deen."

The reciters were those who were 'Umar's advisors, both the mature and the young. He stopped at that which was found in the Book of Allah Almighty.

6935. 'Urwa, Ibn al-Musayyab, 'Alqama ibn Waqqas and 'Ubaydullah related from 'A'isha about when the people of the Lie said what they said to her: "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and Usama ibn Zayd when the revelation had been delayed to consult them and ask them about divorcing his wife. Usama pointed out to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, what he knew of his wife's innocence, but 'Ali said, 'Allah has not constricted you and there are many women besides her. Ask the slavegirl to tell you the truth.' He asked (her), 'Have you seen anything in her which would make you doubt her?' She answered, 'I have not seen her do anything for which I could criticise her beyond the fact that she is a young girl who sleeps, neglecting her family's leaven so that the sheep comes and eats it.' He stood on the minbar and said, 'O company of Muslims! Who will help us against a man who has harmed in respect of my family? By Allah, I only know good of my wife.'" Then he mentioned 'A'isha's innocence.

6936. 'Urwa related from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,addressed the people and praised and lauded Allah and said, "What do you suggest I do about people who say bad things about my wife, I have never known any bad about them."

'Urwa said, "When 'A'isha was told about the business, she said, "Messenger of Allah, will you give me permission to go to my family?" He gave her permssion and sent a slave along with her. A man of the Ansar [Abu Ayyub al-Ansari] said, "Glory be to Allah! It is not right for us to talk about this. Glory be to Allah! This is a terrible lie!"