Books of Oaths and Vows

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

10245. Books of Oaths and Vows

Allah Almighty says, "Allah does not take you to task for your inadvertent oaths, but He will take you to task for oaths you make intentionally.The expiation in that case is to feed ten poor people with the average amount you feed your family, or clothe them, or free a slave. Anyone without the means to do so should fast three days. That is the expiation for breaking oaths when you have sworn them. Keep your oaths. In this way Allah makes His Signs clear to you, so that hopefully you will be thankful." (5:89)

6247. 'A'isha related that Abu Bakr never broke any of his oaths until Allah revealed the expiation of oaths. Then he said, "If I take an oath about something and then see that someone else is better than it, I will do that which is better and expiate my oath."

6248. Al-Hasan related that 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Samura said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, ''Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Samura. Do not ask for leadership. If you are given it without asking for it, then you will be helped in it. If you are given it through asking for it, then it will be left up to you. If you make a vow and then see something other than it which is better than it, then do that which is better and expiate your oath.'"

6249. Abu Burda related that his father, Abu Musa, said, "I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a group of Ash'arites to ask him to give us mounts. He said, 'By Allah, I will not give you mounts and I do not have anything which you can ride.' Then we stayed there as long as Allah wished us to stay and then three camels with white humps were brought to him and he had us ride them. When we left, we – or some of us – said, 'By Allah, we will have no blessing! We went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask him for mounts and he swore that he would not give us mounts and then he gave us mounts. Return to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and remind him.' We went to him and he said, 'I did not give you mounts. Allah gave you mounts. By Allah, Allah willing, I will never swear an oath and then see something better than it but that I will expiate it and do that which is better (or do that will is better and expiate my oath.'"

6250. Hammam ibn Munabbih said that Abu Hurayra related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "We are the last, but  will be the forerunners on the Day of Rising." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "By Allah, if any of you insists on performing an oath which will harm his family, he does a greater wrong action in the sight of Allah than giving its expiation which Allah has imposed for it."

6251. 'Ikrima related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone insists on carrying out an oath about his family does a greater wrong. He should do what is good," i.e. expiate it.

I. The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Yes, by Allah (waymu'llah)"

6252. 'Abdullah ibn Dinar related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent an expedition and but Usama ibn Zayd in command of it. Some people criticised his leadership. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up and said, 'If you attack your leadership, you attacked the leadership of his father before. By Allah, he was worthy of leadership. and he was one of the most beloved of people to me. This is one of the most beloved of people to me after him.'"

II. What was the oath of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, like?

Sa'd said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'By the One who has my soul in His hand.'"

Abu Qatada said, "Abu Bakr said in the presence of the Prophet, 'No, by Allah (laaha Allah).'"

It is said, "Wallahu, billahi, and tallahi."

6253. Salim related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The oath of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was, No, by the Overturner of hearts."

6254. 'Abdu'l-Malik related from Jabir ibn Samura that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Caesar dies, there will be no Caesar after him. When Chosroes dies, there will be no Chosroes after him. By the One who had my soul in His hand, you will spend their treasures in the way of Allah."

6255. Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Chosroes dies, there will be no Chosroes after him. When Caesar dies, there will be no Caesar after him. By the One who has the soul of Muhammad in His hand, you will spend their treasures in the way of Allah."

6256. 'A'isha related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O community of Muhammad, by Allah, if you were to know what I knew, they would weep much and laugh little."

6257. Abu 'Uqayl Zuhra ibn Ma'bad related that he heard his grandfather, 'Abdullah ibn Hisham say, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was holding the hand of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. 'Umar said to him, 'Messenger of Allah, you are dearer to me than anything except my self.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'No, by the One who has my soul in His had, not until I am dearer to you than your self.' 'Umar said to him, 'Now, by Allah, you are dearer to me than my self.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Now, 'Umar!'"

6258. Abu Hurayra and Zayd ibn Khalid reported that two men took a dispute to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of them said, "Judge between us by the Book of Allah," and the other said, who had more understanding, said, "Yes, Messenger of Allah, judge between us by the Book of Allah and give me leave to speak." "Speak," he said. He said, "My son is a labourer for this man (Malik said that 'asif means a labourer) and he committed fornication with his wife. They told me that my son must be stoned, and so I ransomed my son with a hundred sheep and a slave-girl of mine. Then I asked the people of knowledge and they told me that my son must receive a hundred lashes and be exiled for a year and that it is wife who is to be stoned." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "By the One who has my soul in His hand, I will judge between the two of you by the Book of Allah. The slave-girl and sheep must be returned to you." Then he gave his son a hundred lashes and exiled him for a year. He commanded Unays al-Aslami to go to the wife of the other man and that if she confessed, he was to stone her. She confessed and he stoned her.

6259. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr related from his father that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do you think that if the tribes of Aslam, Ghifar, Muzayna and Juhayna were better than Tamim, 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'a. Ghatafan and Asad, they have failed and have lost?" "Yes," they answered. He said, "By the One who has my soul in His hand, they are better than them."

6260. 'Urwa related from Humayd as-Sa'idi that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, employed a collector. When he finished his collection, the collector came and said, "Messenger of Allah, this is for you and this was given as a gift to me." He said, "Why did you not sit in the house of your father or mother to see whether a gift would come to you or not?"

Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up in the evening after the prayer and praised Allah as is proper for him, Then he said, "Following on from that, what is wrong with the agent we employed? He came to us and said, 'This is your work and this was given as a gift for me.' Why did he not sit in the house of his father or mother to see whether a gift would come to him or not? By the One who has my soul in His hand, none of you will take anything without right but that he will carry it on his back on the Day of Rising, be it a camel which is grumbling, or a cow which is mooing, or a sheep which is bleating. I have conveyed it."

Abu Humayd said, "Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, raised his hands until we could see the whites of his armpits." Abu Humayd said that he heard that from Zayd ibn Thabit from the Prophet, so ask him.

6261. Hammam related from Abu Hurayra that Abu'l-Qasim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "By the One who has the soul of Muhammad in his hand, if you knew what I knew, you would weep much and laugh little."

6262. Al-Ma'rur related that Abu Dharr said, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was saying in the shade of the Ka'ba, 'They are the losers, by the Lord of the Ka'ba. They are the losers, by the Lord of the Ka'ba.' I said, 'What is the matter with me? Does he see something in me? What is the matter with me?' I sat beside him while he was saying this. I could not remain silent and I was distressed as Allah wished.' I said, 'Who are they, may my father and mother be your ransom, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'They are those with the most wealth except for the one who spends like this, like this and like this.'"

6263. Al-A'raj related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Sulayman said, 'I will go around tonight to ninety wives and each woman will produce a warrior who will fight in the way of Allah.' His companion angel said to him, 'Say, "Allah willing."' He did not say it and forgot. He went around to them and none of them gave birth except a woman who had half a person. By the One who has the soul of Muhammad in His hand, if he had said, 'Allah willing', they would all have fought in the Way of Allah as warriors.'"

6264. Abu'l-Ahwas related from Abu Ishaq that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "A piece of silk was given to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the people began to pass it around between them and admired its beauty and softness. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Does it astonish you?' 'Yes, Messenger of Allah,' they answered. He said, 'By the One who has my soul in His hand, the handkerchief of Sa'd in the Garden is better than it."

Shu'ba and Isra'il did not report from Abu Ishaq, "By the One who has my soul in His hand."

6265. 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr related that 'A'isha said, ""Hind bint 'Uqba ibn Rabi'a said, 'Messenger of Allah, there was no person dwelling on the face of the earth whose family I wished to see abased more than your family. Now today that is person dwelling on the face of the earth whose family I wished to see exalted more than your family.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'As well, by the One who has my soul in His hand.' She said, 'Messenger of Allah, Abu Sufyan is a grasping man. Is there anything against me if I feed my children from what he has?' He said, "No, but only when it is reasonable."

6266. 'Amr ibn Maymun was heard to relate that 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was resting his back against a tent of Yemeni leather, he said to his Companions, "Are you pleased that you will be a quarter of the people of the Garden?' They said, 'Yes.' He said, 'Are you pleased to be a third of the people of the Garden?' They said, 'Yes.' He said, 'By the One who has the soul of Muhammad in His hand, I hope that you will be half of the people of the Garden.'"

6267. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that a man heard another man recite, "Say: 'He is Allah, the One'..." (112:1)  and repeating it. In the morning he went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned that to him and it appeared as if the man thought that it was little. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "By the One who has my soul in His hand, it is equal to a third of the Qur'an."

6268. Qatada related that Anas ibn Malik heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Do your prostration and bowing fully. By the One who has my soul in His hand, I see you from behind my back when you bow and when you prostate."

6269. Hisham ibn Zayd related from Anas ibn Malik that a woman of the Ansar came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with her children. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "By the One who has my soul in His hand, you are the most beloved of people to me." He said that three times.

III. Do not swear by your fathers

6270. Nafi' related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, met 'Umar ibn al-Khattab while he was proceeding with a group of riders and he was swearing by his father. He said, 'Allah forbids you from swearing by your fathers. If someone swears, should swear by Allah or be silent."

6271. Salim related that Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard 'Umar say, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, "Allah forbids you to swear by your fathers." ''Umar said, 'By Allah, since I heard the Messenger of Allah,  may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I have not swore by them either directly or when quoting someone else."

Mujahid said that "Or any remnant of knowledge" (46:4) is transmitted knowledge.

It is corroborated by 'Uqayl, az-Zubaydi and Ishaq al-Kalbi from az-Zuhri.

Another isnad from Ibn 'Umar who said, "The Prophet* heard 'Umar..."

6272. 'Abdullah ibn Dinar related, "I heard 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar say, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not swear by your fathers."'"

6273. It is related that Zahdam said, "We were with Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, and there was friendship between us and this tribe of Jarm. He was brought some food which contained chicken meat. There was present with him a man from the Banu Taym who was reddish as if he were one of the Greek clients. He was invited to the food but he said, 'I saw them eating something filthy and I swore that I would not eat them.' Abu Musa said, 'Come and I will inform you about that. I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, among the group of the Ash'arites, asking him to give us mounts. He said, 'By Allah, I will not give you mounts, and I do not have any mounts to give you.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought some camels as booty. He asked about us and said, 'Where are the Ash'arites?' He commanded for us five camels with white humps. When we left, we said, 'What have we done? The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, swore an oath that he would not give us any mounts and then he gave us mounts. We are taking advantage? of Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forgetting his oath. By Allah, we will never prosper!' So we returned to him and said, 'We came to you and asked you to give us mounts and you swore that you would not give us mounts. and that you had no mounts to give us.' He said, 'I am not the one who gave you mounts, but Allah gave you mounts. By Allah, I will never make an oath and then see something better than it without doing the thing that is better and then doing expiation for it.'"

IV. One should not swear by al-Lat or al-'Uzza or idols

6274. Humayd ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever swears and says 'by al-Lat and al-'Uzza' in his oath, should say, 'There is no god but Allah.' Whoever says to his companion, 'Come, I will bet you,' should give sadaqa.'"

V. Someone who gives an oath about something when he has not been asked to swear

6275. Nafi' related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a gold ring made for himself which he used to wear, with the bezel turned towards the palm of his hand. Then people made rings. Then he sat on the minbar and removed it, saying, "I used to wear this ring with its bezel facing inwards." He threw it away and then said, "By Allah, I will never wear it again." So the people threw their rings away."

VI. Someone who swears by a religion other than the religion of Islam

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever swears by al-Lat and al-'Uzza should say, 'There is no god but Allah.'"

He did not accuse him of unbelief.

6276. Abu Qilaba related from Thabit ibn ad-Dahhak that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever swears by a religion other than the religion of Islam is as he said." He also said, "Whoever kills himself with something will be punished with it in the Fire of Jahannam. Cursing a believer is like killing him. If someone accuses a believer of unbelief, that is like killing him."

VI. Do not say, "What Allah wills and you will." Can someone say, "I am by Allah and then by you"?

6277. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi 'Amra reported that Abu Hurayra heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Allah desired to test three of the tribe of Israel and so he sent an angel. He went to the leper and said, 'My means are cut off and I can obtain none except by Allah and by you,'" and he mentioned the hadith.

VII. The words of Allah Almighty, "They have sworn by Allah with their most earnest oaths ..." (6:109)

Ibn 'Abbas said that Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, Messenger of Allah, you will tell me of how I erred in interpreting the dream," to which he said, "Do not take an oath."

6278. Mu'awiya ibn Suwayd ibn Muqarrin related that al-Bara' said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered us to assist the one who had taken an oath in fulfilling it."

6279. Abu 'Uthman was heard to relate from Usama that the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent to him while Usama ibn Zayd, Sa'd, Abi or Ubayy were with him to say that her son was dying and asking him to attend. He sent the greeting to her and said, "Allah takes what is His and what He gives is His. Everything has a fixed term with Him, so she should show fortitude and expect a reward." She sent to him adjuring him to come to her. He got up and we got up with him. When he sat down, the child was brought to him and placed in his lap and the child was shuddering. The eyes of Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were flowing with tears and Sa'd said, 'Messenger of Allah, what is this?' He said, 'This is an aspect of mercy which Allah has put in the hearts of His slaves. Allah is merciful to His slaves who are merciful.'"

6280. Ibn al-Musayyab related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Any Muslim who has three of his children die will not be touched by the Fire except for the fulfilling of the oath."

6281. Ma'bad ibn Khalid heard Haritha ibn Wahb say that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Shall I direct you to the people of the Garden? All who are weak and thought to be weak. If they were to take an oath by Allah, Allah would carry it out Shall I tell you about the people of the Fire? All those who are coarse, domineering, and arrogant."

IX. When someone says, "I testify by Allah," or "I have testified by Allah."

6282. 'Abid related that 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, 'Which people are best?' He answered, 'My generation, and then those who follow them, and then those who follow them, then will come a people whose testimony will precede their oaths and oaths their testimony."

Ibrahim said, "When we were boys, our companions forbade is to swear by the testimony or His covenant."

X. The covenant of Allah

6283. Abu Wa'il related from 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "whoever swears a false oath in order to obtain some of the property of a Muslim man (or his brother) will find Allah agree with him when he meets him." Allah revealed its confirmation, "Those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price." (3:77)

In his hadith, Sulayman said, "Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays passed by and asked, 'What did 'Abdullah relate to you?' They told him and al-Ash'ath said, "It was revealed about me and a companion of mine about a well in which we shared ownership.'"

XI. Swearing by the might of Allah, His attributes and His words

Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say, 'I seek refuge by Your might.'"

Abu Hurayra reported from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "A man will remain between the Garden and the Fire, and will say, 'O Lord, turn my face away from the Fire! No, by Your might, I will not ask you for anything more!"

Abu Sa'id said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah says, 'You will have that and ten like it."

Ayyub said, By Your might, Your blessing cannot be dispensed with!"

6284. Qatada related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Jahannam will continue to say, 'Is there any more?' until the Lord of Might places his foot in it and then it will say, 'Enough! Enough!' and its parts will adhere to one another."

Shu'ba related it from Qatada.

XII. The words of a man "By the life of Allah (la-'amru'llah)!"

Ibn 'Abbas said, "By your life! By Your living!"

6285. Az-Zuhri said: I heard 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr, Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, 'Alqama ibn Waqqas and 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah relate from the hadith of 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, when the people of the Lie said about they said about her and Allah proclaimed her innocence, each of them relating some of the hadith to me: "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and asked for someone to relieve him of 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy. Usayd ibn Hudayr stood up and said to Sa'd ibn 'Ubada, 'By the life of Allah, we will kill him!'"

XIII. "Allah will not take you to task for inadvertent statements in your oaths, but He will take you to task for the intention your hearts have made. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, All-Forbearing." (2:225)

6286. It is related that 'A'isha said about "Allah will not take you to task for inadvertent statements in your oaths...": "It was revealed about oaths like 'No, by Allah' and 'Yes, by Allah.'"

XIV. When someone breaks an oath out of forgetfulness

The words of Allah, "You are not to blame for any honest mistake you make." (33:5)

And He says, "Do not take me to task because I forgot." (18:73)

6287. Zurara ibn Awfa related that Abu Hurayra said, "For my community Allah overlooks whisperings or what their selves say as long as they do not act on that or articulate that.'

6288. 'Isa ibn Talha related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As that while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was speaking on the Day of Sacrifice, a man got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I thought that such-and-such and such-and such came before such-and-such and such-and-such.' Then another got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I thought such-and-such about these three actions.' The Prophet said, 'Act, and there is no wrong.' about all those matters on that day, He was not asked about anything but that he said, 'Act, and there is no wrong.'"

[These questions were about the incorrect order of actions (sacrifice, shaving the head and tawaf) in the hajj.]

6289. 'Ata' related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'I did tawaf before I stoned.' He said, 'There is no harm.' Another said, 'I shaved before I sacrifice,' He said, 'There is no harm.' Another said, 'I sacrificed before I stoned,' and he said, 'There is no harm.'"

6290. Sa'id ibn Abi Sa'id related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in a corner of the mosque when a man entered and prayed. The man came and greeted him and the Prophet said, 'Go and back and pray. You have not prayed.' He went back and prayed and gave the greeting. He said, 'You must go back and pray for you have not prayed. The third time he said, 'Teach me.' He said, 'When you stand for the prayer, do wudu' properly, then face the qibla and say the takbir and then recite something you know well from the Qur'an and then do ruku' until you are at rest in your ruku'. Then stand back up until you are completely upright. Then go into sajda until you are at rest in your sajda. Then sit back until you are at rest in the sitting position. Then go into sajda until you are at rest in your sajda. Then sit back until you are at rest in the sitting position. Do that throughout all of your prayer.'"

6291. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha said, "On the Day of Uhud when the idolworshippers were clearly defeated, Iblis shouted, 'Slaves of Allah! Watch your backs!' So the first of them turned back to fight the last of them. Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman looked, and there was his father and he cried out, 'My father! My father!' By Allah, they did not leave him until they had killed him.' Hudhayfa said, 'May Allah forgive you.'" 'Urwa said, 'By Allah, Hudhayfa continued to pray for good regarding it until he met Allah."

6292. Khilas and Muhammad related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever eats out of forgetfulness while he is fasting should complete his fast. Allah has fed him and given him water."

6293. It is related from al-A'raj that 'Abdullah ibn Buhayna said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, led us in the prayer and he stood up after the first two rak'ats without sitting and continued the prayer, When he finished the prayer, the people waited for his taslim, and he said the takbir and prostrated before he said the salam, and then he raised his head, said the takbir and prostrated. Then he came up and said the salam."

6294. 'Alqama related from Ibn Mas'ud that the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, led us in them in Zuhr prayer and then added to it or shortened it. (Mansur said, "I do not know whether Ibrahim or 'Alqama was weak.") He said, "It was said, 'Messenger of Allah, 'Has the prayer been shortened or have you forgotten?' He asked, 'What is that?' They said, 'You prayed such-and-such.' The he did two prostrations with them and then said, 'These two prostrations are for the person who does not know whether he has added to his pray or decreased it. He should seek what is correct and then complete what remains and then perform two prostrations.'"

6295. Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I said to Ibn 'Abbas, 'Ubayy ibn Ka'b related to us that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "He [Musa] said. 'Do not take me to task because I forgot. Do not demand of me something which is too difficult.' (18:73)" He said that the first excuse used by Musa was forgetfulness.'"

6296. Ash-Sha'bi related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib had a guest and ordered his family to slaughter before he returned so that their guest could eat. They slaughtered before the prayer and mentioned that to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He ordered him to slaughter again. He said, "Messenger of Allah, I have a young goat which is a milk-goat which is better than two sheep for meat."

Ibn 'Awn used to stop at this point in the hadith of ash-Sha'bi and related the like of this hadith from Muhammad ibn Sirin. He stopped at this point and said, "I do not know whether the allowance extended to others besides him or not." Ayyub related from Ibn Sirin from Anas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

6297. Al-Aswad ibn Qays related that Jundub said, "I was present when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed the 'Id prayer and then gave the khutba and said, 'Whoever has already made his sacrifice should replace it. Whoever has not sacrificed, should sacrifice in the Name of Allah."

XV. Chapter. Deliberate Oaths in order to cheat someone

"Do not make your oaths a means of deceiving one another or your foot will slip after it was firmly placed and you will taste evil for barring access to the Way of Allah and you will have a terrible punishment." (16:92) Dakhalan means deceit and treachery.

6298. Ash-Sha'bi related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Prophet*, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The major wrong actions are shirk with Allah, disobeying parents, murder and false oaths."

XVI. The words of Allah Almighty, "Those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price, such people will have no portion in the Next World, and on the Day of Rising Allah will not speak to them or look at them or purify them. They will have a painful punishment." (3:77)

The Almighty says, "Do not, by your oaths, make Allah a pretext to avoid good action and having taqwa and putting things right between people. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing." (2:223)

And His words, "Do not sell Allah's contract for a paltry price. What is with Allah is better for you if you only knew." (16:95)

"Be true to Allah's contract when you have agreed to it, and do not break your oaths once they are confirmed and you have made Allah your guarantee." (16:91)

6299. Abu Wa'il related from 'Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever swears a legal oath by which he deprives a Muslim of his property will meet Allah and find Him angry with him." Allah revealed to confirm that, 'Those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price...' (3:77) Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays came and said, 'What has Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman {i.e. 'Abdullah] related to you?' They said, 'Such-and-such and such-and-such.' He said, 'This was sent down about me. I owned a well on the land of a cousin of mine. I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said to me, 'Your evidence or his oath.' I said, 'Then he will take an oath for it, Messenger of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever swears a legal oath and swear a false oath by which he deprives a Muslim of his property will meet Allah on the Day of Rising and find Him angry with him.'"

XVII. Making an oath about something which is not in someone's power, or to commit disobedience, or in a state of anger

6300. Abu Burda reported that Abu Musa said, "My companions sent me to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask for some mounts. He said, 'By Allah, I will not give you anything to ride.' I happened to meet him when he was angry. When I met him again, he said, 'Go to your companions and say, 'Allah - or Allah's Messenger , may Allah bless him and grant him peace - will give you mounts to ride.'"

6301. Az-Zuhri said, "I heard 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr, Sa'id ibn Musayyab, 'Alqama ibn Waqqas and 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba, relating from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, when the people of the Lie said what they said about her and Allah declared her innocent of what they said, each group relating a portion of the hadith, and Allah revealed the ten ayats, 'There is a group of you who propagated the lie. . .' (24:11-21) All of them are revealed about my innocence. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, who used to provide maintenance for Mistah ibn Uthatha because he was related to him, said, 'By Allah, I will never provide anything for Mistah ever again after what he said about A'isha!' So Allah revealed, ''Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor ..." Abu Bakr said, 'Yes, by Allah, I want Allah to forgive me.' So he restored to Mistah what he had been giving him. He said, 'By Allah, I will never divest him of it!'"

6302. Zahdam said, "We were with Abu Musa al-Ash'ari when he said, "I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a group of Ash'aris and happened to come to him when he was angry and asked him to give us mounts and he swore that he would not give us something to ride. Then he said, 'By Allah, Allah willing, I will never swear an oath and then see something better than it but that I will expiate it and do that which is better (or do that which is better and expiate my oath.'"

XVIII. If someone says, "By Allah, I will not speak today" and then prays or recites Qur'an, says, "Glory be to Allah," 'Allah is greater," Praise belongs to Allah," or "There is no god but Allah," he is according to his intention.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "The best of words are four: "Glory be to Allah, Praise belongs to Allah, There is no god but Allah, and Allah is greater."

Abu Sufyan said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wrote to Heraclius. 'Come to a word which is common to you and us.."

Mujahid said, "the word of taqwa" (48:26) is "There is no god but Allah."

6303. Az-Zuhri related from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that his father said, "When Abu Talib dying, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to him and said, 'Say: "There is no god but Allah," a word with which I will be able to argue on your behalf with Allah.'"

6304. Abu Zur'a related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Two words are light on the tongue, but heavy in the balance and beloved to the All-Merciful: "Glory be to Allah and by His praise. Glory be to Allah, the Immense."

6305. Shaqiq related that 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said something and then I said something. He said, 'Whoever dies while attributing an equal to Allah will be made to enter the Garden,' and I said, 'Whoever dies and does not attribute an equal to Allah will admitted to the Garden.'"

XIX. The one who swore that he would not go to his wife for a month, and then the month was twenty-nine days

6306. Humayd related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made a vow that to stay away for his wives [for a month] when his foot was sprained. He stayed in his upper room for 29 days and then came out. They said, 'Messenger of Allah, you took an oath to stay away for a month!" He said, 'The month is 29 days.'"

XX. When someone swears that he will not drink nabidh and then drinks tila', sakar or juice, some people say that he has not broken his oath, and they do not consider these to be nabidh

[Nabidh is an effusion made with dried dates, raisins or the likes which is drunk before it becomes intoxicating. Tila' is a drink made by boiling grape juice until part of it evaporates. Sakar is an infusion made from fresh dates.]

6307. It is related by Abu Hazim from Sahl ibn Sa'd that Abu Usayd, the Companion of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got married and invited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  to his wedding. The bride served them. Sahl said to the people, "Do you know what drink she served him? She soaked some dates for him in a port at night and in the morning she gave him it to drink."

6308. 'Ikrima related from Ibn 'Abbas that Sawda, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A sheep belonging to us died and we tanned its skin and continued to make nabidh in it until it was a worn-out skin."

XXI. When someone makes an oath not to season his bread, and then eats dates with bread or eats something with ghee

6309. 'Abis related that 'A'isha said, "The family of Muhammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never had their fill of wheat bread with condiment for three days in a row until he met Allah."

Another isnad with that.

6310. Anas ibn Malik related, "I heard the voice of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it was weak and I recognised hunger in it. Do you have anything?' She said, 'Yes,' and produced some barley loaves. She took a scarf of hers and wrapped up the bread in part of it and then she put it under my garment and tied the other end of it round me. Then she sent me to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I took it with me. I found the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sitting in the mosque with some people. I stood over them and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Did Abu Talha send you?' I said, 'Yes.' He said, 'For a meal?' I said, 'Yes.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Get up.' Then he set off and I went on ahead of them until I came to Abu Talha and informed him. Abu Talha said, 'Umm Sulaym! The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has come with some people, and we do not have anything to feed them.' She said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.' Abu Talha went to meet the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went forward with him until they both entered and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Bring what you have, Umm Sulaym.' So she brought that bread and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded it to be broken up and then Umm Sulaym squeezed some ghee on it to flavour it.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said what Allah willed over it and then he said, 'Admit ten,' and he admitted them. They ate until they were full and then went out. Then he said, 'Admit ten' and he admitted them. They ate until they were full and then went out. Then he said, 'Admit ten' and he admitted them and so on until all the people had eaten and were full, and there were seventy or eighty men."

XXII. Intention in oaths

6311. 'Alqama ibn Waqqas al-Laythi said, "I heard 'Umar ibn al-Khattab say, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Actions are but judged according to intentions. Every man has what he intends. So whoever emigrates to Prophet and His Messenger, his emigration is to Allah and His Messenger. Whoever emigrates to gain something of this world or to marry a woman, his emigration is for that to which he emigrated."

XXIII. When someone gives away his property because of a vow or repentance

6312. 'Abdullah ibn Ka'b ibn Malik, who was one of Ka'b ibn Malik's sons who guided him when he went blind, said, "I heard Ka'b ibn Malik say in the end of his account about, 'to the three who remained behind,' 'Part of my repentance was that I divested myself of my property as sadaqa for Allah and His Messenger. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Keep some of your property. That would be better for you."'"

XXIV. When someone declares food unlawful [for himself]

The words of the Almighty, "O Prophet! Why do you make unlawfuul what Allah has made lawful for you, seeking to please your wives? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (66:1)

He says, "Do not make unlawful the good things Allah has made lawful for you." (5:87)

6313. 'Ubayd ibn 'Umayr was heard to say that 'A'isha stated, "The Prophet,  may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to stay with Zaynab bint Jahsh and drink honey with her. Hafsa and I decided that if he came to either of us, she would say to him, 'I smell maghafir on you. You have eaten maghafir (a sweet gum with a foul smell).' He came to one of us and she said that to him. He said, 'No, rather I have drunk honey with Zaynab bint Jahsh. I will do not so again.'" It was revealed "O Prophet! Why do you make unlawfuul what Allah has made lawful for you? ... to .. "If the two of you would only turn to Allah." (66:1-4) addressed to 'A'isha and Hafsa. "The Prophet confided a certain matter to one of his wives" (66:3), which was his words, "I have drunk honey."

Hisham said, "I will not do so again, and I have sworn it. Do not tell anyone about that."

XXV. Fulfilling vows

His words, "They fulfil their vows." (76:7)

6314. Sa'id ibn al-Harith related that he heard Ibn 'Umar say, "Were they not forbidden to make vows? The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'A vow does not advance or delay. By the vow, something is extracted from a miser.'"

6315. 'Abdullah ibn Murra related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade vows and said, 'It does not repel anything, and extracts something from the miser.'"

6316. Al-A'raj related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The vow does not bring the son of Adam anything not decreed for him, but his vow may meet the decree which has been decreed for him. By it Allah extracts from the miser and he gives Me what he would not give but for his vow.'"

XXVI. The wrong action of the one who does not fulfil a vow

6317. Zahdam ibn Mudarrib said, "I heard 'Imran ibn Husayn relate that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The best of you is my generation, and then those who follow them, and then those who follow them.' 'Imran said, 'I do not know whether he mentioned two or three after his generation.' [He continued,] 'Then will come a people who make vows but do not fulfil them, who are treacherous and not trustworthy, who give testimony when they are not asked for it, and plumpness will appear among them.'"

XXVII. A vow in Allah's obedience

"Whatever amount you spend or vow you make, Allah knows it. The wrongdoers have no helpers." (2:270)

6318. Al-Qasim related that 'A'isha said that the Prophet*, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever vows to obey Allah, should obey Him. Whoever vows to disobey Him, should not disobey Him."

XXVIII. When someone vowed or swore that he would not speak to anyone in the Jahiliyya and then became Muslim

6319. Nafi' related from Ibn 'Umar that 'Umar said, "Messenger of Allah. in the Jahiliyya, I vowed to do i'tikaf in the Masjid al-Haram for one night.' He said, "Fulfil your vow."

XXIX. Someone who dies with an unfulfilled vow

Ibn 'Umar commanded a woman whose mother had died having made a vow to pray in Quba': "Pray on her behalf."

Ibn 'Abbas said the like of that.

6320. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas reported that Sa'd ibn 'Ubada al-Ansari asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  for a fatwa about a vow which his mother made but then had died before fulfilling it. He gave him a verdict that he should fulfil it on her behalf. That became a sunna afterwards.

6321. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "My sister made a vow to go on hajj and died." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If she owed a debt, would you have settled it?" He answered, "Yes." He said, "Then settle it with Allah. He more right to be paid off."

XXX. A vow about something one does not own and a vow to disobey Allah

6322. Al-Qasim related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever vows to obey Allah, should obey Him. Whoever vows to disobey Him, should not disobey Him."

6323. Thabit related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah has no need of this person torturing himself," when he saw him walking between his two sons."

Another isnad from Thabit from Anas.

6324. Tawus related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a man doing tawaf of the Ka'ba tied with a rein [by which someone was leading him] or something else and he cut that.

6325. Tawus related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a man who was doing tawaf of the Ka'ba while another person was leading him by a nose ring in his nose. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cut it with his own hand and then commanded him to lead him by the hand.

6326. 'Ikrima related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was giving a speech, he saw a man who was standing and asked about him. They said, "Abu Isra'il. He vowed that he will stand and not sit, not seek shade nor speak and will fast." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Command him to speak, seek shade and sit, but he should complete his fast."

Another isnad from 'Ikrima from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

XXXI. Someone who vows to fast for some days which coincide with the 'Id an-Nahr or 'Id al-Fitr

6327. Hakim ibn Abi Hurra al-Aslami said that he heard 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar being asked about a man who made a vow that he would fast every day and then that coincided with 'Id an-Nahr or 'Id al-Fitr. He said, "'You have a good example in the Messenger of Allah.' (33:21) He did not fast the day of Adha or Fitr and did not think that they should be fasted." [Or 'we do not think'.)

6328. Ziyad ibn Jubayr said, "I was with Ibn 'Umar when a man asked him, 'I have vowed to fast every Tuesday or Wednesday as long as I live and this day coincides with the 'Id an-Nahr.' Ibn 'Umar said, 'Allah has commanded that vows be fulfilled and we were forbidden to fast the Day of Nahr.' The man repeated the question and he gave him a similar answer, adding nothing more."

XXXII. Can land, sheep, agriculture and belongings be included in oaths and vows?

Ibn 'Umar said that 'Umar said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "I have got a piece of land and I have never had a more valuable piece of land." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If you wish, you can make a habous of it and give [its proceeds ] as sadaqa."

Abu Talha said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "The dearest of my property is Bayruha'," a garden which he owned opposite the mosque."

6329. the client of Ibn Muti' related that Abu Hurayra said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the Day of Khaybar and did not take as booty either gold nor silver. We only took some property, clothing and goods. A man of the Banu'd-Dubayb called Rifa'a ibn Zayd, gave the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a slave called Mid'am. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,made for Wadi al-Qura In Wadi al-Qura while Mid'am was removing the saddle of the Messenger of Allah, a stray arrow came and hit him and killed him. The people said, 'Welcome to the Garden for him!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'No, by the One who has my soul in His hand, the cloak which he took from the booty on the Day of Khaybar before the distribution has been kindled into fire on him.' When the people heard that, one man brought one or two straps to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, ''One - or two - straps of fire.'"