Book of Tafsir (Continued)

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 68. Book of Tafsir (Continued)

"The All-Merciful, theMost Merciful (ar-Rahmân, ar-Rahîm)" are two names which derive from "mercy (rahma)". Rahîm and Râhim have the same meaning, as do 'alîm and 'âlim (knowing).

CXXXIII: Tafsir of Surat al-A'raf

Ibn 'Abbas said that "riyashan" (7:26) is wealth. "He does not love those who overstep the limits," (7:55) in supplication and other things. "'Afü" (7:95) means "they grew in number and their wealth grew." "Fattâh" (34:26) is the Judge. "Iftah baynana" (7:89) means "decide between us." "Nataqnâ" (7;171) means "We raised." "Inbajasat" (7:160) is to gush forth. "Mutabbarun" (7:149) is loss. "Asa" (7:93) is to feel sorrow. "Ta'sa" (5:26, 68) is to sorrow.

Another said that "What prevented you from prostrating?" (7:12) means "What stopped you from prostrating?" "They began to stitch" (7:22), they took palm leaves from the leaves of the Garden, and joined the leaves together. "Sawatihima" (7:20) is an allusion to their private parts. "Enjoyment for a time" (7:24) it is here until the Day of Rising. Hîn with the Arabs can designate time from an hour to an unaccounted amount of time.

Riyash and rish mean the same, and it are the outward garments.

"Qabiliuhi" (7:27) is the generation which he is from, and "addârakü" (7:38) means "to gather".

All the openings of man and animal are called sumüm (7:40), the singular being samm. They are: his eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, anus and urethra. "Ghawash" (7:41) is what is covered. "Nushuran" (7:57) is separated. "Nikadan" (7:58) is little. "Yaghnü" (7:92) is to live. "Haqîq" (7:105) is right. "They struck terror into them" (7:116) comes from rahba (awe). "Talqafu" (7:117) means to swallow quickly. "Ta'iruhum" (7:131) is their fortune. "Tûfân" (wholesale deatb) (7:133) comes from flood. One says that a lot of death is a flood. "Qummal" (7:133) are lice, which are like small ticks. "'Urüsh" and "'arîsh" (7:137) mean a structure. As for "suqita" (7:149), everyone who repents "falls into his hand (i.e. is aghast)." Al-Asbat are the tribes of the Banu Israel. "When they broke the Sabbath" (7:163) is that they violated it. "Ta'du" (18:28) means to go beyond. "Shurra'an" (7:163) are thoroughfares. "Ba'ish" (7;165) means strong. "Akhlada" (7:176) is to sit and to neglect. "We will lead them, step by step, into destruction" (7:182) is We bring them out of their safe place, like the words of the Almighty, "Then Allah came upon them from where they least expected it." (59:2) "Min jinnatin" (7:184) is madness. "Carries it about" (7:189): The pregnancy continued with her and came to completion. "Provokes you" (7:200) unsettles you. "Tayf" (7:201) to be stricken by slight mental derangement. It is also said, "ta'if", which is the singular. "Lead them further" (7:202) is to make attractive. "Wa khîfa" (7:205) fear, and khufya is from ikhfa'.  As for "asâl" (7:205), the singular is asîl, and it is what is between 'Asr and Maghrib, as He said, "bukratan wa asilan" (25:5), meaning "morning and evening".

 

CXXXIV: "My Lord has forbidden indecency, both open and secret" (7:33)

4361. It is related from Abu Wa'il from 'Abdullah . I [Abu Wa'il] asked, "You heard it from 'Abdullah?" He said, "Yes." I said, "Marfu' (going back to the Prophet)?" "There is none more jealous than Allah. That is why He made indecency unlawful, the outward and the inward. There is nothing He loves more than praise of Allah and that is why He praised Himself."

 

CXXXV: "When Musa came to Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, 'My Lord, show me Yourself so that I may look at You!' He said, 'You will not see Me, but look at the mountain. If it remains firm in its place, then you will see Me.' But when His Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, He crushed it flat and Musa fell unconscious to the ground. When he regained consciousness he said, 'Glory be to You! I turn in repentance to You and I am the first of the believers!'" (7:143)

4362. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri £said, "A Jewish man whose face had been slapped came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'O Muhammad, a man of your Companions from the Ansar slapped my face!' He said, 'Call him.' They summoned him and he asked, 'Why did you slap his face?' He replied, 'Messenger of Allah, I passed by the Jews and I heard him say, "By the One whose chose Musa over mankind," and I said, "Over Muhammad!" and was seized by anger and I slapped him.' He said, 'Do not prefer me over the Prophets. People will swoon on the Day of Rising and I will be the first who wakes up and Musa will be holding to one of the legs of the Throne. I will not know whether he came to before me or if he was spared because of the swooning of the Mount.'"

 

CXXXVI: "Manna and quails" (7:160)

4363. It is related from Sa'id ibn Zayd that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Truffles are part of manna, and their juice is a healing for the eye."

 

CXXXVII "Say: 'O mankind! I am the Messenger of Allah to you all, of Him to whom the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs. There is no god but Him. He gives life and causes to die. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet, who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him so that perhaps you will be guided.'" (7:158)

4364. It is related that AbuÕd-Darda'said, "There was a discussion between Abu Bakr and 'Umar and Abu Bakr made 'Umar angry and 'Umar left him in anger. Abu Bakr went after him to ask him to forgive him and he would not go it and even closed the door in his face. So Abu Bakr went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." Abu'd-Darda' said, "We were him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Your companion has had a quarrel.' Then 'Umar regretted what he had done and went and gave the greeting and sat with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he recounted the report to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." Abu'd-Darda' said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, became angry and Abu Bakr began to say, 'O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, I was more in the wrong.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Will you not leave me my Companion? Will you not leave me my Companion? I said, "O people! I am the Messenger of Allah to you all," and you said, ÒYou lied,Ó while Abu Bakr said, "You spoke the truth."'"

 

CXXXVIII: "Say, 'Relieve us of our burdens!'" (7:161)

4365. It is related that Abu Hurayra was heard to say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It was said to the tribe of Israel, 'Enter the gate prostrating and say, 'Relieve us of our burdens!' and We will forgive you your faults," and they altered that, and entered dragging on their buttocks. They said, 'It is a grain in a hair!'"

 

CXXXIX: "Make allowances for people, command what is right, and turn away from the ignorant." (7:199)

4366. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Uyayna ibn Hisn ibn Hudhayfa came and stayed with his nephew, al-Hurr ibn Qays, who was one of the group whom 'Umar brought near to him. The reciters were the people of the assembly and council of 'Umar no matter whether they were mature men or young men. 'Uyayna said to his nephew, 'Nephew, you have access to this amir, so ask him for permission for me to see him.' He said, "I will ask him for permission for you to see him.'" Ibn 'Abbas said, "Al-Hurr asked permission for 'Uyayna and 'Umar gave permission. When he entered where he was, he said, 'O Ibn al-Khattab! By Allah, it is that you do not give enough to us and you do not judge justly between us.' 'Umar was so angry that he wanted to punish him. Al-Hurr said to him, 'Amir al-Mu'minin, Allah Almighty said to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Make allowances for people, command what is right, and turn away from the ignorant." (7:199) This is one of the ignorant.' By Allah, 'Umar did not do less than that when he recited it. He acted in accordance with the Book of Allah."

4367. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr said that "Make allowances for people, command what is right, and turn away from the ignorant," (7:199) "Allah only sent it down about people's character."

It is related that 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr said, "Allah commanded His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to hold to forgiveness regarding people's character," or words to that effect.

 

Tafsir of Surat al-Anfal

CXL: His words, "They will ask you about booty. Say: 'Booty belongs to Allah and the Messenger. So show fear of Allah and put things right between you." (8:1)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "anfal" is booty. Qatada said, "rihukum" (8:46) is war. One calls a "nâfila" a gift.

4368. It is related that Sa'd ibn Jubayr said, "I spoke to Ibn 'Abbas about Surat al-Anfal, and he said, 'It was sent down about Badr.'"

"Shawka" (8:7) is weapons. "Murdafîna" (8:9) is group after group. "Radifanî" and "Ardafanî" is: he came behind me. "Taste" (8:50) is direct contact and experience. It does not mean the tasting of the mouth. "Heap them all together" (8:37) is to join it. "If they incline" (8:61) is to seek. Silm, Salm, and salâm are the same. "Yuthkhinu" (8:67) is to overcome.

Muhajid said that "muka'" is that they put their fingers into their mouths, and "tasdiya" (8:35) is the whistle. "to imprison you" (8:30) is to restrain you.

 

CXLI: "The worst of beasts in Allah's sight are the deaf and dumb, who have no intellect." (8:22)

4369. It is related tht Ibn 'Abbas said about, "The worst of beasts in Allah's sight are the deaf and dumb, who have no intellect," (8:22) "They are some people from the Banu 'Abdu'd-Dar."

 

CXLII: "O you who believe! Respond to Allah, and to the Messenger, when He calls you to what will bring you to life! Know that Allah intervenes between a man and his heart and that you will be gathered to Him." (8:24)

4370. It is related that Sa'id b. al-Mu'alla said, "I was praying and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by called me, but I did not answer until I had finished praying. Then I went to him and he said, 'What kept you from coming to me? Does not Allah say, "Respond to Allah, and to the Messenger, when He calls you to what will bring you to life!" (8:24)?' Then he said to me, 'I will teach you a sura which is the greatest of the suras in the Qur'an before you leave.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was about to leave, so I reminded him."

This is related from Abu Sa'id, a man of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said "It is: 'Praise be to Allah, the Lords worlds,' the Seven Oft-Repeated ones."

 

CXLIII: "When they say, 'O Allah! If this is really the Truth from You, rain stones down on us out of heaven or bring down on us a painful punishment.'" (8:32)

Ibn 'Uyayna said, "Allah Almighty only called rain (matar) in the Qur'an punishment and the Arabs call it ghayth. It is the words of the Almighty, "It is He who sends down abundant rain, after they have lost all hope." (42:28)

4371. It is related that Anas was heard to say, "Abu Jahl said, 'O Allah! If this is really the Truth from You, rain stones down on us out of heaven or bring down on us a painful punishment.' Then it was revealed: 'Allah would not punish them while you were among them. Allah would not punish them as long as they sought forgiveness. But why should Allah not punish them now when they bar access to the Sacred Mosque...?' (8:33-34)"

 

CXLIV: "Allah would not punish them while you were among them. Allah would not punish them as long as they sought forgiveness." (8:33)

4372. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "Abu Jahl said, 'O Allah! If this is really the Truth from You, rain stones down on us out of heaven or bring down on us a painful punishment.' Then it was revealed: 'Allah would not punish them while you were among them. Allah would not punish them as long as they sought forgiveness. But why should Allah not punish them now when they bar access to the Sacred Mosque...?' (8:33-34)"

 

CXLV: "Fight them until the oppression of idolatry is no more and the deen is Allah's alone." (8:39)

4373. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that a man came to him and said, "O Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman! Do you not hear what Allah mentions in His Book? 'If two parties of the believers fight...' (49:9) So what prevents you from fighting as Allah mentions in His Book?" He said, "O nephew, I would prefer to neglect this ayat and not fight than to neglect this ayat in which Allah says, 'If anyone kills a believer deliberately...' (4:93)." He said, "Allah says, 'Fight them until the oppression of idolatry is no more.' (8:39) Ibn 'Umar said, "We acted so in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when Islam was little. A man would be tested in his deen - they would either kill him or torture him, until Islam became a lot and there was no idolatry." When he saw that he him not agree with what he wanted, he said, "And what do you say about 'Ali and 'Uthman?" Ibn'Umar said, "What do I say about 'Ali and 'Uthman? 'Uthman was pardoned by Allah and you dislike the fact that he was pardoned. 'Ali was the cousin of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his in-law," and he pointed with his hand, "And this is his daughter."

4374. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "Ibn 'Umar came us to us and a man said, 'What do you think about the fighting of fitna (civil strife)?' He said, 'And do you know what fitna is? Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to fight the idolaters, and going against them was fitna. It is not your fighting for the kingdom.'"

 

CXLVI: "O Prophet! Spur on the believers to fight. If there are twenty of you who are steadfast, they will overcome two hundred; and if there are a hundred of you, they will overcome a thousand of those who reject, because they are people who do not understand." (8:65)

4375. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas, "When 'If there are twenty of you who are steadfast, they will overcome two hundred,' (8:65) was revealed, it was prescribed for thm that one would not flee from ten. (Sufyan said more than once, "Twenty do not flee from two hundred.) Then it was prescribed for them, 'Now Allah has made it lighter it for you...' (8:66) and it was prescribed that one hundred should not flee from two hundred."

Sufyan added once, "It was revealed, 'Spur on the believers to fight. If there are twenty of you who are steadfast...'(8:65)"

Sufyan said: Ibn Shubruma said, "I think that commanding the good and forbidding the bad is like that."

 

CXLVII: "Now Allah has made it lighter it for you, knowing there is weakness in you." (8:66)

4376. It was related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'If there are twenty of you who are steadfast, they will overcome two hundred' (8:65) was revealed, that was hard for the Muslims since it was obliged that one of them would not flee from ten. Then the lightening came and He said, 'Now Allah has made it lighter it for you, knowing there is weakness in you. If there are a hundred of you who are steadfast, they will overcome two hundred.' (8:66)" He said, "When Allah lightened the number for them, then steadfastness was decreased by the amount that was lightened for them."

 

CXLVII: Tafsir of Surat Bara'a (at-Tawba)

"Walîja" (9;16) is everything that you put into something. "Shuqqa" (9:42) is journey and "khabal" is corruption, and it is death. "Do not put temptation in my way" (9:49) :do not rebuke me. "Karhan" and "kurhan" (9:53) mean the same. "Muddakhalan" (9:57) is they enter into it. "Scurry away" (9:57) means to hasten. "The Overturned Cities" (9:70) means to thrown to the ground. "Ahwa" (53:53) means to throw into a pit. "'Adn" (9:72) is timelessness. "'Adana" in a land means "to remain in it". From it comes ma'din, meaning mineral or mine. One says: "a mine of truthfulness in a source of truthfulness." "Khawalif" (9:93): the khalif is the one who stays behind me and stays after me. Part of it is, "Leave him behind among those who remain." It can also refer to women, coming from khalifa. If it is the masculine plural, there is nothing in the form of its plural except for two: fâris, fawâris, and hâlik, hawâlik. The singular of "khayrat" (9:88) is khayra, and they are great blessings. "Murjün (awaiting)" (9:106) are those who are deferred. "Shafa" (9:109) is the rim, and it is its edge. "Jurf" is that which has been swept away by torrents and streams.

"Hârin" (9:109) is hâ'ir. A well crumbles when it is destroyed, as do rivers. "Awwah" (9:114) is with compassion and fear. The poet said:

 

"When I rose to saddle her by night,

      she moans with the moaning of the sorrowful man."

 

CXLIX: "A declaration of quittance on the part of Allah and His Messenger towards those idolaters you have a general treaty with." (9:1)

"Adhan" (9:1) is announcement. Ibn 'Abbas said, "udhun" (9:61) means to affirm. "Purify and cleanse them" (9:103) such combinations are frequent. Zakat is obedience and sincerity. "Those who do not pay zakat" (41:7): "They do not testify that there is no god but Allah." "Yudahuna" (9:30) means imitate.

4377. It is related from al-Bara' that the last ayat revealed was "They will ask you for a fatwa. Say: 'Allah gives you a fatwa about  people who die without direct heirs," (4:176) and the last sura sent down was Bara'a.

 

CL: "Travel about in the land for four months and know that you cannot thwart Allah and that Allah will humiliate the rejectors." (9:2)

"Sihu" is to travel.

4378. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "On that hajj Abu Bakr sent me with the callers on the Day of Sacrifice. At Mina we called out, 'No pagan is to make the hajj after this year and no one is to do tawaf of the House naked.'"

Humayd ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, "Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent 'Ali out and commanded him to call out Surat Bara'a."

Abu Hurayra said, "'Ali called out with us Surat Bara'a on the Day of Sacrifice to the people at Mina, 'No pagan is to make the hajj after this year and no one is to do tawaf of the house naked.'"

 

CLI: "An announcement from Allah and His Messenger to mankind on the day of the greater pilgrimage: 'Allah is quit of the idolaters, as is His Messenger. If you turn in repentance, it will be better for you. But if you turn your backs, know that you cannot thwart Allah.' Give those who reject the news of a painful punishment." (9:3)

4379. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "On that hajj Abu Bakr sent me with the callers on the Day of Sacrifice. At Mina we called out, 'No pagan is to make the hajj after this year and no one is to do tawaf of the House naked.'"

Humayd ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, "Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent 'Ali out and commanded him to call out Surat Bara'a."

Abu Hurayra said, "'Ali called out with us Surat Bara'a on the Day of Sacrifice to the people at Mina, 'No pagan is to make the hajj after this year and no one is to do tawaf of the house naked.'"

 

CLII: "Except those among the idolaters you have treaties with." (9:4)

4380. It is related that Abu Hurayra reported that on the hajj over which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, put Abu Bakr in charge before the Farewell Pilgrimage, with Abu Bakr sent him a group to call out among the people, "No pagan is to make the hajj after this and no one is to do tawaf of the house naked."

Humayd used to say, "The Day of Sacrifice was the day of the Great Hajj according to the hadith of Abu Hurayra."

 

CLIII: "Fight the leaders of rejection – their oaths mean nothing ." (9:12)

4381. It is related that Zayd ibn Wahb said, "We were with Hudhayfa who said, "Only three remain of the people of this ayat, and only four of the hypocrites remain." A bedouin said, "You are the Companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Tell us what we do not know! What about those who break into our houses and steal our property?" He said, "Those are the deviants. Yes, only four of them remain. One of them is a very old man. If he were to drink cool water, he would not experience its coolness."

 

CLIV: His words, "As for those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah, give them the news of a painful punishment." (9:34)

4382. It is related from Abu Hurayra that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The treasure of one of you on the Day of Rising will a be smooth-headed male viper."

4383. It is related that Zayd ibn Wahb said, "I passed by Abu Dharr at ar-Rabadha and I asked, 'What has brought you to this land?' He said, 'I was in Syria and I recited, "As for those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah, give them the news of a painful punishment." (9:34) Mu'awiya said, "This was not sent down about us. It was only sent down about the People of the Book."' He answered, "It was sent down about us and them."

 

CLV: His words, "On the Day it is heated up in the fire of Hell and their foreheads, sides and backs are branded with it: 'This is what you hoarded for yourselves! So taste what you were hoarding!''" (9:35)

4384. It is related that Khalid ibn Aslam said, "We went out with 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar and he said, 'This was before the obligation of zakat was revealed. Then when it was revealed, Allah made it something which purifies wealth.'"

 

CLVI: His words, "There twelve months with Allah in the Book of Allah, from the day He first created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred. That is the True Deen." (9:36)

"Qayyim" means firm.

4385. It is related from Abu Bakra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Time has continued cyclically in the same way since the day Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is twelve months, four of which are sacred. Three are consecutive: Dhu'l-Qa'da, Dhu'l-Hijja and al-Muharram, and there is Rajab of Mudar which is between Jumada and Sha'ban. "

 

CLVII: His words, "When there were two of them in the Cave. He said to his companion, 'Do not be despondent, Allah is with us.'" (9:40)

i.e. He will help us. "Sakîna" is the fa'îla form from sukûn (tranquillity).

4386. It is related that Abu Bakr said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the Cave and I saw the tracks of the idolaters and I said, 'Messenger of Allah, if one of them were to lift his foot, he would see us!' He said, 'What do you think of two when Allah is the third of them?'"

4387. It is related that Ibn Abi Mulayka said about Ibn 'Abbas when there was a disagreement between him and Ibn az-Zubayr, "I said, 'His father was az-Zubayr and his mother Asma'. His maternal aunt was 'A'isha and his grandfather Abu Bakr and his grandmother Safiyya.'"

4388. It is related that Ibn Abi Mulayka said, "There was a disagreement between them and I went to Ibn 'Abbas and said, 'Do you mean to fight Ibn az-Zubayr? Will you make the Haram of Allah profane?' He said, 'I seek refuge with Allah! Allah has written that Ibn az-Zubayr and the Banu Umayya (Umayyads) would permit it, but I, by Allah, would never make it lawful.' He said, 'People said said, "Give allegiance to Ibn az-Zubayr." I said, "How would this business be taken from him? His father was the helper of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, i.e. az-Zubayr. His grandfather was the companion in the Cave, i.e. Abu Bakr. His mother was "She of the two belts,' i.e. Asma'. His maternal aunt was the Mother of the Believers, i.e. 'A'isha, and his paternal aunt was the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, i.e. Khadija. The paternal aunt of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was his grandmother, i.e. Safiyya. Then he is abstinent in Islam, a reciter of Qur'an. By Allah, If they (the Umayyads) bring me close by kinship, they do so by close kinship, and if they rule me, noble peers rule me. So he preferred little Tuwayb, Usama and Hamd,"' he meant sub-tribes of the Banu Asad: the Banu Tuwayb, Banu Usama and Banu Asad. Ibn Abi'l-'As emerged advancing boldly, i.e. 'Abdu'l-Malik ibn Marwan, while he, i.e. Ibn az-Zubayr, fell back on his tail."

4389. Ibn Abi Mulayka reported, "We went to visit Ibn 'Abbas and he said, "Are you not surprised at Ibn az-Zubayr assuming this business? I said, 'I will put myself on his behalf as I did not do for Abu Bakr and 'Umar,' and they were more entitled to every good than he is. I said, 'He is the son of the paternal aunt of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the son of az-Zubayr, the grandson of Abu Bakr, the son of Khadija's brother, and the son 'A'isha's sister.' However, he holds himself above me and does not desire that. I said, 'I did not think that he would turn away from this on my account and leave it. I do not think that he desires good for me. So if it must be, I prefer that the descendants of my uncle me than other people ruling me.'"

 

CLVIII: "Reconciling people's hearts" (9:60)

Mujahid said that they are reconciled by gifts.

4390. It is related that Abu Sa'id said, "Something was sent to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he divided it between four and said, 'I reconcile them.' A man said, 'You have not been just,' and he said, 'There will emerge from the descendants of this man a people who will renounce the deen.'"

 

CLIX: "As for the people who find fault with the believers who spontaneously give sadaqa." (9:79)

"Slander" is to censure. "Their effort" (9:79) is their capacity.

4391. It is related that Abu Mas'ud said, "When were commanded to give sadaqa was revealed, we were working as porters. Abu 'Uqayl brought half a sa' and a man brought more than him. The hypocrites said, 'Allah does not need this man's sadaqa, and this other man only did it to show off.' Then it was revealed: 'As for the people who find fault with the believers who spontaneously give sadaqa, and with those who can find nothing to give but their own effort.' (9:79)"

4392. It is related that Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to instruct us to give sadaqa, we would work and get work to earn a mudd. Today some of us have a hundred thousand." Shaqiq said, "He seemed to be indicating himself."

 

CLX: "You can ask forgiveness for them, or not ask forgiveness for them. Even if you asked forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah still would not forgive them." (9:80)

4393. It is related from Ibn 'Umar, "When 'Abdullah [ibn Ubayy] died, his son, 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdullah, came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask him to give him his shirt so he could shroud his father in it, and he gave it to him. Then he asked him to pray over him and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up to pray. Then 'Umar got up and grabbed hold of his garment, saying 'Messenger of Allah, will you pray over him when Allah has forbidden you to pray over him?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah has given me a choice. He says, "You can ask forgiveness for them, or not ask forgiveness for them. Even if you asked forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah still would not forgive them." (9:80) So I do more than seventy.' He said, 'He is a hypocrite.'" He said, "So the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed over him and then Allah sent down, 'Do not ever pray over any of them who die or stand at their graves.' (9:84)"

4394. It is related that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "When 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul died, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked to pray over him. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood, I got up quickly to him and said, 'Messenger of Allah, are you going to pray over Ibn Ubayy when he said such-and-such and such-and-such' and he recounted what he had said. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, smiled and said, ''Umar, get away from me.' When I kept at him too much, he said, 'I have been given a choice and I have chosen. If I knew that he would be forgiven if I did it more than seventy times, I would do it.'" He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed over him and then left. Shortly after that, the two ayats of Bara'a were sent down: 'Do not ever pray over any of them who die or stand at their graves. They rejected Allah and His Messenger and died while degenerate.'" He said, "Later I was amazed at my boldness towards the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on that day when Allah and His Messenger know best."

 

CLXI: "Do not ever pray over any of them who die or stand at their grave." (9:84)

4395. It is related from Ibn 'Umar, "When 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy died, his son, 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdullah, came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he give him his shirt and he commanded him to shroud him in it. Then he got up to pray over him and. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab grabbed hold of his garment, saying 'Will you pray over him when he is a hypocrite and Allah has forbidden you to ask forgiveness for him?' He said, 'Allah has given me a choice. He says, "You can ask forgiveness for them, or not ask forgiveness for them. Even if you asked forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah still would not forgive them." (9:80)' He said, 'So I do more than seventy.'" He said, "So the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed over him and then Allah sent down on him, ''Do not ever pray over any of them who die or stand at their graves. They rejected Allah and His Messenger and died while degenerate.' (9:84)"

 

CLXII: His words, "They will swear to you by Allahwhen you return to them, so that you leave them alone. Leave them alone, then! They are defilement. Their shelter will be Hell as repayment for what they earned." (9:95)

4396. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Ka'b ibn Malik said, "I heard Ka'b ibn Malik say when he stayed behind Tabuk, 'By Allah, after His guiding me, Allah did not bestow on me any blessing greater than my truthfulness to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so that that I did not lie to him and get destroyed as those who lied were destroyed when the revelation was sent down: 'They will swear to you by Allahwhen you return to them, so that you leave them alone. Leave them alone, then! They are defilement. Their shelter will be Hell as repayment for what they earned.' (9:95)"

 

CLXIII: His words, "They will swear to you to make you pleased with them, but even if you are pleased with them, Allah is certainly not pleased with degenerate people." (9:96)

 

CLXIV: His words, "But others have acknowledged their wrong actions and mixed a right action with one which is wrong. It may well be that Allah will turn towards them. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (9:102)

4397. It is related that Samura ibn Jundub said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to us, 'In the night, two men came to me and woke me up and took me to a city constructed with gold and silver bricks. There some men met us. Half of their physique was the most handsome you have ever seen and the other half like the ugliest you have ever seen. The two said to them, "Go and get into that river," and they went down into it and then returned to us and that evil had left them. They then had the some handsome form. The two said to me, "This is the Garden of 'Adn and that is your dwelling." They said, "As for the people who were half handsome and half ugly, they mixed righteous deeds with evil deeds, but Allah overlooked that for them."'"

 

CLXV: "It is not right for the Prophet and those who believe to ask forgiveness for the idolaters." (9:113)

4398. It is related from the father of Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, "When Abu Talib was near death, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to him and found Abu Jahl and 'Abdullah ibn Abi Umayya with him. The Prophet,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Abu Talib, 'Uncle, say, "There is no god but Allah", and I will testify before Allah that you said it.' Abu Jahl and 'Abdullah ibn Abi Umayya said, 'Abu Talib! Will you turn from the religion of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib?' The Prophet said, 'By Allah, I will continue to ask for forgiveness for you as long as I am not forbidden to do it for you.' Then it was revealed, 'It is not right for the Prophet and those who believe to ask forgiveness for the idolaters, even if they are close relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are the Companions of the Blazing Fire.' (9:113)"

 

CLXVI: "Allah has turned towards the Prophet, and the Muhajirun and the Ansar, those who followed him at the 'time of difficulty', after the hearts of a group of them had almost deviated. Then He turned towards them – He is All-Gentle, Most Merciful to them." (9:117)

4399. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Ka'b, who was the one of Ka'b's sons who guided him when he went blind, who said, "I heard Ka'b ibn Malik say in his account about, 'to the three who remained behind,' and he said at the end of it, 'Part of my repentance was that I divested myself of my property as sadaqa for Allah and His Messenger. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Keep some of your property. It will be better for you."'"

 

CLXVII: "And also towards the three who were left behind, so that when the earth became narrow for them, for all its great breadth, and their own selves became constricted for them and they realised that there was no refuge from Allah except in Him, He turned towards them so that they might turn to Him. Allah is the Ever-Returning, the Most Merciful." (9:118)

4400. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Ka'b ibn Malik said, "I heard my father, Ka'b ibn Malik, who was one of the three who were forgiven, say that he did not stay behind the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on any another expedition he made at all except for two expeditions: the Hardship expedition [i.e. Tabuk] and the expedition to Badr. He said, 'I resolved to tell the truth to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the morning. It was rare that he would come from a journey he made other than in the forenoon. He would first go to the mosque and pray two rak'ats. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade people to speak to me and my two companions, but he did not forbid that for any others except us out of all those who had remained behind him. So the people avoided speaking to us, and things remained like that until the business went on too long for me. There was nothing I worried about more than dying and not having the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pray over me, or the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, dying while while I wasamong the people in that position, and them none of them would speak to me or pray over me. Then Allah sent down our repentance to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a third of the night remained while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was with Umm Salama. Umm Salama had been friendly in my business, and trying to help my situation. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Umm Salama! Ka'b has been turned to.' She said, 'Should I send to him to give him the good news?' He said, 'Then people would crowd to you and keep you from sleeping the rest of the night.' Then when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had prayed Fajr, he announced that Allah had turned to us. When he was happy, his face shone as if it were a part of the moon. We three were left apart from those who made excuses which were accepted when Allah sent down repentance to us. When those who lied to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, among those who stayed behind and made false excuses were mentioned, they were mentioned in the worst possible way anyone could be mentioned. Allah - glory be to Him! said, "They will make excuses to you when you return to them. Say: 'Do not make excuses, we will not believe you. Allah has already informed us about you. Allah will see your actions, as will His Messenger.'...' (9:94)"

 

CLXVIII: "O who you believe! Fear Allah and be with the truthful." (9:119)

4401. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Ka'b, who was the who guide of Ka'b ibn Malik, said, "I heard Ka'b ibn Malik relate his account of when he stayed behind the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the story of to Tabuk. He said, 'By Allah, I do not know of anyone whom Allah has tested more in truthful speech in a better way than He has tested me. Since I mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I have not inclined to a lie until this very day. Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, sent down on His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Allah has turned towards the Prophet, and the Muhajirun and the Ansar ... and be with the truthful.' (9:117-119)"

 

CLXIX: "A Messenger has come to you from among yourselves. Your suffering is distressful to him, he is deeply concerned for you, gentle and merciful to the believers." (9:128)

From ra'fa (kindness).

4402. It is related that Zayd ibn Thabit al-Ansari , one of those who wrote down the revelation, said, "After the slaughter in the war of Yamama, Abu Bakr sent for me, and 'Umar was with him. Abu Bakr said, ''Umar has come to me and said, "Many people were killed int he Battle of Yamama, and I fear that many Qur'an reciters will be killed in other places and so much of the Qur'an will be lost unless you collect it. I think that you should collect the Qur'an together."' Abu Bakr said, 'I said to 'Umar, "How can I do something which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not do?" 'Umar said, "By Allah, it is better." 'Umar kept at me about it until Allah opened my breast to it. I think what 'Umar thinks.'" Zayd ibn Thabit said, "'Umar was sitting with him, not speaking. Abu Bakr said, 'You are an intelligent young man and we have no doubts about you. You used to write down the revelation for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Therefore you are to search out the Qur'an and collect it.' By Allah, if he had obliged me to move one of the mountains, that would not have been weightier for me than what he commanded to do of collecting the Qur'an. I said, 'How can the two of you do something How can I do something which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not do?' Abu Bakr said, 'By Allah, it is better.' He continued to keep at me until Allah opened my breast to what Allah had opened the breasts of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. So I began to search out the Qur'an and collect it from the parchments, shoulder-blades, palm stalks and the breasts of men until I found two ayats of Surat at-Tawba with Khuzayma al-Ansari which I did not find with anyone else: 'A Messenger has come to you from among yourselves. Your suffering is distressful to him, he is deeply concerned for you...' (9:128)"

The copy of the Qur'an in which the Qur'an was collected remained in the possession of Abu Bakr until Allah took him, and then it was with 'Umar until Allah took him, and then it was with Hafsa bint 'Umar.

'Uthman ibn 'Umar and al-Layth corroborated it.

From Ibn Shihab is that he said, "With Abu Khuzayma al-Ansari."

From Ibn Shihab is that he said, "With Abu Khuzayma."

Ya'qub ibn Ibrahim corroborated it from his father.

Abu Thabit said that Ibrahim said, "With Khuzayma, or with Abu Khuzayma."

 

CLXX: Tafsir of Surat Yunus

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Then mingles with the plants of the earth," (10:24) is that every variety grows by water. "They say, 'Allah has a son!' He is the Rich beyond need!" (10:68)

Zayd ibn Aslam said that "they are on a sure footing with their Lord" (10:2) refers to Muhammad,may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  but Mujahid said that it means "good."

It is said that "Those are the Signs" (10:1) means these are the signs of the Qur'an. It is like, "when some of you are on a boat, running," (10:22) meaning "with you". "Da'wâhum" (10:10) is their cry. "Come at them from every side" (10:22) means that they are close to destruction, as "surrounded by their mistakes." (2:81) "Atba'ahum" (10:90) means "to follow them", and is the same as Form VIII and "'adwan" (10:90) is derived from "'adwan' (enmity)."

Mujahid said, "If Allah were to hasten evil for people the way they try to hasten good," (10:11) is what a man says to his son or property when he is angry: "O Allah Do not bless it and curse it!" "Then would their respite be settled at once," i.e. the one they cursed would be destroyed and made to die. "Those who do good will have the best and more!" (10:26) is forgiveness. "Kibriyâ'" (10:78) is kingdom.

 

CLXXI: "We brought the Tribe of Israel across the sea and Pharaoh and his troops pursued them out of tyranny and enmity. Then, when he was on the point of drowning, he said, 'I believe that there is no god but Him in whom the Tribe of Israel believe. I am one of the Muslims.'" (10:90)

4403. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina and the Jews were fasting 'Ashura'. They said, 'This is the day when Musa was victorious over Pharaoh.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to his Companions, 'You are more entitled to Musa than them. Fast it.'"

 

CLXXII: Tafsir of Surat Hud

Ibn 'Abbas said that "'asîb" (11:77) means strong, and "Lâ jaram" (11:22) means "certainly".

Someone else said that "wahaq" (11:8) means descended and "yahîq" (35:43) is to descend. "Ya'us" (11:9) is the form fa'ul from ya'isa.

Mujahid, "tabta'is" (11:36) means to be sad. "See how they enfold their breasts trying to conceal their feelings from Him!" (11:5) from Allah if they can.

Abu Maysara said that awwah means "merciful" in Abyssinian.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "badi'r-ra'y" (11:27) means "what appears to us".

Mujahid said that "Judi" (11:44) in a mountain in Mesopotamia.

Al-Hasan said that "You are clearly the forbearing," (11:87) indicates that they were mocking him.

Ibn 'Abbas said "Iqli'i" (11:44) means "to hold", "the oven boiled over" (11:40) is an allusion to water flowing up. 'Ikrima said that it means the surface of the earth.

 

CLXXIII: "See how they enfold their breasts trying to conceal their feelings from Him! No, indeed! When they wrap their garments round themselves, He knows what they keep secret and what they make public. He knows what the hearts contain." (11:5)

4404. It is related that Muhammad ibn 'Abbad ibn Ja'far reported that he heard Ibn 'Abbas recite, "See how they enfold their breasts..." (11:5) He said, "I asked him about it and he said, 'Some people used to be embarassed to go to the lavatory and exposed themselves to the sky, and to have intercourse when they were exposed to the sky, and it was sent down about them."

4405. It is related that Muhammad ibn 'Abbad ibn Ja'far said, "Ibn 'Abbas recited, 'See how they enfold their breasts...' (11:5) I said, 'O Abu'l'Abbas! What is, "They enfold their breasts?"' He said, 'A man used to have intercourse with his wife and be embarassed, or go to the lavatory and be embarassed. Therefore it was sent down: "See how they enfold their breasts..."'"

4406. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas recited, "See how they enfold their breasts trying to conceal their feelings from Him! No, indeed! When they wrap their garments round themselves." (11:5) Another said that Ibn 'Abbas said that "wrap themselves" is to cover their heads.

"He was distressed for them" (11:77) means that he had a bad opinion of his people, "feeling incapable of protecting them," i.e. his guests. "The middle of the night" (11:81) is in blackness. Mujahid said that "unîbu" (11:88) means "I return to.

 

CLXXIV: His words, "When His Throne was on the water." (11:7)

4407. It is related from Abu Hurayra is that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah the Mighty and Exalted says, 'Spend and I will spend on you.'" He also said, "The hand of Allah is full and is not decreased by His unceasing spending, night and day." He said, "Do you see what He has spent since He created the heavens and the earth? It has not decreased what is in His hand when His Throne was over the waters. The Balance is in His hand, He lowers and raises."

"Have driven you made" (11:54) is to be done to, from 'urwa (coil), i.e. afflicted. From it, you say, "It fell on him, it seized me." "He holds it by the forelock," (11:56) i.e. it is in His posssession and power. "'Anîd" (11:59) means the same as 'anüd and 'ânid (stubborn). It is excessive throwing around of one's weight. "Who brought you into being" (11:61) is made you inhabitants. One inhabitants a house and it is a "life interest" ('umrâ) which I settle on him. "He suspected them" (11:70). Form I, IV and X mean the same. "Hamîdun majîd" (11:73) ia like fa'il of mâjid (glorious) and mahmüd (praiseworthy) from praise. "Sijjîl (hard as baked clay)" (11:82) is large, strong. Sijjil and sijjin are the same as the lam and nun are sisters. Tamim ibn Muqbal said:

Footmen striking the helmets in the morning,

   with blows against which the heroes order firmness.

"To Madyan We sent their brother Shu'ayb," (11:84) to the people of Madyan because Madyan is a land. It is like, "Ask the city" (12:82) and "ask the caravan", i.e. the people of the city and the people of the caravan.

"Behind your backs" (11:92). He says that they do not turn to Him, It is said that when a man cannot achieve his need, he puts it behind his back. "Dhihri" here is that you take an animal or a vessel with you in preparation for need. "Aradhilunâ" (11:27) is our lowly ones. "Ijrami" (11:35) is the verbal noun for ajrama. Some of them say it is jarama. "Fulk" (11:37) is the plural of falak, and it is ships. "Mujraha" (11:41) is its movement, being the verbal noun of ajra. Arsaytu means "I held it back." It is recited as "marsaha" [instead of mursaha] from rasa, to be stationary. "Majraha" is from its movement, and so "whether it move or be at rest" is from what is done to it. "Rasiyat" (34:13) means firm.

 

CLXXV: "The witnesses will say, 'Those are the ones who lied against their Lord.' Yes indeed! Allah's curse is on the wrongdoers" (11:18)

The singular of ashhâd is shâhid, like sâhib and ashâb.

4408. It is related that Safwan ibn Muhriz said, "While Ibn 'Umar was doing tawaf, a man presented himself and said, 'O Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman!' or he said, 'O Ibn 'Umar, did you hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, speak about intimate conversation (najwa)?' He replied, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The believer will draw near to his Lord (yudnâ or yadnü) until He places His wing over him and He will make him acknowledge his sins. 'Do you recognise such a sin?" He will say, "I admit it." He will say, "Lord, I admit it" twice. He will say, "I veiled it in this world, and I forgive you for it today." Then He will roll up the page of his good actions. As for the others, or the unbelievers, there will be a call at the head of witnesses: "The witnesses will say, 'Those are the ones who lied against their Lord.' Yes indeed! Allah's curse is on the wrongdoers" (11:18)'"'"

Another isnad.

 

CLXXVI: His words, "Such is the seizing of your Lord when He seizes the cities which do wrong. His seizing is painful, violent." (11:102)

"The gift which is given" (11:99) is the help given. Rafada is to help. "Tarkanu" (11:113) meas to incline. "Fa-lawlâ kâna" (11:116) is "Why were there not?" "Itrifü" (11:116) is to be destroyed.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "zafir wa shahiq" (11:116) is strong sound and a weak voice.

4409. It is related that Abu Musa said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah prolongs the life of the unjust but when He takes them, He will not let them escape." He said, "Then he recited, 'Such is the seizing of your Lord when He seizes the cities which do wrong. His seizing is painful, violent.' (11:102)"

 

CLXXVII: His words, "Establish the prayer at the two ends of the day and in the first part of the night. Good actions eradicate bad actions. This is a reminder for people who pay heed." (11:114)

"Zulfan" are hours after hours. The source for the name Muzdalifa comes from it, Zulaf is station after station. As for "zulfâ" (38:40), it is a verbal noun meaning nearness. Izdalafü" is to gather. "Azlafnâ" (26:64) means "we gathered".

4410. It is related from Ibn Mas'ud that a man received a kiss from a woman and went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him and then it was sent down on him, "Establish the prayer at the two ends of the day and in the first part of the night. Good actions eradicate bad actions. This is a reminder for people who pay heed." (11:114) The man said, "Is this for me, Messenger of Allah?" He said, "It is for all my community."

 

CLXXVIII: Tafsir of Surat Yusuf

Fudayl said from Husayn from Mujahid that "muttaka'an" (12:31) is the citron. Fudayl said that "citron" is mutkan in Abyssinian.

Ibn 'Uyayna said from a man from Mujahid that mutkan is everything which is cut with a knife.

Qatada said, "He had knowledge which We taught to him" (12:68) is someone who acts by what he knows.

Sa'id ibn Jubayr said that "suwa'" (12:72) is the Persian beaker which can be held by both sides. The Persians used to drink from it.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "tufannadüna" (12:94) means to think someone ignorant.

Someone else said about "ghayâba" (12:10,11) tha everything into which something disappears from you is a "ghayâba". The jubb is a well which does not have a built up rim. "you are never going to trust us" (12:17)means "you will not think that we are telling the truth." "Ashuddahu" (12:22) is before he begins to decline. One says, "He or they reached his or their full maturity." One of them said that its singular is shadd.

"Muttaka'" is that on which you lean for drinking, or conversing or eating. What is said about the citron is totally false. The citron is not in the words of the Arabs. When the argument was presented to them that it was cushions which were leaned on, they fled to something worse, and said that its mutk. Mutk is actually the end of the clitoris and so one calls an uncircumcised woman matka' and one says, "son of an uncircumcised woman. If there was a citron, then it was after the banquet (muttaka').

"Shaghafa (he hath inspired her with violent desire)" (12:30). One says that it reached her shighaf, which is the covering of her heart, and so she is afflicted by ardent love. "Asb" (12:33) is to incline as sabâ means to incline. "A jumbled mass of mixed-up dreams" (12:44) are those which cannot be interpreted. Dighth is filling the hand with grass and the like. Part of it is, "Take a bundle of rushes (dighth) in your hand" (38:44) It is not part of His words, "a jumbled mass of mixed-up dream," of which the singular is dighth. "Namîru" (12:65) is from "mîra" (food). "Get an extra load" (12:65) is what the camel carries. "Awa ilayhi" (12:69) means to clasp him to him. "Siqâya" (12;70) is a measure. "Tafta'u" (12:85) means not to cease. "Haradan" (12:85) means emaciated by disease, worn away by care. "Tahassasü" (12:87) means to seek information. "Muzja" (12:88) means 'a little'. "The all-enveloping punishment of Allah" (12:107): is general covering. "Istay'asü" (12:80) means despair. "No one despairs of solace from Allah" (12:87) means hope. "They went apart to talk alone" (12:80) means" they retired to speak privately. The plural is anjiya.

 

CLXXIX: His words, "Perfectly fulfil His blessing on you as well as on the family of Ya'qub as He fulfilled it perfectly before upon your forebears, Ibrahim and Ishaq." (12:6)

4411. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The noble son of noble son of the noble son of the noble is Yusuf ibn Ya'qub ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim."

 

CLXXX: "In Yusuf and his brothers there are Signs for every one of those who wants to ask." (12:7)

4412. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, 'Who is the noblest of people?' He said, 'The noblest of them with Allah is the one with the most fear of Allah.' They said, 'This is not what we are asking about.' He said, 'The noblest of people is Yusuf, the Prophet of Allah, son of the Prophet of Allah, son of the Prophet of Allah, son of the Friend of Allah.' They said, 'This is not what we are asking about.' He said, 'Then are you asking about the sources of the Arabs?' They said, 'Yes.' He said, 'The best of you in the Jahiliyya is the best of you in Islam when they are understanding.'"

Abu Usama corroborated it from 'Ubaydullah.

 

CLXXXI: His words, "It is merely that your lower selves suggested something to you." (12:18)

Sawwala means to adorn.

4413. 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr, Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, 'Alqama ibn Waqqas, and 'Ubaydullah b. 'Abdullah related from the hadith of 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the people of the Lie said what they said about her. Allah declared her innocent and each of them related part of the hadith. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If you are innocent, then Allah will declare you innocent, and if you have committed a sin, then ask Allah's forgiveness and turn to Him." [She said,] "I said, 'By Allah, I do not find any model except that of the father of Yusuf: 'But steadfast patience, that is beautiful. It is Allah alone who is my Help in face of the event that you describe.' (12:18) Then Allah sent down, 'Those who propagated the lie...' ten verses (24:11)"

4414. It is related from Umm Ruman, who was 'A'isha's mother, "While I was with 'A'isha, she caught a fever and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Perhaps it is due to a story which is being told.'" She said, "Yes." 'A'isha sat up and said, "The example of me and you is like Ya'qub and his sons: 'It is Allah alone who is my Help in face of the event that you describe.' (12:18)"

 

CLXXXII: "The woman, whose house it was, solicited him. She barred the doors and said, 'Come over here!'" (12:23)

'Ikrima said that "hayta laka" is Haurani for 'halumma' (come on). Ibn Jubayr said that it means ta'alah.

4415. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "hayta laka". He said, "We recite it as we were taught it."

"Mathwahu" (12:21) is his abiding, "Alfaya" (12:25) is to find, and "They found their fathers" (37:69) and "we found" (2:170).

Ibn 'Abbas said, "No wonder you are amazed as they laugh with scorn!" (37:12)

4416. It is related from 'Abdullah that when Quraysh were slow at becoming Muslim for the Prophet, he said, "O Allah, defend me against them with seven years like the years of Yusuf!" They suffered a drought which destroyed everything so that they were eating bones.until a man would look up into the sky they would see smoke between him and it. Allah said, "So be on the watch for a day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke." (44:10)" Allah said, "We remove the punishment a little, and you revert!" (44:15) "So will Allah remove the punishment from yopu on the Day of Rising? The smoke has passed and the seizing [i.e. Badr] has passed."

 

CLXXXIII: His words, "But when the messenger came to him, he said, 'Go back to your master and enquire of him what happened about the women who cut their hands. My Lord has knowledge of their deviousness.' He said, 'What was this past affair of yours when you solicited Yusuf?' Then they said, 'Allah forbid! We know no bad of him.'" (12:50-51)

"Hâsha" and "hâshâ" is to declare free of us and make an exception. "Hashasa" (12:51) is to make clear.

4417. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "May Allah show mercy to Lut. He used to seek refuge in a strong pillar. If I had remained in prison as long as Yusuf remained, I would have answered the invitation. We are more entitled than Ibrahim, since He said to him, '"Do you not then believe?" He replied, "Indeed I do! But so that my heart may be at peace."' (2:260)"

 

CLXXXIV: His words, "Then when the Messengers despaired" (12:110)

4418. It is related that 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr asked 'A'isha about the the words of Allah Almighty, "Then when the Messengers despaired," (12:110) she told him [its meaning]. He asked, "Were they denied or called liars?" 'A'isha said, "They were called liars." I asked, "Were they certain that their people called them liars? It was not just a suspicion?" She said, "Yes, by my life, they were certain of that." I said to her, "They thought they were misled." She said, "I seek refuge with Allah! The Messengers do not think that of their Lord." I asked, "So what is this ayat?" She said," They were the followers of the Messengers who believed in their Lord and believed them (the Messengers) and then the affliction went on a long time for them and victory was delayed for them until the Messengers despaired of those among their people who denied them, and the Messengers thought that their followers had denied them. Then the help of Allah came."

4419. It is related that 'Urwa said, "I asked, 'Perhaps they were misled?' She replied, 'I seek refuge with Allah!'"

 

CXXXV: Tafsir of Surat ar-Ra'd

Ibn 'Abbas said, "It is like someone stretching out his cupped hands" (13:14) is like the idoater who worships another god with Allah, like the thirsty man who looks at his image in the water from afar and wants to take it, but cannot.

Another said that "sakhkhara" (13:2) means to make subservient. "Mutajâwirât" (13:4) is near to each other. The singular of "mathulât" (13:6) is malutha, and they are likes and examples.

He said, "The same fate as those who passed away before them" (10:102) "Miqdar" (13:8) is amount. "Mu'aqqibât (those in succession)" (13:11) are guardian angels, one is followed by the other. From that one says, al-'aqib, the successor. One uses 'aqqaba for following in someone's track. "Al-mihâl" (13:13) means punishment. "It is like someone stretching out his cupped hands" (13:14) is to take water. "Râbiyan" (13:17) comes from rabâ, yarbü, to increase. "But as for that which of use to people, it remains behind in the ground," (13:17) mata' are things which are used. "Jufâ'" (13:17) The foam of the pot is when it boils and the froth comes up and then it settles and the froth is removed without any use. That is how the truth is distinguished from the false. "Mihâd" (13:18) is the bed. "Yadra'una" (13:22) means to avert, meaning to "defend me". "Peace be upon you" (13:24) i.e. they say, 'Peace be upon you." "And I turn to Him." (13:30) means my repentance. "A lam ya"s" (13:31) is: "Is it not clear? " "Qâri'a" (13:31) means disaster. "Amlaytu" (13:32) means "I protracted". It is from maliy and milawa. Part of it is "maliyan" (a good long while) (19:46) One says of a long wide piece of land, that it is an extended (maliy) piece of land. "Ashaqq" (13:34) is the intensive of hardness. "Mu'aqqib" (13:41) is to change.

Mujahid said that "mutajâwirât" (13:4) is that its good is sweet and its foul is salt marsh. "Sinwan" (13:4) two or more palms from one root. "Ghayru sinwan" means alone. "Watered with the same water" (13:4) is like the righteous and corrupt of the tribe of Adam. Their father is the same. "The heavy clouds" (13:12) are those containing water. "It is like someone stretching out his cupped hands" (13:14) is to call for water with his tongue and point to it with his hand, but never to come to it. "The river-beds flow, according to their size" (13:17)  means: it fills the bottom of every wadi accordingly. "The scum that mounts up to the surface" (13:17) Zabad is the foam of the flood, "and a similar kind of scum" is the dross of iron and jewellry.

 

CLXXXVI: His words, "Allah knows what every female bears and every shrinking of the womb." (13:8)

"Ghida" (11:4) is decrease.

4420. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The keys to the Unseen are five things which only Allah knows. No one knows what will happen tomorrow except Allah, no one knows what the wombs will miscarry except Allah, no one knows when the rain will come except Allah, no self knows what it will gain tomorrow, no self knows what land it will die in and no one knows when the Hour will come except Allah."

 

CLXXXVII: Tafsir of Surat Ibrahim

Ibn 'Abbas said that "hâdin" (13:7) is caller. Mujahid said that "sadîd" (14:16) is pus and blood.

Ibn 'Uyayna said, "Remember Allah's blessing to you" (14:6) is the blessings and benefits of Allah to you.

Mujahid said, "everything you have asked Him for" (14:34) is what you desire of Him. "Wanting to make it crooked" (14:3; 11:19) is desiring to make it crooked. "When your Lord announced" (14:7): informed, proclaimed. "They put their hands to their mouths" (14:9) This is a metaphor: they refrained from what they were commanded. "Maqâmi" (14:14) is where Allah makes him stand before Him. "min wara'ihi" (14:16) is in front of him. "Lakum taba'an (were your followers)" (14:21) The singular is tâbi', like ghayab and ghâ'ib. "Your calling" (14:22) He called to me means that he asked me for help. "He called to him." (28:18) It comes from sarâkh. "Lâ khilâl" (14:31) is to take someone as a close friend. It can also be the plural of khulla and khilal. "Ijtuththat" (14:26) means to eradicate.

 

CLXXXVIII: His words, "Like a good tree whose roots are firm and whose branches are in heaven. It bears its fruit regularly." (14:24-25)

4421. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Tell me about a tree which resembles (or he said, 'is like') the Muslim man whose leaves do not fall, and does not.., and does not, and does not... It gives its fruits regularly'" Ibn 'Umar said, "It occurred to me that it was the date-palm, but I saw that Abu Bakr and 'Umar were not speaking, so I disliked to speak. When they did not say anything, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is the date-palm.' When we left. I said to 'Umar, 'O father, by Allah, it occurred to me that it was the date-palm.' He said, 'What kept you from speaking?'" He said, "I did not see you speaking and I disliked to speak or say anything." 'Umar said, "I would have preferred that you had said it to having such-and-such."

 

CLXXXIX: "Allah makes those who believe firm with the Firm Word." (14:27)

4422. It is related from al-Bara' b. 'Azib that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the Muslim is questioned in the grave, he will testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. That is His words, 'Allah makes those who believe firm with the Firm Word in the life of this world and the Next World.' (14:27)"

 

CXC: "Do you not see those who have exchanged Allah's blessing for unbelief." (14:28)

"Do you not see" is: do you not know? It is like His words, "Do you do not see how?" (14:24) and "What do you think about those who left?" (2:243) "Bawâr (ruin)" (14:28) is destruction from bâra, yabûru, bûr. "Qawman buran" (25:18) means the destroyed.

4423. It is related from 'Ata' that Ibn 'Abbas heard, "Do you not see those who have exchanged Allah's blessing for unbelief," (14:28) and said, "They are the unbelievers of the people of Makka."

 

CXCI: Tafsir of Surat al-Hijr

Mujahid said, "This is a Straight Path towards Me," (15:41): the truth returns to Allah and His path is on it. "They are both on a well-beaten track." (15:79) The Imam is all you follow and by which you are guided to the Path.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "la-'amruka" (15:72) is "by your life". "You are people we do not know" (15:62) are people Lut did not know.

Another said that "a set time" (15:4) is a term. "Why do you not bring?" (15:7) is why do you not bring to us? "Shiya'" (15:10) are nations. Patrons also have shiya' (parties).

Ibn 'Abbas said that "yuhra'ûna" (15:78) is to hurry. "Mutawassîna" (15:75) are those who investigate. "Sukkirat" (15:15) is clouded over. "Burûjan" (15:16) are the stages of the sun and moon. "Lawâqih" (15:22) is fecundating and pollinating. "Hama'" (15:26) is the plural of hama'a, which is altered clay. and that which is fashioned and cast. "Tawjal" (15:53) is to fear. "Dâbir" (15:55) is the last. "Sayha" (15:83) is destruction.

 

CXCII: His words, "Except for the one who listens stealthily, and he is followed by an open flame." (15:18)

4424. It is related from Abu Hurayra who conveyed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, "When Allah decrees a matter in the heaven, the angels beat their wings from obedience to His words, like chain dragged across smooth stone. ('Ali and others said, 'Over smooth stone. That reaches them.") 'So that when the terror has left their hearts they will say, 'What did your Lord say?' They will say, 'The Truth. He is the All-High, the Most Great.'" (34:25) Then those that gain a hearing by stealth will hear it, and those that gain a hearing by stealth will be like this, one on top of the other," and Sufyan illustrated with his hand and spread apart the fingers of his right hand and placed one hand over the other. "A flame might catch the listener before he conveys it to his companion and burns him up, and it might not catch him before he conveys it to the one below him who conveys it to the one lower than him until it is cast to the earth." (Sufyan might have said, "Until it reaches the earth.") "Then it is given to the mouth of the sorcerer who tells a hundred lies with it. It will be proven true and they will say, 'Didn't he tell us on such-and-such a day that such-and-such would occur and we have found it to be true? on account of the word which was heard from heaven."

It is related from Abu Hurayra, "When Allah decrees the command," and he added, "the soothsayer."

It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When Allah decrees the command," and he said, "the mouth of the sorcerer." I said to Sufyan, "Did you hear from 'Amr say, 'I heard it 'Ikrima say, "I heard Abu Hurayra"'?" He said, "Yes." I said to Sufyan, "Someone relates from you from 'Amr from 'Ikrima from Abu Hurayra, and makes it go back to the Prophet (marfu') that he recited, "fuzzi' (when terror has left)" (34:23) He said, "'Amr recited it like that. I do not know whether he heard it like that or not." Suyfan said, "It is our recitation."

 

CXCIII: His words, "The people of al-Hijr denied the Messengers." (15:80)

4425. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said about the people of al-Hijr, "Do not enter places of those people unless you are weeping. If you are not weeping do not enter them, lest the like of what befell them befalls you."

 

CXCIV: "We have given you the Seven Oft-repeated and the Magnificent Qur'an." (15:87)

4426. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Mu'alla said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by me while I was praying and he called me, but I did not answer until I had finished praying. Then I went to him an he said, 'What kept you from coming?' I said, 'I was praying.' He said, 'Does not Allah say, "O you who believe! Respond to Allah, and to the Messenger, when He calls you to what will bring you to life!" ? (8:24)' This he said, 'Shall I teach you the greatest sura in the Qur'an before I leave the mosque?' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was about to leave the mosque, I reminded him. He said, '"Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds." It is "the Seven Oft-repeated and the Magnificent Qur'an."' which I was given.'"

4427. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Umm al-Qur'an is 'the Seven Oft-repeated and the Magnificent Qur'an.'"

 

CXCV: His words, "Those who divide the QurÕan into pieces." (15:91)

"Muqtasimîna" (15:90) are those who swore. Part of it is, "No, I swear" (90:1), i.e. I do swear, and it is recited, "la-uqsimu". "Qâsamahumâ" (7:21) is he made an oath to them and they two of them did not make an oath to him. Mujahid said, "Taqâsamû" (27:49) means "they took an oath".

4428. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas about, "Those who divide the QurÕan into pieces," (15:91) "They are the People of the Book. They have divided it into parts and they believe in part and reject part."

4429. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas about, " Just as We sent down punishment on the dissectors, those who divide the QurÕan into pieces," (15:90) "The Jews and Christians believe in part and reject part."

 

CXCVI: "And worship your Lord until the Certain comes to you." (15:99)

Salim said that the "Certain" means death.

 

CXCVII: Tafsir of Surat an-Nahl

"Rûh al-qudüs" (16:102) is Jibril, as "The Faithful Ruh brought it down." (26:193) "fî dayq" (16:127): in distress. One says of something, dayq and dayyiq, like hayn and hayyin, layn and layyin, mayt and mayyit.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "casting their shadows" (16:48) is to adjust. "The paths of your Lord, made easy for you to follow" (16:69): It is not hard for the to find the place of its path.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "fî taqallubihim" (16:46) means their variety.

Mujahid said that "tamîdu" (16:15) is to adjust. "Mufratûna" (16:62) is forgotten.

Someone else said about, "Whenever you recite the Qur'an, seek refuge with Allah" (16:98) This is changing the normal sentence order. That is because seeking refuge is before recitation. It means to cling to Allah.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "tusîmûna" (16:10) is to graze. "Qasdu's-sabîl" (16:9) is clear proof. "Dif'" (16:5) is that from which you seek warmth. "Turîhûna" (16:6) is in the evening and "tasrahûna" (16:6) means in the morning. "Bi-shaqq" (16:7) means hardship. "'alâ takhawwuf" (16:47) is decrease. "There is instruction for you in cattle" (16:66) "An'am" is both masculine and feminine, and so an'am is the plural of na'm (livestock). "Aknânan" (16:81): the singular is kinn, like himl, ahmâl. "Sarâbîl" are shirts in "to protect you from the heat and shirts to protect you from each other's violence." (16:81) They are shirts of chain-mail. "A means of deceiving one another" (16:92,94). Everything which is not correct is "dakhal".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "hafda" (16:72) are descendants from a man's children. "Sakar" (16:68) is what is unlawful to make from their fruits, and "wholesome provision" is what Allah has made lawful.

Ibn 'Uyayna mentioned from Sadaqa that "ankâthan" (16:92) is about foolish women. When she finishes her spinning, she breaks it.

Ibn Mas'ud said that the "umma" (16:120) is the one who teaches good and the "qânit" is the obedient.

 

CXCVIII: "And some of you revert to the lowest form of life." (16:70)

4430. It is related from Anas b. Malik £ that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to supplicate, "I seek refuge with You from miserliness and laziness, and senility and the punishment of the grave and the trial of the Dajjal and the trial of life and death."

 

CXCIX: Surat Bani Isra'il [al-Isra']

4431. It is related that Ibn Mas'ud said about Surats Bani Isra'il, al-Kahf and Maryam, "They are among the first and best, and they are part of my first memorisation."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "They will shake their heads at you," (17:51) is to shake. Someone else said that your tooth wiggles (naghadat) when it moves.

"We decreed for the Tribe of Israel" (17:4): We informed them that they would do mischief. "Qada'" has various aspects of meaning. "Your Lord has decreed" (17:33): your Lord has commanded. One of them is judgement: "Allah will judge between them." (10:93) One of them is creation, "So He determined them as seven firmaments," (41:12): created them.

"Naqîran" (17:6) is that with which one taps. "So that they could destroy what had been built" is to demolish. (17:7) "Hasîr" (17:8) is a place of detention and confinement. "Haqqa" (17:16) is made mandatory. "Maysûr" (17:28) is gentle. "Khit'an" (17:31) is sin. It is a noun from khati'a, and khata' is a verbal noun means sin. "Khati'tu" means "I erred." "You will never split" (17:37) is you will not cut. "When they confer together secretly" (17:47): "najwa" is a verbal noun from nâjaytu and so He described them with it. It means that they speak privately to one another. "Rufâtan" (17:49,98) means debris. "Istifziz" (17:64) is to make light of, and "khaylika" is horsemen and "rajl" are infantry, the singular being râjil, like sâhib, sahb, and tâjir, tajr. "Hâsiban" (17:68) is a violent wind, and hâsib is also what is blown by the wind. From it comes, "fuel (hasab) for Jahannam" (21:98). What is thrown into Jahannam is hasab. One says, "He was cast (hasaba) into the earth,' i.e. he went. Hasab is derived from hasba' and stones. "târatan" is once. Its plurals are tîra and târât. "I will be the master" (17:62) implies "I will eradicate them." One says that so-and-so fully learned the knowledge that so-and-so had, "Tâ'ira" (17:13) his fortune.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Every 'sultân' in the Qur'an means proof." "to protect Him from abasement" (17:111) means He does not have anyone as an ally.

 

CC: His words, "Glory be to Him who took His slave on a journey one night from the Sacred Mosque." (17:1)

4432. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "In the night journey, in Jerusalem the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought two cups of wine and milk. He looked at them and took the milk. Jibril said, 'Praise be to Allah who has guided you to the natural form. If you had taken the wine, your community would have erred.'"

4433. It is related that Jabir b. 'Abdullah was heard to say, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When Quraysh denied me, I stood in the Hijr and Allah displaced Jerusalem to me and I began to inform about its signs while I was looking at it.'"

It is related from Ibn Shihab said, "When Quraysh denied me when I was taken on the Night journey to Jerusalem..." (the like of it)

"Qâsifan" (17:69) a wind which shatters everything.

 

CCI: "We have honoured the sons of Adam" (17:70)

Forms I and IV (karama, akrama ) mean the same. "An double portion in life" is the punishment of life, and "an equal double in death" (17:75) is the punishment of death. "Khilâfaka" (17:76) is the same as khalfaka (after you). Na'a (17:83) is to be distant. "Shâkilatihi" (17:84) is his standpoint. It is from "shakla", form. "Sarafnâ" (17:41,89) is to draw one's attention to. "Qabîl" (17:92) is eye-to-eye and face-to-face. "Qâbila" is used for the midwife because she faces her and receives her child. "Fear of spending" (17:101) that a man would spend and become impoverished. When the thing vanishes, it is nafaqa. "Qutûr" (17:100) miserly. "li-adhqân" (17:107,108) is the place on the face where the two beards meet, the singular being dhaqan.

Mujahid said, "mawfûr" (17:63) means ample, and "tabî'" (17:69) is insurgent. Ibn 'Abbas said that it is a helper. "Khabat" (17:97) means to extinguish itself.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "but do not squander" (17:26) is: do not spend uselessly. "Seeking mercy" (17:28) is provision. "Mathbûr" (17:102) is cursed, "lâ taqfu" (17:36) is: do not say. "Entered (jâsa)" (17:5) means to make for. "To propel the ship" (17:66) means that the ship travels. "Falling on the 'chins'" (17:107,109) means to fall on the faces.

 

CCII: His words, "When We desire to destroy a city,We send a command to the affluent in it." (17:16)

4434. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "In the Jahiliyya, if a tribe became numerous, we used to say, 'The Banu so-and-so have become numerous (amira)."

Sufyan said, "amara".

 

CCIII: "Descendants of those We carried with Nuh. He was a grateful slave." (17:3)

4435. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,was given some meat and was offered the leg, which he liked, and ate some of it. Then he said, 'I will be the master of people on the Day of Rising. Do you know what that will entail? Allah will gather people, the first and the last on the same plain so that an observer will be able to see them and a speaker make them hear. The sun will be brought near to them and people will experience such sorrow and distress that they will not be able to bear or endure it. The people will say, 'Do you not see what has come to you? Why do you not look for someone to intercede with your Lord on your behalf?' People will say to one another, 'You must have Adam!' They will come to Adam, peace be upon him, and say, 'You are the father of mankind. Allah created you with His hand and breathed some of His spirit into you and He ordered the angels to prostrate to you. He made you dwell in the Garden. Will you not intercede with your Lord on our behalf? Do you not see what we are suffering?' Adam will say, 'My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again. He forbade me the Tree and I disobeyed. O my soul! My soul! My soul! Go to someone else. Go to Nuh.'

"They will go to Nuh and say, 'O Nuh! You are the first of the Messengers to be sent to the people of the earth and Allah called you a thankful slave. Intercede with your Lord on our behalf Do you not see what has happened to us?' He will say, 'My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again. I made a supplication on behalf of my people. O my soul! My soul! My soul! Go to someone else! Go to Ibrahim.'

"They will go to Ibrahim and say, 'O Ibrahim! You are the Prophet of Allah and His close friend among the people of the earth. Intercede with your Lord on our behalf. Do you not see what we are suffering?' He will say to them, 'My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again. I told three lies (And Abu Hayyan mentioned them in the hadith.) . O my soul! My soul! My soul! Go to someone else. Go to Musa.'

"They will go to Musa and say, 'O Musa, you are the Messenger of Allah. Allah preferred you with His message and His Word above all other people. Intercede with your Lord for us. Do you not see what we are suffering?' He will say, 'My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again. I killed a soul which I was not commanded to kill. Go to someone else. Go to 'Isa.'

"They will go to 'Isa and say, 'O 'Isa! You are the Messenger of Allah and His Word which He cast to Maryam and a spirit from Him. You spoke to people while in the cradle. Intercede with your Lord on our behalf. Do you not see what we are suffering?' 'Isa will say, 'My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again,' and he did not mention a sin. 'O my soul! My soul! My soul! Go to someone else. Go to Muhammad.'

"They will come to me and say, 'O Muhammad! You are the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets. Allah has forgiven you your past and future wrong actions. Intercede with your Lord on our behalf. Do you not see what we are suffering?' I will go and arrive under the Throne and fall down in prostration to my Lord, the Mighty and Exalted. Then Allah will inspire me with some words to praise and laud Him with which He will have inspired no one before me. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head. Ask and your request will be granted. Intercede and your intercession will be accepted. Lift your head!' I will lift my head and say, 'O my Lord, my community! O my Lord, my community!' It will be said, 'O Muhammad, bring in by the right-hand gate of the gates of the Garden those of your community who will not be subjected to any reckoning, and the rest of your community can share the other gates with other people.'" Then he said, "By the One in whose hand my soul is, the distance between the two gateposts of the gates of the Garden is as far as between Makka and Hajar or Makka and Busra."

 

CCIV: "We gave Da'ud the Zabur." (17:55)

4436. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Recitation was made light for Da'ud. He used to command that his animal be saddled, and he would do the recitation before the saddling was done."

 

CCV: " Say: 'Call on those you make claims for apart from Him. They possess no power to remove any harm from you or to change anything.'" (17:56)

4437. It is related that 'Abdullah said about, "the means by which to approach their Lord..." (17:57), "Certain people of mankind used to worship some of the jinn. Then the jinn became Muslim but those people continued to hold to their religion."

Al-A'mash added, "Say: 'Call on those you make claims for apart from Him.'" (17:56)

 

CCVI: "Those they call on are themselves seeking the means by which to approach their Lord." (17:57)

4438. It is related from 'Abdullah that he said about this ayat, "Those they call on are themselves seeking the means by which to approach their Lord," (17:57) "They were some of the jinn who were worshipped and then became Muslim."

 

CCVII: "We did not appoint the vision We showed you, except as a trial and temptation for the people." (17:60)

4439. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said about, "We did not appoint the vision We showed you, except as a trial and temptation for the people," (17:60) "It is the vision of the eye which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was shown on his Night Journey, and 'the Accursed Tree' is the tree of az-Zaqqum."

 

CCVIII: "The dawn recitation is certainly witnessed." (17:78)

Mujahid said that it is the Fajr prayer.

4440. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The excellence of the group prayer is twenty-five times that of the prayer of someone alone. The angels of the night and the angels of the day meet during the Subh prayer.'" Abu Hurayra used to say, "If you wish, recite, 'The dawn recitation is certainly witnessed.' (17:78)"

 

CCIX: "It may well be that your Lord will raise you to a Praiseworthy Station!" (17:79)

4441. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "People will fall to their knees on the Day of Rising. Each nation will follow its Prophet, saying, 'O so-and-so, intercede! O so-and-so, intercede!' until intercession reaches the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. That is the day when Allah will raise him to the Praiseworthy Station."

4442. It is related from Jabir ibn 'Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever says, after hearing the adhan, 'O Allah! Lord of this perfect call and established prayer, give Muhammad intercession and superiority and raise him up to the praiseworthy station which You promised him,' my intercession will be available to him on the Day of Rising."

It is related from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

 

CCX: Say: 'Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Falsehood is always bound to vanish .'" (17:81)

"Vanish" means to be destroyed.

4443. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered Makka and there were three hundred and sixty idols around the Ka'ba. He began to poke them with a stick in his hand, saying, 'Truth has come and falsehood has vanished' (17:81) and 'The Truth has come. Falsehood cannot originate or regenerate.'(34:49)"

 

CCXI: "They will ask you about the Ruh." (17:85)

4444. 'Abdullah said, "Once when I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in a field and he was using a palm-branch as a staff, some Jews passed by. They said to one another, 'Ask him about the Ruh.' One said, 'What need do you have of that?' Another said, 'He might tell you something that you will not like.' They said, 'Ask him.' So they asked him about the Ruh. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, remained silent and did not give them any answer. I knew that he was receiving revelation and stayed where I was. When the revelation had been revealed, he said, 'They will ask you about the Ruh. Say: "The Ruh is my Lord's concern. You have only been given a little knowledge!"' (17:85)"

 

CCXII: "Do not be too loud in your prayer or too quiet in it." (17:110)

4445. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas about His words, "Do not be too loud in your prayer or too quiet in it" (17:110), "This was revealed while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in hiding in Makka. When he led his Companions in prayer, he would raise his voice when reciting the Qur'an. When the idolaters heard him, they would abuse the Qur'an, the One who revealed it and the one who brought it. So Allah Almighty said to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Do not be too loud in your prayer," meaning 'your recitation,' so that the idolaters will hear and abuse the Qur'an, 'or too quiet in it', so that your companions do not hear. 'but try and find a way between the two.' (17:110)"

It is related from 'A'isha that it was revealed about supplication.

CCXIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Kahf

 

Mujahid said that "inclining away from them" (18:17) means "it leaves them." "He was a man of wealth and property (thumur)" (18:34) means gold and silver. Another said that it is the plural of "fruit" (thamar). "Nakhi'" (18:6) means "destroying". "Asafan" (18:6) means "sorrow". "Kahf" (cave) (18:9) is an opening in a mountain. "Ar-Raqim" (18:9) means "book" and "marqum" (83:20) means "written", taken from raqm. "We fortified their hearts" (18:14) means "We inspired them with steadfastness" as in "only We fortified her heart." (28:10) "Shatatan" (18:14) means excessiveness. "Wasid" (18:18) means the open space in front of a place. The plural is wasa'id or wusud. It is also said that it means a door. Mu'sada (90:20; 104:8) means "covered". The verb is asada, awsada (III and IV), "We woke them up" (18:19) is to bring them to life. "Azka" (18:19) means "most" or "most lawful". It is said that it means "the best". Ibn 'Abbas said "its crops." (18:33) Another said that "did not suffer any loss" (18:33) means "did not fall short."

Sa'id reported that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Ar-raqim' is a lead tablet. Their agent wrote down their names and then put it in his storehouse. Then Allah made them fall asleep."

Another said that 'Alat, ta'ilu' means "to be saved". Mujahid said that maw'ilan (18:58) is a place of protection. "Whose ears were unable to hear" (18:101) means that they do not understand.

 

CCXIV. "But of all things man is the most argumentative!" (18:54)

 

4447. It is related from 'Ali that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to him and Fatima and said, "Will you not pray?"

"Guessing at the unseen" (18:22) means that it was not made clear. "Furut" (18:27) means regret. "Billowing walls" (18:29) means like a tent and the room which is encompassed by a tent. "Debating with him" (18:34, 27) comes from muhawara, discussion. "He is, however, Allah, my Lord." (18:38), i.e. "But He is Allah, my Lord." The alif is elided and one of the two nuns is assimilated into the other. In "We made a river flow right through the middle of them" (18:33), khilalahuma means baynahuma. Zalaq (18:40) is that where the foot is not firm. In "There was no group to come to his aid" (18:44): wilaya is the verbal noun from wali. 'Uqub (18:44): its singular is 'aqiba, 'uqba and 'uqba. It is the Next World. "Qubul" (18:55) means qibal. "To deny" (18:56) means to remove. Dahid is a slip.

 

CCXV. Chapter: "When Musa said to his servant, 'I will not give up until I reach the meeting-place of the two seas, even if I must press on for many years.'" (18:60)

"Huqub" means a time. Its plural is ahqab.

 

4448. Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I said to Ibn 'Abbas, 'Nawf al-Bikali claims that this Musa was not the Musa of the Banu Isra'il.' He replied, 'The enemy of Allah has lied.'

"Ubayy ibn Ka'b narrated to us that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Musa stood up to give a speech among the Banu Isra'il and he was asked, 'Who has the most knowledge?' He replied, 'I have.' Allah censured him since he did not ascribe this knowledge to Him. Allah revealed to him, 'There is one of Our slaves at the meeting of the two seas who knows more than you." Musa said, 'My Lord, how can I meet him?' He was told, 'Take a fish and put it in a basket. When you lose the fish, that is the place.' So he put a fish in a basket and then set out with his lad Yusha' ibn Nun, until they reached a rock. They put their heads on it and went to sleep. The fish moved in the basket and got out of it and fell into the sea and then made its way into sea, burrowing. Allah held back the flow of the water and so it was like a tunnel.

"When Musa woke up, his companion forgot to tell him about the fish. They continued on for the rest of the day and the night. In the morning, Musa said to his lad, 'Bring us our morning meal. This journey of ours has made us very tired.' Musa did not feel tired until he had gone beyond the place about which Allah had commanded him. The lad said to him, 'Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish. No one made me forget to remember it except Shaytan. It found its way into the sea in an amazing way.'

"Musa said, 'This is the very thing that we were looking for!' So, following their footsteps, they retraced their route. When they reached the rock, there was a man wrapped in a garment. Musa greeted him, Al-Khadir said, 'Is there the greeting in your land?' He replied, 'I am Musa.' He asked, 'The Musa of the Banu Isra'il?' Musa said, 'Yes. May I follow you on condition that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?' He replied, 'You will not be able to bear with me. Musa, I have a knowledge from the knowledge of Allah which He has taught me which you do not know and you have a knowledge He has taught you which I do not know.' Musa said, 'You will find me patient, if Allah wills, and I will not disobey you in any matter.' Al-Khidr said to him, 'Then if you follow me, do not question me about anything till I myself make mention of it to you.'

"They continued walking along the shore. A boat passed by them and they asked them to take them on board. They recognised al-Khadir and they took them on board for free. While they were riding in the boat, al-Khadir suddenly went to one of the planks of the ship and pulled it up with an adze. Musa said to him, 'Some people carry us for free and then you deliberately stave it in so that its owners will be drowned? It is truly a dreadful thing that you have done!' He said, 'Did I not say that you would not be able to bear with me?' Musa said, 'Do not take me to task because I forgot. Do not demand of me something too difficult.'"

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "So the first excuse of Musa was forgetfulness. He said, "A sparrow came and alighted on the edge of the ship and dipped its beak once or twice in the sea. Al-Khadir said to him, 'My knowledge and your knowledge have not diminished the knowledge of Allah any more than the pecking of this sparrow in the sea has diminished this sea.'

"Then they left the ship and continued along the shore. Al-Khadir saw a boy playing with some other boys. Al-Khadir took of him by the head and wrenched his neck out and killed him. Musa said to him, 'Have you killed a boy who has done no wrong, without it being in retaliation for someone else? It is truly an appalling thing that you have done!" He said, "Did I not say to you that you would not be able to bear with me?" He said that this was stronger than the first. Then he said, "'If I ask you about anything after this, then you should no longer keep me company. You will have had excuse enough from me.'

"'So they continued until they reached the inhabitants of a town. They asked them for food but they refused them hospitality. They found a wall there about to fall down,' meaning leaning. Al-Khadir set it up straight with his hand. Musa said, 'We go to people who do not feed us or offer us hospitality. If you had wanted, you could have taken a wage for that.' He said, 'This is the parting of the ways between me and you....to ... That is the explanation of the things about which you were not able to be patient.' (18:78-82)"

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Would that he had been patient so that we would have been told more about them!"

Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "Ibn 'Abbas used to recite, 'Before them was a certain king who seized every sound boat by force,' and he used to recite, 'As for the youth, he was an unbeliever and his parents were believers.'"

 

CCXVI. "But when they reached their meeting-place, they forgot their fish which quickly burrowed its way into the sea." (18:61)

 

"Madhhaban" is to burrow, to travel. Part of that is "Walk forth freely (sarib) by day." (13:10)

4449. Ya'la ibn Muslim and 'Amr ibn Dinar related from Sa'id ibn Jubayr, one adding to one another, and others also heard it related from Sa'id.

He said, "While we were with Ibn 'Abbas in his his house, he said, 'Ask me.' I said, 'O Abu'l-'Abbas, amy Allah make me your ransom! There is a man in Kufa called Nawf who claims that he is not the Musa of the Banu Isra'il'"

'Amr told me that he said, 'The enemy of Allah lied.' Ya'la told me that Ibn 'Abbas said, 'Ubayy ibn Ka'b related to me that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:

"Once Musa, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, reminded the people until their eyes flowed with years and their hearts were moved. When he finished, a man caught up to him and said, 'Messenger of Allah, is there anyone in the earth with more knowledge than you?' He said, 'No.' Allah rebuked him since he did not refer knowledge to Allah. It was said, 'Yes there is.' He asked, 'O Lord, where?' He replied, 'At the junction of the two seas.' He said, 'My Lord, assign me a token by which I will recognise that.' He said, 'It is when the fish leaves you.'" Ya'la said to me that he said, "'Take a dead fish, and it is where life is breathed into it.' So he took a fish and put it in a basket and told his lad, 'I do not want to burden you. But tell me as soon as the fish leaves you.' He said, 'You have not burdened me with much.' That is the words of Allah, 'When Musa said to his servant.' (18:60) It was Yusha' ibn Nun.

(That was not reported by Sa'id). "While he was in the shade of a rock at a wet place, the fish moved while Musa was asleep. The lad said, 'I will not wake him up.' When he woke up, he forgot to tell him, The fish moved until it went into the sea. Allah held back the flow of the sea from the dish so that it was as if its track was in stone." ('Amr said to me, "It is as its track was on stone," and he made a circle with his thumbs and index fingers.")

Musa said, "'This journey of ours has made us very tired.' He said, "Allah removed exhaustion from you.'" (This is not from Sa'id.) He said, "They returned and found al-Khadir." ('Uthman ibn Abi Sulayman said, "On a green carpet in the middle of the sea.") Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "He was wrapped in his garment with one end under his feet and the other under his head. Musa greeted him and he uncovered his face and said, 'Is there a greeting in my land? Who are you?' He replied, 'I am Musa.' He asked, 'Musa of the Bani Israel?' 'Yes,' he replied. He asked, 'What do you want?' He said, 'I have come so that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?' He said, 'Is it not enough for you that the Torah is in your hands and revelation comes to you? Musa, I have a knowledge which you should not learn and you have a knowledge which I should not learn.' A bird dipped its beak into the sea and he said, 'By Allah, my knowledge and your knowledge in respect of the knowledge of Allah is only like what this bird took with its beak from the sea.'

"When they went on the boat, they found a small ferry which carried people from one shore to the other shore. They recognised him and said, 'The righteous slave of Allah.'" (We asked Sa'id. 'Was it Khadir?' 'Yes, he replied.'") "'We will not carry him for a fee.' He scuttled it and put a peg in it. Musa said, 'Do you stave it in so that its owners will be drowned? It is truly a dreadful thing that you have done!" (18:71) (Mujahid said it was an objection.) He said, 'Did I not say that you would not be able to bear with me?' The first question was forgetfulness, the third was a stipulation and the third was deliberate. He said, 'Do not take me to task because I forgot. Do not demand of me something too difficult.'

"Then they met a boy and he killed him." Ya'la said, "He found some boys playing and he too a clever unbelieving boy, laid him down and then killed him with a knife. Musa said, 'Have you killed one who has done no wrong, without it being in retaliation for someone else?' (18:74) And he has not done anything wrong?' (Ibn 'Abbas recited, 'innocent, pure, sound person" as you say "innocent lad".)

"Then they proceeded and they 'found a wall there about to fall down and he built it up.' (Sa'id said, "With his hand like this," and he raised his hand and made it straight.") If you had wanted, you could have taken a wage for that.' (Sa'id said, "Wages which we could have eaten."

"Behind them" means "before them". Ibn 'Abbas recited this as "before them was a king." They claim that someone other than Sa'id said that it was Hudad ibn Budad and that the name of the boy who was killed was Jaysur.

"'A king was behind them, commandeering every boat. (18:79) I wanted for him to leave it when it passed by him because of its defect. When they had gone beyond him, then they could repair it and use it.' Some people say that he sealed it with a bottle and some say that it was done with tar. 'His parents were people of faith and he was an unbeliever and we feared that he would darken their days with excessive insolence and disbelief, (18:80) and love for him would move them to follow him in his deen. We wanted their Lord to give them in exchange a purer son than him' (18:81), in answer to his words, 'You have killed one who has done no wrong,' and 'one more compassionate,' meaning that they would have more merciful to him than they were to the first whom Khadir killed." Someone other than Sa'id claimed that they had a daughter instead. Dawud ibn Abi 'Asim said that more than one said that it was a girl.

 

XXXVII: "When they had gone a distance further on, he said to his servant, 'Bring us our morning meal. This journey of ours has made us very tired.' He said, 'Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish. No one made me forget to remember it except Shaytan. It found its way into the sea in an amazing way'" (18:62-63)

"Sun'" (18:104) means "work." "Hiwal" (18:108) means "transformation."

"He said, 'This is the very thing that we were looking for!' So, following their footsteps, they retraced their route." (18:64) "Imran" (18:71) and "nukran" (18:74) mean a calamity. "Yanqadda" (18:77) means to collapse. "la-takhidhta" (18:77) [the reading of Abu 'Amr] is attakhadhta. "Ruhman" (18:81) means "out of mercy." Ruhm is more intensive than rahma. We think that it is derived from rahim. Makka is called "Umm Ruhm," i.e. it is the place where mercy descends.

4450. Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I said to Ibn 'Abbas, 'Nawf al-Bikali claims that the Musa of the tribe of Israel is not the Musa of al-Khadir.' He said, 'The enemy of Allah has lied! Ubayy ibn Ka'b related to us from that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:

""Musa stood up to give a speech among the Banu Isra'il and he was asked, 'Who has the most knowledge?' He replied, 'I have.' Allah censured him since he did not ascribe this knowledge to Him. Allah revealed to him, 'Yes, there is one of Our slaves at the meeting of the two seas who knows more than you." Musa said, 'My Lord, how can I reach him?' He was told, 'Take a fish and put it in a basket. When you lose the fish, follow it.' So Musa set out with his lad Yusha' ibn Nun with the fish until they reached a rock and stopped at it. Musa put his head down and went to sleep. (Sufyan said that in a hadith other than the one transmitted by 'Amr, it says, 'There was a spring at the base of the rock called al-Hayat (life). Anything that came in contact with its water was brought to life. The fish was touched by some of the water of that spring.') So the moved, slipped out of the basket and went into the sea.

"When Musa woke up, he said to his lad, 'Bring us our morning meal...' Musa did not feel tired until he had gone beyond the place about which Allah had commanded him. His lad, Yusha' ibn Nun, said to him, 'Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish..'

"So they went back, retracing their steps and found in the sea something like a tunnel through which the fish had passed like a tunnel. When they reached the rock, there was a man wrapped in a garment. Musa greeted him, and he said, 'How is the greeting in your land?' He replied, 'I am Musa.' He asked, 'The Musa of the Banu Isra'il?' Musa said, 'Yes. May I follow you on condition that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?' Al-Khadir said to him, 'Musa, you have something of the knowledge of Allah which He has taught you which I do not know and I have something of the knowledge of Allah which He has taught me which you do not know.' Musa said, 'Can I follow you?' He answered, 'Then if you follow me, do not question me about anything till I myself make mention of it to you.'

"They continued walking along the shore. A boat passed by them and al-Khadir was recognised, and they took them on board for free and they embarked. A sparrow landed on the edge of the ship and dipped its beak into the sea. Al-Khadir said to Musa, 'Your knowledge, my knowledge, and the knowledge of all creatures in respect of the knowledge of Allah is only like what this sparrow took with its beak. The Musa was surprised when al-Khadir picked up an adze and scuttled the ship. Musa said to him, 'Some people carry us for free and 'then you deliberately stave it in so that its owners will be drowned? It is truly a dreadful thing that you have done!" and the ayat continues.

"Then they continued and found a boy playing with some other boys. Al-Khadir took of him by the head and cut it off. Musa said to him, 'Have you killed a boy who has done no wrong, without it being in retaliation for someone else? It is truly an appalling thing that you have done!"'He said, 'Did I not say to you that you would not be able to bear with me?'

"Then the story continues until he said, 'but they refused them hospitality. They found a wall there about to fall down (and he demonstrated with hand) and al-Khadir set it up straight. Musa said, 'We went to people who did not offer us hospitality or feed us. If you had wanted, you could have taken a wage for that!' He answered, 'This is the parting of the ways between me and you. I will let you know the explanation of those things about which you were not able to be patient.' (18:78)"

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Would that Musa had been patient so that He would have told us more about them!"

He said that Ibn 'Abbas used to recite, "Before them was a certain king who seized every sound boat by force," and he used to recite, "As for the youth, he was an unbeliever."

 

CCXVIII: "Say: 'Shall I inform you of the greatest losers in their actions?'" (18:103)

4451. It is related that Mus'ab ibn Sa'd said, "I asked my father, 'Say: 'Shall I inform you of the greatest losers in their actions?" (18:103) about the Haruriyya*?' He replied, 'No, it was about the Jews and Christians. The Jews denied Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Christians deny the Garden, saying that there is no food or drink in it. The Haruriyya are "Those who break Allah's contract after it has been agreed." (13:25)' Sa'd used to call them evildoers (fasiqun).'"

[* A group of Kharijites]

 

CCXIX: "Those are the people who reject their Lord's Signs and the meeting with Him. Their actions will come to nothing." (18:105)

4452. Abu Hurayra related that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising, a huge fat man will come who will not weigh as much as a gnat's wing in the sight of Allah." He said, "Recite, if you wish, 'On the Day of Rising, We will not assign any weight to them.' (18:105)"

The like of this is transmitted from Abu'z-Zinad.

 

CCXX: Tafsir of Surat Maryam

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah says 'How clear will be their hearing, how perfect their sight,' (19:38), while they do no hear or see today, being 'in clear misguidance.' By His words, 'How clear will be their hearing, how perfect their sight,' He means that on that Day, the unbelievers will hear and see something. "I will indeed stone you" means "I will insult you." (18:46) "ri'yan" (18:74) means what is seen.

Abu Wa'il said, "Maryam knew that someone who is godfearing has understanding which is why she said, 'I seek refuge from you with the All-Merciful if you are godfearing.' (19:18)"

Ibn 'Uyayna said, "to goad them on" (19:83) means, "Provoke them to acts of disobedience."

Mujahid said that "ludd" (19:97) means "crooked".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "wird" (19:86) means "thirsty" and "athath" (19:84) means property. "Idd" (19:89) means a terrible world. "Rikz" (19:98) means "voice".

Mujahid said that "prolongs" (19:75) means to leave them be, "ghayy" (19:59) means loss, "bukiyyan" (19:58) describes a group weeping. "Silyan" (19:73) comes from the verb "to burn". "Nadiyan" (19:73). The singular is nadi, and it means a gathering.

 

CCXXI: "Warn them of the Day of Bitter Regret." (19:39)

4453. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Death will be brought in the form of a black and white ram and a caller will call out, 'People of the Garden!' They will stretch their necks and look. The caller will ask, 'Do you recognise this?' They will reply, 'Yes, this is death.' All of them will have seen it. Then the caller will call out, 'People of the Fire!' They will stretch their necks and look. The caller will ask, 'Do you recognise this?' They will reply, 'Yes, this is death.' All of them will have seen it. It will be slaughtered. Then the caller will say, 'People of the Garden! Eternity without death! People of the Fire! Eternity without death!' Then he recited, 'Warn them of the Day of Bitter Regret when the affair will be resolved. But they are heedless. They do not believe.' (19:39) The people of this world are in a state of heedlessness."

 

CCXXII: "We do not descend except at your Lord's command." (19:64)

4454. It is related from Sa'id ibn Jubayr that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Jibril, 'What prevents you from visiting us more than you visit us.' Then it was revealed, 'We do not descend except at your Lord's command. Everything in front of us, and everything behind us, and everything in between belongs to Him.' (19:64)"

 

CCXXIII: "Have you seen him who rejects Our Signs and says, 'I will certainly be given wealth and children there.'" (19:77)

4455. It is related that Khabbab said, "I went to al-'As ibn Wa'il as-Sahmi to ask him to settle a debt he owed me. He said, 'I will not give it to you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'No, not until Allah makes you die and then you are resurrected from the dead.' He said, 'Will I die and then be resurrected?' 'Yes,' I replied. He said, 'So then I will have wealth and children and I will pay you.' Then it was revealed. 'Have you seen him who rejects Our Signs and says, "I will certainly be given wealth and children there."?' (19:770"

It is also related from al-A'mash.

 

CCXXIV: "Has he surveyed the Unseen or has he a contract with the All-Merciful?" (19:79)

4456. It is related that Khabbab said, "I used to be a blacksmith in Makka and I made a sword for al-'As ibn Wa'il as-Sahmi. When I went to ask him for payment, he said, 'I will not give it to you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'I will not reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until Allah makes you die and resurrects you.' He said, 'If Allah should make me die and then resurrect me, I will have wealth and children.' So Allah revealed, "Has he surveyed the Unseen or has he a contract with the All-Merciful?" (19:79). A contract is a covenant."

Al-Ashja'i did not mention a sword or covenant.

 

CCXXV: "No indeed! We will write down what he says and prolong the punishment for him." (19:79)

4457. It is related that Khabbab said, "I used to be a blacksmith in the time of Jahiliyya and al-'As ibn Wa'il owed me a debt, so I went to him to ask for its repayment. He said, 'I will not give it to you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'By Allah I will not reject until Allah makes you die and then you are resurrected from the dead.' He said, 'Then leave me until I die and am resurrected. Then I will be given wealth and children and I will pay you.' So it was revealed, 'Have you then seen the (sort of) man who rejects Our signs, yet says, "I shall certainly be given wealth and children"?"

 

CCXXVI: His words, "We will inherit from him the things he speaks about and he will come to Us all alone." (19:80)

Ibn 'Abbas said said that "haddan" (19:90) means "destroyed".

4458. Khabbab said, "I was a blacksmith and al-'As ibn Wa'il owed me a debt. I went to ask him for payment and he said to me, 'I will not pay you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'I will not reject him until you die and are resurrected,' He said, 'If I am resurrected after death, then I will pay you when my wealth and children are returned to me.' Then it was revealed, 'Have you seen him who rejects Our Signs and says, 'I will certainly be given wealth and children there.' Has he surveyed the Unseen or has he a contract with the All-Merciful? No indeed! We will write down what he says and prolong the punishment for him. We will inherit from him the things he speaks about and he will come to Us all alone.' (19:77-80)"

 

CCXXVII: Tafsir of Surat Taha

Ibn Jubayr said that Taha (20:1) in Nabatean means "O man!" Mujahid said that "alqa" (20:65) means "do". It is said that it is all which is not articulated with a letter or in which there is a repetion of ta' or fa', and so it is a stutter. "Azri" (20:31) means "my back". "Expel you from the land" (20:61) is "to destroy you". "Muthla" (20:63) is the feminine form of "amthal". Here "your way of life" means your deen. Athmal and muthla can be used interchangeably. In "then arrive together in force" (20:64): "saff" can mean the place in which you gather to pray. "Awjasa" (20:67) is concealed fear. Khifa (fear) is like khawf, but it loses the waw because of the kasra on the kha'. "Fi judhu'" (20:71) means "on trunks". "Khatbuka" (20:95) means "your business." "Misas" (20:97) is a verbal noun from massa, "to touch". "Scatter" (20:97) means "to spread it." "Qa'" (20:106) is land over which water flows and "safsaf" is flat land.

Mujahid said that "awzar" (20:87) are weights "people's jewellery", meaning the jewellery which they had borrowed from the people of Pharaoh. "Qadhafnaha" (20:87) means "we threw them." "Alqa" (20:87) means "to do". "Nasiya" (20:88): He said, "Musa has forgotten." They said, "He has lost the Lord." "It did not reply to them" (19:89) refers to the Calf. "Hams" (20:108) is the sound of feet. "We will gather him blind" (20:124) means blind to My proof. "When before I was able to see" (20:125) means in this world.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "with a fire" (10:10) means that they lost the way and it was in winter. He said, "If I do not find someone to guide us to the way, then I will bring you fire with which to kindle a fire."

Ibn 'Uyayna said, "amthaluhum" (20:104) means the one of them who had the fairest way.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "hadm" (20:112) means that he will not be wronged and his good actions curtained. "'Iwaj" (20:107) is a wadi. "Amn" (20:107) means "a hill". "Sirataha" (20:21) means its state. "Nuha" (20:54) is godfearing. "Dank" (20:124) means "misery" and "hawa" (20:81) means "to become wretched." In "the sacred valley Tuwa" (19:12), muqaddas means blessed and Tuwa is the name of the valley. "Bi-malkina" (20:87) means "at Our command." "Makana siwa" (20:58) means that things are even between them. "Yabas" (19:77) means dry. "'ala qadarin" (20:40) means a promise. "La taniya" (20:42) means to become weak.

 

CCXXVIII. "And I have prepared you for Myself." (20:41)

4459. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Adam and Musa met, and Musa said to Adam, 'You are the one who made people wretched and expelled them from the Garden.' Adam said to him, 'You are the one whom Allah chose for His Message and chose you for Himself and on whom He sent down the Torah?' 'Yes,' he replied. Adam said, 'Did you find what was written for me for He created me?' 'Yes,' he replied. So Adam overcame Musa in the argument."

 

CCXXIX: "We revealed to Musa, Travel with My slaves by night. Strike a dry path for them through the sea. Have no fear of being overtaken and do not be afraid.' Pharaoh pursued them with his troops and the sea overwhelmed them utterly. Pharoah misguided his people. He was no guide." (20:77-79)

4460. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina, the Jews were fasting 'Ashura'. He asked them about it and they said, 'This is the day when Musa was victorious over Pharaoh.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said 'We are more entitled to Musa than them. Fast it.'"

 

CCXXX: "Do not let him expel you from the Garden and thus make you miserable." (20:117)

4461. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Adam and Musa argued, and Musa said to him, You are the One who caused people to be expelled from the Garden by your mistake, and made wretched.' Adam said, 'Musa, you are the One whom Allah chose for His Message and direct words. Do you blame me for something Allah wrote for me before He created me, or decreed for me before He created me?'" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "So Adam overcame Musa in the argument."

 

CCXXXI: Tafsir of Surat al-Anbiya'

4462. It is reported that 'Abdullah said, Surats Banu Isra'il, al-Kahf, Maryam, Taha and al-Anbiya' are among the first and best, and they are part of my first memorisation."

Qatada said that "judhadh" (21;58) means to cut them off.

Al-Hasan said that "in a sphere" (21:33) means "like its circular orbit. "Yasbahuna" means "going around".

Ibn 'Abbas said, "nafashat" (21:78) is to graze by night. "Yushabuna" (21:43) is to be defended. "This nation of yours is one nation" (21:92) means "Your deen is one deen."

'Ikrima said that "hasab" (21:98) means "firewood" in Abyssinian.

Another said that "ahassu" (21:12) means to experience, from ahassa (Form IV). "Khamidun" (21:15) means "still". "Hasid" (11:100) means extirpated, and it is used for one, two or many. "La yastihsirun" (21:19) means that they do not stop. "Hasir" (67:4) comes from it, and the verb is used for a camel which becomes tired. "'Amiq" (22:27) means far. "Nukisu" (21:65) means to return. "San'ata labus" (21:80) is coats of mail. "They split their affair between them into pieces" (21:93) means that they disagreed. Hasis, hiss, jars and hams mean the same, and it is a low sound. "adhannaka" (41:47) means "We informed you" as in (21:109): "I have informed all of you equally" (21:109): you do not betray.

Mujahid said, "So that you can be interrogated" (21:13): means "you understand". "Irtada" (21:28) means "be pleased". "Tamathil" (21:52) means idols. "Sijil" (21:104) means "page".

 

CCXXXII: "As We originated the first creation so We will regenerate it." (21:104)

4463. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave a khutba and said, 'O people! You will be gathered to Allah barefoot, naked, uncircumcised. "As We originated the first creation so We will regenerate it. It is a promise binding on Us. That is what We will do." (21:104)' Then he said, 'The first of creatures to be dressed on the Day of Rising will be Ibrahim. Some men of my community will be taken to the left side and I will say, "O Lord, my Companions!" It will be said, "You do not know what they originated after you." I will say as the righteous slave said, "I was a witness against them as long as I remained among them, but when You took me back to You, You were the Watcher over them. You are Witness of all things." (5:117) It will be said, "Those continued to be apostates since the time you left them."'"

 

CCXXXIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Hajj

Ibn 'Uyayna said that "mukhbitina" (22:34) means at peace.

Ibn 'Abbas said about "fi umniyyatihi" (22:52), "When he spoke, Shaytan cast into his words and Allah invalidated what Shaytan cast and made His ayats perfect. Umniyyatihi refers to recitation. "illa amani" (2:78) means "they read but cannot write."

Mujahid said that mashid (22:45) means whitewash.

Another said that "yastuna" (22:72) is to be quick to attack, from satwa. It is said that it means "to hit.' "They have been guided to good words" (22:24) means that they have been inspired.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "bi-sabab" (22:15) is a rope which is attached to the ceiling. "They have been guided to good words" (22:24) means they have been inspired to the Qur'an. "tadhhal" (22:2) means distracted.

 

CCXXXIV: "You will think people drunk." (22:2)

4464. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah Almighty will say on the Day of Rising, 'O Adam!' He will say, At Your service and obedience, our Lord!' There will be a call, 'Allah commands you to bring out from your descendants to be sent to the Fire.' He will say, 'O Lord, what is [amount] of those sent to the Fire?' He will say, 'Nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand.' At that time the child will become white-haired 'and every pregnant woman will abort the contents of her womb, and you will think people drunk when they are not drunk; it is just that the punishment of Allah is so severe.' (22:2) That was hard on the people and their faces were ashen. The Prophet * said, 'Nine hundred and ninety-nine will be taken from Ya'juj and Ma'juj and one from you. Among people you are only like a black hair on the hide of a white ox, or like a white hair on the hide of a black ox. I hope that you will be a quarter of the people of the Garden.' We said, 'Allah is greater!' Then he said, 'A third of the people of the Garden,' and we said, 'Allah is greater!' Then he said, 'Half of the people of the Garden,' and we said, 'Allah is greater!'"

Al-A'mash said, "You will think people drunk when they are not drunk," and he said, "Nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand."

Jarir, 'Isa ibn Yunus and Abu Mu'awiya said, "Drunk, yet not drunk."

 

CCXXXV: "Among the people there is one who worships Allah right on the edge. If good befalls him, he is content with it but if a trial befalls him, he reverts to his former ways, losing both this world and the Next. That is indeed sheer loss. Instead of Allah, he calls on something which cannot harm him and cannot help him. That is extreme misguidance." (22:11-12)

"Atrafnahum" (23:33) means expanded their wealth.

4465. Ibn 'Abbas said about "Among the people there is one who worships Allah right on the edge," (22:11) "A man used to come to Madina and if his wife had a son and his horses had foals, he would say, 'A good deen.' If his wife did not give birth and his horses did not produce foals, he would say, 'A bad deen.'"

 

CCXXXVI: "Here are two rival groups who disputed concerning their Lord." (22:19)

4466. Qays ibn 'Ubbad reported that Abu Dharr used to swear that this ayat, "Here are two rival groups who disputed concerning their Lord," (22:19) was revealed about Hamza and his two companions and 'Utba and his two companions on the day they were forth in the Battle of Badr.

It is also related from Abu Miljaz.

4467. Qays ibn 'Ubbad reported that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib said, "I will be the first to kneel before the All-Merciful on the Day of Rising because of that dispute." Qays said, "The ayat, 'Here are two rival groups who disputed concerning their Lord' (22:19), was revealed about them." He added, "They are the ones who were forth to fight [in single combat] in the Battle of Badr: 'Ali, Hamza and 'Ubayda, and Shayba ibn Rabi'a, 'Utba ibn Rabi'a, and al-Walid ibn 'Utba."

 

CCXXXVII: Tafsir of Surat al-Mu'minin

Ibn 'Uyayna said that "seven levels" (23:17) are the seven heavens. "And they are the first to reach them" (23:61) are those for whom happiness is decreed. "Qulubuhum wajila" (23:60) means "fearful."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "hayhata hayhata" (23:36) means "far! far!" "Ask those able to count" (23:113) are the angels. "Nakibun" (23:74) means "transgressing". "Lalihun" (23:104) means "frowning".

"Min sulala" (23:12) means children. Sulala is sperm. "Jinna" (23:25) is the same as "junun", mad. "Ghutha'" (23;41) means scum. It is that which floats on the water and is of no use.

"Yaja'run" (23:64) menas to raise their voices like cattle do. "Turned round on your heels" (23:66) is to turn back. "Samir" (23:67) comes from samar (talking at night), and the plural is samir, which is used for the plural. "Tusharun" (23:89) means "to be blind", from sihr.

 

CCXXXVIII: Tafsir of Surat an-Nur

"Min khilalihi" (24:43) means "between the masses of the clouds". "Sana barqihi" (24:43) means "illumination". "Mudh'inina" (24:49) means "submissive" "Ashtat" (24:61) is the plural and shatta, shatat and shatt is the singular.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "A sura which We have sent down" means, "We made it clear."

Someone else said, "The Qur'an is named as the collection of suras and the sura is so named because it is separate from others. When they are joined together, then it is called 'Qur'an'."

Sa'd ibn 'Iyad ath-Thumali said that "miska" (24:35) means "small window" in Abyssinian.

The words of Allah "Its collection and recitation are Our responsibility," (75:17) means to join it together. " "So when We recite it, follow its recitation." (75:18) means: when when We have collected it and put it together, then follow its recitation, i.e. what is collected in it, and act according to its commands and refrain from what is prohibits. One says, "There is no recitation of his poetry," i.e. it has not been collected.

It is called Furqan because it distinguishes between truth and falsehood. One says to a woman, "You have not put together [lit 'read'] a membrane at all," meaning you have not conceived. "Farradnaha" (24:1): means "We sent down different obligations in it." If it is read "faradnaha", it means: W"e obliged on you and those after you."

Mujahid said, "Or children who still have no awareness of women's private parts." (24:31) means that they do not know it because of their youth.

Ash-Sha'bi said "who have no sexual desire" (24:31) means without desire. Tawus said, "It is the simpleton who has no need of women." Mujahid said, "He is only concerned with eating, and not feared with women."

 

CCXXXIX: His words, "Those who make an accusation against their wives and have no witnesses except themselves, the legal proceeding of such a one is to testify four times by Allah that he is telling the truth." (24:6)

4468. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "'Uwaymir went to 'Asim ibn 'Adi, the chief of Banu 'Ajlan, and said, 'What do you say about a man who finds another man with his wife? Should he kill him and then you kill him? What else should he do? Ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,about that.' So 'Asim went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disliked such questions. So 'Uwaymir asked 'Asim and he replied, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, dislikes such questions and finds them unseemly.' 'Uwaymir said, 'By Allah, I will not stop until I ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that!'

"So 'Uwaymir went and said, 'Messenger of Allah, if a man finds another man with his wife, should he kill him and then you kill him? What else should he do?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah has revealed in the Qur'an about you and your wife.' So the Messenger of Allah* commanded the two of them to curse one another according to what Allah prescribed in His Book. He performed the li'an on her and then said, 'Messenger of Allah, if I kept her, I would wrong her.' So he divorced her, and divorce became a sunna after them for those who carried out the li'an.

"Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Wait and see. If she brings a black child with dark eyes, large buttocks and fleshy legs, then I think that 'Uwaymir spoke the truth. If she has a reddish child like the wahra lizard (white with reddish spots), then I think that he has lied about her.' She bore a child who has the description which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said showed the truthfulness of 'Uwaymir, and after that the child was ascribed to his mother."

 

CCXL: "And a fifth time that Allah's curse will be upon him if he is lying." (24:7)

4469. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "A man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked, 'Messenger of Allah, what do you think about a man who finds another man with his wife? Should he kill him and then you kill him? What else should he do?' Allah revealed about them what is mentioned in the Qur'an about mutual cursing. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him 'Allah has decided about you and your wife.' So they cursed one another in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while I was present and the man divorced her. It became a sunna that a couple who performed the mutual cursing would be divorced. She was pregnant and the man denied paternity, so her son was ascribed to her. Then it became the sunna about inheritance that such a child would inherit from the mother and the mother from him in what Allah prescribed for her.

 

CCXLI: "And the punishment is removed from her if she testifies four times by Allah that he is lying." (24:8)

4470. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that Hilal ibn Umayya accused his wife of adultery with Sharik ibn Sahma' in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The clear proof or the hadd will be enforced on your back.' He said, 'Messenger of Allah, if one of us were to see a man on top of his wife, would he then go looking for the proof?' He continued to say, 'The clear proof or the hadd will be enforced on your back.' Hilal said, 'By the One who sent you with the Truth, I am telling the truth, so Allah will reveal what will save my back from the hadd.' Then Jibril came down and revealed to him, 'Those who make an accusation against their wives ...to... he is lying.' (25:6-9) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then sent for the woman and Hilal came and testified. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah knows that one of you is lying, so will one of you repent?' Then the woman got up and testified. When she reached the fifth oath, the people stopped her and said, 'It will become mandatory (the anger of Allah if she is lying).' She paused and recoiled until we thought that she would retract. Then she said, 'I will not disgrace my people for the rest of time,' and she continued. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Watch her. If she brings forth a child that is black-eyed, with large buttocks and fleshy legs, it belongs to Sharik ibn Sahma'.' She bore a child who was like that. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If it had been decided in the Book of Allah, I would have done something else with her.'"

 

CCXLII: His words, "And a fifth time that Allah's anger will be upon her if he speaks the truth." (24:9)

4471. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that a man accused his wife of adultery and denied the paternity of her child in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered them to perform the li'an (mutual cursing) as Allah had stated. Then the sentence was that the child belonged only to the mother and he divorced the couple who had carried out the li'an."

 

CCXLIII: "Those who propagated the lie are a band of you. Do not suppose it to be bad for you; rather it is good for you. Every one of them will incur the evil he has earned and the one who took it on himself to amplify it will receive a terrible punishment." (24:11)

"Affak" (26:222; 45:7) means "liar".

4472. It is related from 'A'isha that "the one who took it on himself to amplify it" was 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul.

 

CCXLIV: His words: "Why, when you heard it, did you not, as believing men and women, instinctively think good thoughts and say, 'This is obviously a lie'? Why did they not produce four witnesses to it? And since they did not bring four witnesses, in Allah's sight, they are liars." (24:12-13)

4473. It is related from 'A'isha $, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about when the people of the Lie said what they said about her and Allah cleared her of what they said. All of a group related the hadith and some of the hadith confirmed other parts, although some had better memory of it than others. It is related from 'Urwa from 'A'isha who said:

"When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to go on a journey, he drew lots between his wives and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took with him whoever had her lot came out." A'isha said, "Lots were drawn between us for an expedition which he went on and my lot came out, so I went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It was after the veil had been sent down. I was carried in a howdah and was brought down in it.

"We travelled until the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished that expedition and returned and we drew near to Madina. The announcement was made at night to travel. I got up when they announced travel and walked until I had gone past the army. When I finished my need, I went back to my camel and then I noticed that my necklace made of onyx had broken. I went back to look for my necklace and looking for it delayed me."

"Those who were carrying me came and picked my howdah and put it on my camel which I was riding. They thought that I was in it. At that time women were light and not heavy and did not have a lot of flesh on them. They used to eat only a little. So the people did not notice the weight of the howdah when they lifted it up and carried it as I was a young girl. They moved the camel and set off. I found my necklace after the army had left. I came to the camp site and there was absolutely no one there. I went to the place where I had been, thinking that they would miss me and return for me. While I was sitting there, drowziness overcame me and I fell asleep. Safwan ibn al-Mu'attal as-Sulami, then adh-Dhakwani, was behind the army and he reached my spot at morning. He saw the dark form of someone asleep, so he came to me. He recognised me when me saw me. He had seen me before the veil. I woke up when he said, 'We belong to Allah and to Him we return!' after he had recognised me. I veiled my face with my head-shawl and, by Allah, we did not speak a single word nor did I hear a single word from him except for 'We belong to Allah and to Him we return!' Then he made his camel kneel and he put its leg down and I mounted it. He went leading the camel until we reached the army after they had alighted to camp at the height of midday. Then whoever was destroyed was destroyed. The one who led the lie was 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul.

"We reached Madina and after I arrived, I was ill there for a month while the people were spreading the word of the people of the lie although I was not aware of any of that. I imagined in my illness that I did not see from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the kindness which I used to see him show when I was ill. He would visit me and give the greeting and then say, 'How is that one?' Then he would leave. That caused me some doubt, but I was not aware of any of the evil until I recovered and I went out with Umm Mistah to al-Manasi'. We used to go the lavatory there and we only went out to it from night to night. That was before we put up lavatories near our houses."

We followed the custom of the early Arabs of going to the lavatory in the desert. We found it annoying to have lavatories by our houses." She said, "So Umm Mistah bint Abi Ruhm ibn 'Abdu'l-Muttalib ibn 'Abdu Manaf, whose mother was the daughter of Sakhr ibn Amir and the maternal aunt of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, and whose son was Mistah ibn Uthatha ibn 'Abbad ibn al-Muttalib and I went out. When we finished our business, Umm Mistah and I were coming towards my house when Umm Mistah tripped on her dress and said, 'May Mistah stumble!' I said to her, 'What you have said is bad. Would you curse a man who was present at Badr?' She said, 'O you there! Have you not heard what he has said?' I said, 'And what has he said?' And she told be about what the people of the Lie had said.

"Then I became even more ill. When I returned to my house, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and visited me and greeted me and then said, 'How is that one?' I said to him, 'Will you give me permission to go to my parents?'" She said, "I wanted to make sure of the report from them." She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave me permission. I said to my mother, 'Mother! What are the people saying?' She said, 'O my daughter! Do not make too much of the business. By Allah, seldom has there been a woman of beauty with a husband who loves her with co-wives but that they say a lot against her.' I said, 'Glory be to Allah! The people have been saying this?'" She said, "I spent the entire night until morning unable to stop weeping and could not sleep at all. Morning found me still weeping."

"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and Usama ibn Zayd when the revelation had been delayed to consult them and ask them about divorcing his wife." She said, "Usama pointed out to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, what he knew of his wife's innocence and what he knew of them. Usama said, '"Keep your wife. We know only good.' 'Ali said, 'Messenger of Allah, Allah has not constricted you and there are many women besides her. Ask the slavegirl to tell you the truth.'"

She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned Barira and said, 'Barira, have you seen anything in her which would make you doubt her?' Barira said to him, 'By the One who sent you with the Truth. I have not seen her do anything for which I could criticise her beyond the fact that she is a young girl who sleeps, neglecting her family's leaven so that the sheep comes and eats it.'"

She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up that day and while he was on the minbar asked for help against 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy. He said, 'O company of Muslims! Who will help us against a man whose injury in my family has reached me? By Allah, I only know good of my wife. They mentioned a man about whom I only know good who has not entered where my family is except with me!'

"Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, the brother of 'Abdu'l-Ashhal, got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, by Allah, we will help you against him. If he is from Aws, we will chop his head off, and if he is from our brothers of Khazraj, command us and we will carry out your command on him.'" She said, "Sa'd ibn 'Ubada, the leader of Khazraj, got up. Before then he had been a virtuous man, but zeal had carried him away, and he said to Sa'd, 'You lied, by the life of Allah! You will not kill him and you are not able to do that! If he had been from your group, you would not want him to be killed!' Usayd ibn al-Hudayr, the cousin of Sa'd, got up and said to Sa'd ibn 'Ubada, 'You have lied, by the life of Allah! We will kill him! You are a hypocrite arguing on behalf of hypocrites!' The two clans of Aws and Khazraj were stirred up against one another until they were ready for war while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing on the minbar. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, continued to calm them until they were silent and he was silent." She said, "I wept for that whole day and I could not stop weeping and I could not sleep."

She said, "In the morning my parents were with me and I had wept for two nights and a day and I could not stop weeping and I could not sleep until I thought that weeping would split my liver. While my parents were sitting with me while I was weeping, a woman of the Ansar asked for permission to enter and I gave her permission. She sat down weeping with me. While he were like that, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered, gave the greeting, and sat down." She said, "He had not sat with me since before the day when what was said about me was said. A month had passed without any revelation coming to him regarding my business."

She said, "He said the tashahhud when he sat down and then said, ' A'isha, such-and-such about you has reached me. If you are innocent, then Allah will show you innocent. If you have done any wrong action, then ask forgiveness of Allah and turn to Him in repentance. If the slave of Allah admits his sin and then repents, Allah turns to him.'" She said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished what he was saying, my tears stopped so that I was not aware of a single tear. I said to my father, 'Answer the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for me regarding what he said.' He said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said to my mother, 'Answer the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for me regarding what he said.' She said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'I am a young girl who does not recite much of the Qur'an. By Allah, I know that you have heard this story that people are saying and it has become fixed in yourself and you have believed it. If I were to say to you that I am innocent, you would not believe met. If I were to confess to something to you - and Allah knows that I am innocent - you would believe me. By Allah, I can find no example for you and me except for that of the father of Yusuf when he said, "(For me) patience is most fitting: against that which you assert." Then I turned over on my bed, Allah knowing that I was innocent and hoping that Allah would proclaim me innocent. However, by Allah, I did not think that any revelation would be sent down regarding me. I thought too little of myself that something would be said in the Qur'an regarding me, however I hoped that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would have a dream in which Allah would exonerate me.

"By Allah, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not get up from where he was sitting nor did any of the people of the House leave before the revelation descended on him and he and seized by the intense sweating which usually seized him and the sweat was pouring from him like pearls of sweat although it was a wintry day because of the weight of the word which descended on him. Then it left the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  and he was smiling. The first word that he spoke was that he said to me, ' A'isha, Allah has exonerated you.' She said, "My mother said to me, 'Go to him.' I said, 'No, by Allah! I will not go to him and I will only praise Allah. the Mighty and Exalted!' Then Allah Almighty revealed the ten verses, 'Those who propagated the lie are a band of you.. . .' (24:11)

"When Allah sent down this to exonerate me, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, who used to provide maintenance for Mistah ibn Uthatha because he was related to him and Mistah was poor, said, 'By Allah, I will never provide anything for Mistah ever again after what he said about A'isha!' Then Allah Almighty sent down, 'Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor and those who have emigrated in the way of Allah. They should rather pardon and overlook. Would you not love Allah to forgive you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.' (24:22) Abu Bakr said, 'Yes, by Allah, I want Allah to forgive me.' So he restored to Mistah what he had been giving him. He said, 'By Allah, I will never strip him of it!'"

A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, also asked Zaynab bint Jahsh about my business. He said to Zaynab, 'What do you know? What have you seen?' She said, 'Messenger of Allah, I protect my hearing and sight. By Allah, I only know good of her.'" A'isha said, "She was my rival among the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but Allah protected her by scrupulousness." She said, "Her sister, Hamna, began attacking on her behalf and she was destroyed with those who were destroyed."

 

CCXLV: His words, "Were it not for Allah's favour to you and His mercy, both in this world and the Next World, a terrible punishment would have afflicted you." (24:14)

Mujahid said "talaqqawnahu" (24:15) means "one of you relates from another." "Tufiduna" (10:61; 46:8) means "to say".

4474. Umm Ruman, 'A'isha's mother, said, "When 'A'isha was accused, she fainted and fell."

 

CCXLVI: "You were bandying it about on your tongues your mouths uttering something about which you had no knowledge. You considered it to be a trivial matter, but, in Allah's sight, it is an enormous thing." (24:15)

4475. Ibn Abi Mulayka reported that he heard 'A'isha recite, "bandying it about on your tongues." (24:15)

 

CCXLVII: "Why, when you heard it, did you not say, 'We have no business speaking about this. Glory be to You! This is a terrible slander!'?" (24:16)

4476. It is related from Ibn Abi Mulayka that Ibn 'Abbas asked permission to visit 'A'isha before her death, while she was in the pains of death. She said, "I fear that he will praise me." It was said to her, "He is the cousin of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of the notable Muslims." She said, "Give him permission." He asked, "How are you feeling?" She replied, "Good, if I fear Allah.' He said, 'Allah willing, you are in good, being the wife of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he did not marry any virgin other than you and proof of your innocence was revealed from heaven.' Ibn az-Zubayr entered after him and she said, "Ibn 'Abbas came and praised me, and I wish that I had been 'a thing discarded and forgotten.' (19:23)"

It is reported from al-Qasim that Ibn 'Abbas asked permission to visit 'A'isha, and he mentioned the like, but did not mention "discarded and forgotten.'"

 

CCXLVIII: "Allah warns you never to repeat the like of it again." (24:17)

4477. It is related that Masruq related that 'A'isha said that Hassan ibn Thabit came and asked permission to visit her. "I said, 'Would you give this person permission?' She said, 'Has he not suffered a grievous punishment?'" Sufyan said that she meant the loss of his sight. He recited:

"Chaste, honourable, free of suspicion,

     morning finds her free

     from having eaten the flesh of chaste women."

She said, "But you do."

 

CCXLIX:. His words, "Allah makes the Signs clear to you and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise." (24:18)

4478. It is related that Masruq said, "Hassan ibn Thabit visited 'A'isha and recited the verses:

'Chaste, honourable, free of suspicion,

    morning finds her free

      from having eaten the flesh of chaste women.'

She said, 'You are not like that.' I said, 'Do you allow him to visit you when Allah has revealed, 'the one who took it on himself to amplify it will receive a terrible punishment.' (24:11)' She replied, 'What punishment is greater than blindness?' Then she said, 'He used to defend the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'"

 

CCL:. His words, "People who love to see filth being spread about concerning those who believe will have a painful punishment both in this world and the Next World. Allah knows and you do not know. Were it not for Allah's favour to you and His mercy... and that Allah is All-Gentle, Most Merciful." (24:19-22)

"Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor and those who have emigrated in the way of Allah. They should rather pardon and overlook. Would you not love Allah to forgive you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (24:22)

4479. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When what said about me was said while I knew nothing of it, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up to speak and said the tashahhud and praised and lauded Allah as He deserves. Then he said, 'Following on from that, indicate to me what I should do about some people who have accused my wife. by Allah, I do not know of anything bad about my wife. They have accused her of being with someone about whom, by Allah, I know nothing evil and he has not entered my house except when I was present, and whenever I was absent on a journey, he was absent with me'

""Sa'd ibn Mu'adh got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, by Allah, give me permission to cut off their heads!.' A man of Khazraj, to whose party Umm Hassan ibn Thabit belonged, rose and said, 'You have lied! By Allah, if they had been from Aws, you would not want to cut off their heads!' It always reached the point where there was evil between Aws and Khazraj in the mosque. I did not know about that.

"In the evening of that day, I went to for the call of nature and Umm Mistah went with me. She tripped and said, 'May Mistah perish!' I said, 'Mother, do you abuse your son?' She was silent and then stumbled again and said, 'May Mistah perish!'I said to her, 'Do you curse your son?' When she stumbled a third time, she said, 'May Mistah perish!' I rebuked her and she said, 'By Allah, I only abuse him because of you.' I said, 'Concerning what about me?' she disclosed the business to me. I said, 'Is that the case?' She said, 'Yes, by Allah.'

'I returned to my room in such astonishment that I did not know at all why I had gone out. Then I fell ill with a fever. I said to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Send me to my father's house.' He sent the slave with me. I entered the house and found Umm Ruman downstairs while Abu Bakr was upstairs reciting. My mother asked, 'What has brought you, little daughter?' I told her the story but it did not affect her as it had affected me. She said, 'Little daughter, do not make too much of the business. By Allah, seldom has there been a woman of beauty with a husband who loves her with co-wives but that they envy her and talk about her.' It did not affect her as it affected me. I asked, 'Does my father know about it?' 'Yes,' she replied. I said, 'And the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' 'Yes,' she replied, 'the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as well.' My eyes filled with tears and I wept. Abu Bakr heard my voice while he was reciting upstairs and came down and asked my mother, 'What is wrong with her?' She replied, 'She has heard what is being said about her.' He wept and said, 'I ask by Allah, little daughter, to go back to your home.' So I went back.

"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had come to my home and asked my woman servant about me. She had said, 'By Allah, I do not know of anything which I could criticise in her beyond the fact that she sleeps so that a sheep can enter and eat her dough (or leaven).' Some of his Companions rebuked her and said, 'Tell the truth to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace!' until they explicitly stated what the business was. She said, 'Glory be to Allah! By Allah, I do not know anything about her other than what a goldsmith knows of a piece of pure gold!' When this business reached the man who was accused, he said, 'Glory be to Allah! By Allah, I have never uncovered the private parts of a woman!' He was killed as a martyr in the Way of Allah.'"

She said, "In the morning my parents came and remained with me until the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to me after he had prayed 'Asr. He came in while my parents were around me, on my right and my left. He praised and lauded Allah. Then he said, 'Following on from that. 'A'isha, if you have committed something bad or done wrong, then repent to Allah. Allah accepts repentance from His slaves.' An Ansari woman had come and was sitting at the door. I said, 'Are you not embarrassed to mention such a thing in the presence of this woman?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, spoke an admonishment and I turned to my father. I said, 'Answer him.' He said, 'What should I say?' Then I turned to my mother and I said, 'Answer him.' She said, 'What should I say?' When they did not answer him, I said the shahada. I praised and lauded Allah as He deserves. Then I said, 'Following on from that, if I were to tell you that I did not do it, and Allah Almighty is a witness that I am speaking the truth, that would not be of any use to me with you. You have spoken about it and your hearts have drunk it. If I were to say that I have done it, and Allah knows that I did not do it, you would say, "She has admitted it.' By Allah, I can find no example for you and me except for that of the father of Yusuf (as I tried to remember Ya'qub name but could not remember it) when he said, "But steadfast patience, that is beautiful in the face of that which you assert."'

"At that very moment, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, received revelation, so we were silent. When it left him, I notived happiness in his face while he wiped his brow. He said, 'Good news, 'A'isha! Allah has revealed your innocence.' I was extremely angry at that time. My parents told me, 'Go to him.' I replied, 'By Allah, I will not go to him or praise him or praise you two. Rather I will praise Allah who revealed my innocence. You heard this and did not deny it or change it!'"

'A'isha used to say, "As for Zaynab bint Jahsh, Allah protected her by her deen. She only spoke good. But her sister Hamna was destroyed with those who were destroyed. Those who used to speak about it were Mistah, Hassan ibn Thabit, and the hypocrite, 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy. He ws the one who used to spread it and collect it. He and Hamna wer those who 'took on himself the lead among them.' Abu Bakr swore that he would never do anything good for Mistah and then Allah Almighty revealed, 'Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth (meaning Abu Bakr) should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor (meaning Mistah)... to ... Would you not love Allah to forgive you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.' (24:22) Abu Bakr then said, 'Indeed, by Allah, our Lord, we want to be forgiven!' and he resumed what he had done before."

 

CCLI: "That they should draw their head-coverings across their breasts." (24:31)

4480. It is related that 'A'isha said, "May Allah have mercy on the women of the first Muhajirun. When Allah revealed, 'That they should draw their head-coverings across their breasts' (24:31), they tore their mantles and veiled themselves with them."

4481. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When this ayat was revealed: 'That they should draw their head-coverings across their breasts' (24:31), they took their wrappers and tore them at the edges and veiled themselves with them.

 

CCLII: Tafsir of Surat al-Furqan

Ibn 'Abbas said, "floating dust scattered about" (25:23) is what the wind scattered, "He stretches out the shadow" (25:45) is the period between the rising of dawn and sunrise. 'Sakinan" (25:45) means "constant." "its guide" (25:45) refers to sunrise. "Khilfa" (25:62) means that if someone misses an action at night, he can do it in the day, or if he misses it in the day, he can do it at night.

Al-Hasan said, "Give us joy in our wives and children" (25:74) means in the obedience of Allah. There is nothing which more delights the believer that to see the one he loves obeying Allah.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "thubur" (25:13) means "woe".

Another said that "sa'ir" (25:11) is masculine, and it a great blaze. "Tumla 'alayhi" (25:5) means "recited to him, from "amlaytu, amlaltu." "Ar-Rass" (25:38) is a mine, and the plural is risas. "Ma ya'ba'" (25:77) is used of a matter when you are concerned with it. "Gharam" (25:65) means :destuction."

Mujahid said that "'ataw" (25:21) means "transgressed".

Ibn 'Uyayna said that "'atiya" (69:6) is disobeying the treasurers.

 

CCLII: His words, "Those who are herded headlong into Hell, such people are in the worst position. They are most misguided from the way." (25:34)

4482. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "A man said, 'O Prophet of Allah! How will the unbeliever be gathered on his face on the Day of Rising?' He replied, 'Is not the One who made him walk on two feet in this world able to make him walk on his face on the Day of Rising?'" Qatada said, "By indeed, by the might of our Lord!"

 

CCLIV: His words, "Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah and do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden – except with a legal right – and do not fornicate. Anyone who does that will receive an evil punishment." (25:68)

Athama means punishment.

4483. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, (or the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked), 'Which is the greatest sin in the eyes of Allah?' He said, 'That you set up a rival with Allah when He created you.' I said, 'Then what?' He said, 'That you kill your child fearing that he will eat with you.' I said, 'Then what?' He said, 'That you fornicate with your neighbour's wife.' Then this ayat was revealed to confirm what the Messenger of Allah* had said: 'Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah and do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden – except with a legal right – and do not fornicate.' (25:68)

4484. It is related that al-Qasim ibn Abi Bazza asked Sa'id ibn Jubayr, 'Is there any repentance for someone who kills a believer deliberately?' Then I recited to him, 'do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden – except with a legal right.' (25:68) Sa'id replied, 'I recited what you recited to me to Ibn 'Abbas and he said, 'This is Makkan. It was abrogated by a Madinan ayat in Surat an-Nisa' (4:93).'"

4485. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "The people of Kufa disagreed about the killing of a believer and so I travelled to ask Ibn 'Abbas about it. He said, 'It was part of the last to be revealed and nothing abrogated it.'

4486. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I asked Ibn 'Abbas said about the words of the Almighty, 'His repayment is Hell' (4:93), and he said, 'He has no repentance.' I asked him about 'Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah,' (25:68) and he said, 'This was in the Jahiliyya.'"

 

CCLV: "On the Day of Rising his punishment will be doubled and he will be humiliated in it timelessly forever." (25:69)

4487. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that Ibn Abza said, "Ibn Abbas was asked about the words of Allah: "As for anyone who kills a believer deliberately, his repayment is Hell" (4:93) and His words, "Do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden – except with a legal right ... to... "except for those who repent." (25:68-70) He said, "I asked him and he said, ''When it was sent down, the people of Makka said, 'We have called on other gods with Allah, killed the life which Allah has made sacred except for just cause, and we have committed lewd actions.' So Allah sent down, 'except for those who repent and believe and do right action....to... Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'" (25:70)

 

CCLVI: "Except for those who repent and believe and do right action. Allah will transform the wrong actions of such people into good. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (25:70)

4488. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Abza told me to ask Ibn 'Abbas about these two ayats: 'As for anyone who kills a believer deliberately' (4:93)É' I asked him and he said, 'Nothing abrogated it. He said about, ''Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah' (25:68), 'It was sent down about the people of shirk.'"

 

CCLVII: "The punishment is bound to come." (25:77)

"Lizam" means destruction.

4489. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "Five (Signs) have already happened: the Smoke, the moon, the Romans, the Blow and the punishment (lizam) in 'The punishment is bound to come.' (25:77)"

 

CCLVIII: Tafsir of Surat ash-Shu'ara'

Mujahid said that "ta'bathuna" (26:128) means "build". "Hadim" (26:148) means that they break when touched. "Musahharin" (26:153) means mashurin (bewitched). "Layka" (26:176) is al-ayka, the plural of ayka. It is a thicket of trees. "The Day of Shadow" (26:189) indicates the time when the punishment overshadows them. "Mawzun" (15:19) means "known". "Tawd" (26:63) means "a mountain." Someone else said that "la-shirdhima" (26:54) means "a small group". "Those who prostrate themselves" (26:219) are those who pray.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "hoping to live forever" (26:129) means "as if you you couldÉ" "Ri'" (26:128) is an elevated place in the earth. Its plurals are ri'a and arya'. "Masani'" (26:129) is a term used for any building. "Farihin" (26:149) means "joyful" and the reading "faarihum" has the same meaning. It is also said that "faarihum" means "skilful". "Ta'thu" (26:183) means the gravest corruption from the verb 'atha, ya'ithu. "Jiballa" (26:184) is creation and jubila means created. Similar nouns from the same verb are jubul, jibal and jubl. Ibn 'Abbas said that.

 

CCLIX. "Do not disgrace me on the Day they are raised up." (26:87)

4490. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Ibrahim, peace and blesing be upon him, will see his father on the Day of Rising covered in darkness and duskiness."

4491. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Ibrahim will meet his father and will say, 'O my Lord! You promised me that 'You should not let me in disgrace on the Day when men are raised up.' Allah will reply, 'I have forbidden the Garden to the unbelievers.'"

 

CCLX. "Warn your near relatives. And lower your wing to the believers who follow you." (26:214-215)

4492. Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the ayat was sent down, 'And warn your near relatives,' the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went up as-Safa and began to call, 'O Banu Fihr! O Banu Adi!' to the subtribes of Quraysh until they gathered. If a man could not come, he sent a messenger to see what was happening. Abu Lahab and Quraysh came. The Prophet said, 'If I were to tell you that there is a cavalry in the valley intending to attack you, would you believe me?' They said, 'Yes, we have only found you to be truthful.' He said, 'I am a warner to you, warning of a severe punishment.' Abu Lahab said, 'May you perish all of today! Is it for this that you have gathered us? Then it was revealed, 'Ruin to the hands of Abu Lahab and ruin to him! His wealth has not helped him nor anything he has earned.' (111:1-5)"

4493. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When the ayat was sent down, 'And warn your near relatives,' the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rose and said, 'O company of Quraysh! (or words to that effect) Purchase your selves! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O Banu 'Abd Manaf! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O 'Abbas ibn Abdu'l-Muttalib! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O Safiyya, aunt of the Messenger of Allah! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O Fatima daughter of Muhammad! Ask me what you wish of my property, but I cannot help you against Allah in any way.'"

It is corroborated from Ibn Shihab.

 

CCLXI. Tafsir of Surat an-Naml

"Al-Khab'" (27:25) means what is hidden. "La qibala" (27:37) means "without power". "Sarh" (27:44) is a tall building made from crystal. Sarh means a castle and the plural is suruh.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "a mighty throne" (27:23) means a noble throne of excellent craftsmanship and very expensive. "Muslimin" (27;38) here means "obedient", "Radif" (27:72) means to draw near. "Jamida" (27:88) means "standing". "Awzi'ni" (27:19) means "assign me".

Mujahid said that "nakkiru" (27:41) means "change". As for "We were given knowledge" (27:42), Sulayman said that. The pavilion was a pond of water over which Sulayman had put crystal which confused her.

 

CCLXII. The Tafsir of Surat al-Qasas

"All things are passing except His Face," (28:88), i.e. "except His domain." It is said, "Except that which is intended for the sake of Allah."

Mujahid said that anba' (28:77) means "proofs."

 

CCLXIII. "You cannot guide those you love but Allah guides those He wills." (28:56)

4494. It is related from the father of Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, "When Abu Talib was near death, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to him and found Abu Jahl and 'Abdullah ibn Abi Umayya ibn al-Mughira with him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Abu Talib, 'Uncle, say, "There is no god but Allah", and I will testify before Allah that you said it.' Abu Jahl and 'Abdullah ibn Abi Umayya said, 'Abu Talib! Will you turn from the religion of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, continued to offer it to him and they kept on cautioning him against it until the last thing that Abu Talib said was that he was of the religion of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib and refused to say, 'There is no god but Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'By Allah, I will continue to ask for forgiveness for you as long as I am not forbidden to do it for you.' Then Allah Almighty sent down about him, 'It is not right for the Prophet and those who believe to ask forgiveness for the idolaters.' (9:113) Then Allah revealed about Abu Talib in speaking to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'You cannot guide those you love but Allah guides those He wills. He has best knowledge of the guided.' (28:56)"

Ibn 'Abbas said that "a body of strong men" (28:76) means that a group of men could not lift them. "la-tanu'u" (28:76) means "to be heavy". As for "farighan" (28:10), it means that it was a void which could only be filled by the mention of Musa. "farihun" (28:76) means "happy". "Qussihi" (28:11) means to follow after him and qassa can also mean "to recount" as in 12:3. "an junub" (28;11) means "from afar. Similar in meaning are "'an janaba" and "'an ijtinab". "Yabtisha" (28:19) is the same as "yatushu". "Ya'tamiruna" (28:20) means to consult one another. 'Udwan, 'adda' and ta'addi (enmity) means the same. "Anasa" 928:29) means "to see". "Jishwa" (28:29) is a thick piece of wood which is not burning. If it burning, it is called shihab. "As if it had been a snake" (28:31): this was another sign, also mentioned in 20:20. There are various species of snakes: jann, afa'i (vipers) and asawid. "Rid'a" (28:34) means a helper. Ibn 'Abbas says that it means "in order to confirm me."

Another said that "sa-nashuddu" (28:35) means "We will help you." When you find something difficult, I will appoint a helper for you. "Maqbuhin" (28:42) means "destroyed". "Wassalna" (28:51) means "We made clear and completed." "yujba" (28:57) means "to bring". "Batirat" (28:58) means to be insolent. "A messenger to the chief of them" (28:59)" the Umm al-Qura (Mother of Towns): Makka and the area around it. "tukinnu" (28:69) means "to conceal or to hide." "yaka'anna'llah" (28:82) like "Have you not seen that Allah enlarges provision or restricts it to any He wishes?"

 

CCLXIV: "He who has imposed the Qur'an upon you." (28:85)

4495. 'Ikrima reported from Ibn 'Abbas that "bring you back home again" (28:85) means to Makka.

 

CCLXV: Tafsir of Surat al-'Ankabut

Mujahid said about "even though they were astute people" (29:38) that they were misguided.

Another said that "hayawan" (29:64) is the plural of hayy. "Allah most certainly knows" (29:11) means "Allah knows that." It is in the position of "Allah will distinguish," as He says "Allah distinguishes the foul from the good." (8:38) "Their own burdens and other burdens together with their own." (29:13): means sins with their sins."

 

CCLXVI: Tafsir of Surat ar-Rum

Mujahid said that "yuhbaruna" (30:15) means "to delight". "It does not become greater with Allah" (30:39) means that anyone who gives a gift, desiring a great gift in return will have not reward. "Yamhaduna" (30:44) means "to prepare their beds"."Wadq" (30:48) means rain.

Ibn 'Abbas said that  "Are any of the slaves you own partners with you?" (30:28) is about their gods as does "Do you fear them?" meaning that they will inherit you as you inherit from one another. "yassadda'una" (30:43) means to divide up as in "asda'" (15:94)

Another said that "du'f" (30:54) is a dialectal form of da'f.

Mujahid said that "su'ay" (30:10) is an intensive form of doing evil, and it is the repayment of the evildoers.

4496. It is related that Masruq said, "While a man was speaking in Kinda*, he said, 'Smoke will come on the Day of Rising and will take away the hearing and sight of the hypocrites. The believers will only be afflicted by something like a cold.' We were alarmed, and so I went to Ibn Mas'ud who was reclining. He became angry and sat up and exclaimed, 'The one who knows can speak, but the one who does not know should say, "Allah knows best.' It is part of knowledge that yopu should say about that which you do not know, "Allah knows best." Allah said to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Say: 'I do not ask you for any wage for it, nor am I a man of false pretensions.'" (38:86) Quraysh were slow to embrace islam and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed against them, saying, "O Allah, help me against them with seven years like the years of Yusuf." They suffered a drought which destroyed everything so that they were eating carrion and bones. A man would see something like smoke between heaven and earth. Abu Sufyan then went to him and said, 'Muhammad! You came to command maintaining ties of kinship. Your people are dying, so pray to Allah for them."' Then Ibn Mas'ud recited, 'So watch for a Day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke ... to ... and you revert!' (44:10-15)

"Ibn Mas'ud said, 'Will the punishment of the Next World be removed from them when it comes? Then they reverted to their disbelief and that is the words of Allah, "On the Day We launch the Great Assault." (44:16) That was the Battle of Badr. "The punishment is bound to come" (25:77) is the Battle of Badr. In "Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated ... to ... will themselves be victorious." (30:1-3), the Romans (Byzantines) have already been defeated.'"

[*Meaning a place in Kufa or among the tribe of Kinda.]

 

CCLXVII: "There is no changing Allah's creation." (30:30)

This refers to the deen of Allah. "Khuluq al-awwalin" (26:37) means the deen of the first peoples. Fitra (natural form) means Islam.

4497. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no child who is not born in the natural state and then his parents make him Jewish, Christian or Magian, just as an animal gives birth to a whole animal. Do you expect it to be mutilated?" Then he said, "Allah's natural pattern on which He made mankind. There is no changing Allah's creation. That is the true deen." (30:30)

 

Surat al-Luqman

CCLXVIII: "Do not associate anything with Allah. Attributing partners to Him is a terrible wrong." (31:13)

4498. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "When this ayat was sent down, 'It is those who believe and do not mix up their belief with wrongdoing,' (6:82) that was hard on the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and they said, 'Which of us has not confused his belief with wrong?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'That is not what it means. Have you not heard the words of Luqman to his son, "Attributing partners to Him is a terrible wrong." (31:13)'"

 

CCLXIX: "Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour." (31:34)

4499. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day to the people and a man came to him on foot and asked, "Messenger of Allah, what is belief?" He replied, "Belief is that you believe in Allah and His angels, in the meeting with Him, and in His Messengers and that you believe in the final Resurrection." Then he asked, "Messenger of Allah, what is Islam?" He replied, "Islam is that you worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him, perform the prayer [perfectly], pay the obligatory zakat, and fast Ramadan." He asked, "Messenger of Allah, what is Ihsan?" He said, "To worship Allah as if you were seeing Him. For even if you do not see Him, [be aware that] He sees you." Then he asked, "Messenger of Allah, when is the Last Hour?" He answered, "The one who is asked does not know more than the asker, but I will tell you its signs: When the slave-girl gives birth to her mistress, that is one of its signs. When barefooted naked people become the leaders of people, that is one of its signs. And there are five things which only Allah knows. 'Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour and sends down abundant rain and knows what is in the wombs...' (31:34)" Then the the man left. The Prophet said, "Call him back to me." They went to bring him back but did not see him anywhere. He said, "That was Jibril who came to teach people their deen."

4500. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are five keys of the Unseen." Then he recited, "Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour."

 

CCLXX: Tafsir of Surat Tanzil (as-Sajda)

Mujahid said that "mahin" (32:80 means "weak", referring to a man's sperm. "Dalalna" (32:10) means "we destroyed."

Ibn 'Abbas said that "juruz" (32:28) is the land on which there is no rain other than which is insufficient for anything. "Yahdi" (32:26) means "to make clear".

 

CCLXXI: His words, "No self knows the delight that is hidden away for it ." (32:17)

4501. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah - blessed is He and exalted – said, 'I have prepared for My righteous slaves that which no eye has seen and nor ear has heard and has never occurred to the heart of a mortal.'" Abu Hurayra added, "If you wish, recite, 'No self knows the delight that is hidden away for it .' (32:17)"

It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "Allah said..." Sufyan was asked, "Is this a transmission?" He replied, "What else would it be?" It is also reported that Abu Hurayra recited it "qurraat" instead of qurra" (i.e. in the plural.)

4502. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah Almighty says, 'I have prepared for My righteous slaves that which no eye has seen and nor ear has heard and has never occurred to the heart of a mortal. It is stored up and what you have experienced is as nothing beside it.'" Then he recited, "'No self knows the delight that is hidden away for it." (32:17)

 

CCLXXII: Tafsir of Surat al-Ahzab

Mujahid said that "Sayasihim" (33:26) means "their castles".

 

CCLXXIII: "The Prophet has closer ties to the believers than their own selves." (33:6)

4503. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no believer but that I am the closest of people to him both in this world and the next. If you wish, recite, 'The Prophet has closer ties to the believers than their own selves.' (33:6) If any believer dies and leaves money, it goes to whatever legal heirs he has. But if anyone leaves a debt or a needy family, I am the one to come to. I am his guardian."

 

CCLXXIV: "Call them after their fathers. That is juster in Allah's sight." (33:5)

4504. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "We used to only call Zayd ibn Haritha, the client of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Zayd ibn Muhammad' until the Qur'an was sent down: 'Call them after their fathers. That is juster in Allah's sight.' (33:5)"

 

CCLXXV: "Some of them have fulfilled their pact by death and some are still waiting to do so and have not changed in any way at all." (33:23)

"Nahb" means "covenant. "Aqtariha" (33:14) is "its sides". "If they had then been asked to revert to unbelief, they would have done so" (33:14) is "they would have given it."

4505. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We used to think that this ayat was revealed about Anas ibn an-Nadir: 'Among the believers there are men who have been true to the contract they made with Allah.' (33:23)

4506. It is related that Zayd ibn Thabit said, "When we copied out the papers into the pages and I missed one ayat of Surat al-Ahzab which I used to hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite. I only found it with Khuzayma ibn Thabit al-Ansari whose testimony the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had made equal to the testimony of two men. It is His words, 'Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah.'"

 

CCLXXVI: His words, "O Prophet, tell your wives, 'If you desire the life of this world and its finery, come and I will give you all you need and release you with kindliness.'" (33:28)

Ma'mar said that tabarruj means to bring forth its beauties. "The sunna of Allah" (33:62) refers to how He makes them.

4507. It is related from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet , that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to her when Allah ordered him to give his wives a choice. She said, "The Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began with me and said, 'I am going to mention something to you. You should not rush (to answer) until you have consulted your parents.' He knew that my parents would not tell me to separate from him. Then he said, 'Allah says, "O Prophet! tell your wives..." (33:28-29)' I said to him, 'What is there in this about which I should consult my parents? I seek Allah, His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter.'"

 

CCLXXVII: "But if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Next World, Allah has prepared a huge reward for those among you who do good." (33:29)

Qatada said that  "And remember the Signs of Allah and the wise words, which are recited in your rooms" (33:34) means the Qur'an and the Sunna.

4508. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Allah ordered the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to give his wives a choice, he began with me and said, 'I am going to mention something to you. You should not rush (to answer) until you have consulted your parents.' He knew that my parents would not tell me to separate from him. Then he said, 'Allah – glorious is His praise – said, "O Prophet! tell your wives, 'If you desire the life of this world and its finery, ' ... to ... a great reward."' (33:28-29) I said, 'What should I consult my parents about? I seek Allah, His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter.' Then the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the like of what I did."

It is corrobated from az-Zuhri who reported it from Abu Salama. It is also reported from 'Urwa from 'A'isha.

 

CCLXXVIII: "While concealing something in yourself which Allah wished to bring to light and fearing people when it is more right to fear Allah." (33:37)

4509. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "This ayat, 'While concealing something in yourself which Allah wished to bring to light' (33:37) was revealed about Zaynab bint Jahsh and Zayd ibn Haritha."

 

CCLXXIX: "You may refrain from any of them you will and keep close to you any them you will. And if you desire any you have left alone, here is nothing wrong in that." (33:51)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "turji'u" means "to defer." "Arji'hu" (7:111; 26:36) means "defer it".

4510. It is reported that 'A'isha said, "I used to criticise the women who offered themselves [in marriage] to the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I would say, 'Does a woman offer herself?' Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'You may refrain from any of them you will and keep close to you any them you will. And if you desire any you have left alone, here is nothing wrong in that.' (33:37) I said, 'I only think that your Lord hastens in what you desire."

4511. It is reported from Mu'adha that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to ask permission from the wife whose day it was after this ayat was revealed: 'You may refrain from any of them you will and keep close to you any them you will. And if you desire any you have left alone, here is nothing wrong in that.' (33:37)" Mu'adha said, "I asked her, 'So what did you say?' She said, 'I used to say to him, "If it were up to me, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I would not want to grant your favour to anyone else."'"

'Abbad ibn 'Abbad corroborated it.

 

CCLXXX: His words: "O you who believe! Do not go into the Prophet's rooms except when you are invited to come and eat. Do not wait there while the food is being cooked. However, when you are called go in and when you have eaten disperse, not remaining there to chat with one another. Doing that causes annoyance to the Prophet though he is too reticent to tell you so. But Allah is not reticent with the truth. When you ask his wives for something, ask them from behind a screen. That is purer for your hearts and their hearts. It is not right for you to cause annoyance to the Messenger of Allah or ever to marry his wives after him. To do that would be dreadful in Allah's sight." (33:53)

It is said that inaha means to obtain it.

"It may be that the Last Hour is very near!" (33:63) When "near" is used as an adjective of something feminine, then it is qariba. When it is made an adverb and appositive and not used as an adjective proper, then the ha' of the feminine is removed (qarib). This applies to one, two or many, masculine or feminine.

4512. It is related that 'Umar said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, both pious and impious visit you, so you should command a screen (hijab) for the Mothers of the Believers.' Then Allah revealed the Ayat of the Veil."

4513. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, married Zaynab bint Jahsh, he invited the people to eat. They ate and then remained sitting in conversation. Then the Prophet seemed ready to get up, but they did not get up. Then he actually got up, and when he did so, everyone got up except for three individuals. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came back to enter and found the people still sitting there. Then they finally got up. So I went and told the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  that they had gone. He went inside. I went to enter, but he put up a screen between me and him, and then Allah revealed, 'O you who believe! Do not go into the Prophet's rooms...' (33:53)"

4514. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "I am the person who has the most knowledge of the Ayat of the Veil. When Zaynab bint Jahsh was adorned for her wedding with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, she was with him in the room and he prepared some food and invited the people to it. They sat down and conversed [after the meal]. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to go out and then come back, but they remained sitting there conversing. So Allah Almighty revealed, 'O you who believe! Do not go into the Prophet's room except when you are invited to come and eat. Do not wait there while the food is being cooked. ... to ... from behind a screen.' (33:53) So the Veil was set up and the people left."

4515. It is related that Anas said, "There was a meal of bread and meat for the marriage of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to Zaynab bint Jahsh. I was sent to visit the people to the food, and the people came, ate and then left. Then another group would come, eat and leave. I continued to invite people until I could not find anyone else to invite. I said, 'Prophet of Allah! I do not find anyone else to invite.' He said, 'Remove your food.' A group of three remaining in the room conversing. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out and went to the room of 'A'isha and said, 'Peace be upon you, people of the house, and His mercy.' She said, 'Peace and the mercy of Allah be upon you? How did you find your wife. May Allah bless you.' He visited the rooms of all of his wives, one after the other, saying to them the like of what he had said to 'A'isha and they answered him with the like of what 'A'isha had said. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned and the three people were still conversing in the house. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was very shy and so went out towards the room of 'A'isha. I do not know whether I told him or he was told that the people had left. He came back and as soon as he had placed one foot across the threshold, while the other was still on the outside, he lowered the curtain between me and him and the Ayat of the Veil was revealed."

4516. It is related that Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, held a feast when he married Zaynab bint Jahsh. The people had their fill of bread and meat. Then he went out to the rooms of the Mothers of the Believers as he used to do on the morning of a marriage. He greeted them and they greeted him. He made supplication for them and they made supplication for him. When he returned to his house, he saw two men conversing. When he saw them, he went out of his house again. When the two men saw the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, leave his house, they quickly got up. I do not know whether I told him about their departure or whether he was informed [by someone else]. He came back and entered the house and lowered the curtain between me and him and the Ayat of the Veil was revealed."

It is reported from Anas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by another isnad.

4517. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Sawda went out for the call of nature after the Veil had been established. She was a corpulent woman and easily recognised by people. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab saw her and said, 'Sawda! By Allah, you are not hidden from us! Think of how you should go out." She went back while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in my room. He was having supper and was holding in his hand a bone with meat on it. She came in and said, 'Messenger of Allah! I went out for a call of nature and 'Umar said such-and-such to me.' Then Allah gave him revelation and then it left him while the bone was still in his hand and he had not put it down. He said, 'Allah has allowed you to go out for your needs.'"

 

CCLXXXI. His words: "Whether you divulge a thing or conceal it, Allah has knowledge of all things. They incur no blame in respect of their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their brothers' or sisters' sons, or their women or any slaves they own. Show fear of Allah. Allah is witness of everything." (33:54-55)

4518. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Aflah, the brother of Abu'l-Qu'ays, asked permission to visit me after the Veil was revealed. I said, 'I will not give him permission until I ask the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for permission for him. It was not his brother, Abu'l-Qu'ays, who nursed me. It was the wife of Abu'l-Qu'ays who nursed me.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited me and I said to him, 'Messenger of Allah, Aflah, the brother of Abu'l-Qu'ays, asked permission to visit me, but I refused to give him permission until I had asked for your permission.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'What stops you from giving permission to your uncle?' I said, 'Messenger of Allah, the man is not the one who nursed me. It was the wife of Abu'l-Qu'ays who nursed me.' He said, 'Admit him. He is your uncle, may your right hand be dusty!'"

'Urwa said, "That is why 'A'isha used to say, "Suckling makes inviolable that which lineage makes inviolable."

 

CCLXXXII: "Allah and His angels call down blessings on the Prophet. O you who believe! Call down blessings on him and ask for complete peace and safety for him." (33:56)

Abu'l-'Aliyya said, "The 'prayer of Allah' is his praise by the angels, and the prayer of angels is supplication."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "yusallun" means to ask for blessing." "Set you onto" (33:60) means to give you power.

4519. It is related from Ka'b ibn 'Ujra, "It was asked, 'Messenger of Allah, we know the greeting (salam) on you, but how do we do the prayer on you?' He answered, 'Say: "O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed the family of Ibrahim. You are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah, grant blessing to Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to the family of Ibrahim. You are Praiseworthy, Glorious."'"

4520. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "We said, 'Messenger of Allah, this is the greeting to you, but how do we do the prayer on you?' He answered, 'Say: "O Allah, bless Muhammad, Your slave and Messenger, as You pleased the family of Ibrahim, and grant blessing to Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to Ibrahim."'"

It is reported from al-Layth, "Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to the family of Ibrahim."

It is related from Ibn Abi Hazim and by ad-Darawardi from Yazid: "As you blessed Ibrahim, and grant blessing to Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to Ibrahim and the gamily of Ibrahim."

 

CCLXXXIII. His words: "Do not be like those who abused Musa." (33:69)

4521. It is related that Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Musa was a shy man. That is the words of Allah, 'O you who believe, Do not be like those who abused Musa. Allah absolved him of what they said and he was highly honoured with Allah.' (33:69)"