Chapters on the Jizya and Truces

Chapter 63. Chapters on the Jizya and Truces

I: The Jizya and Truce with the people of the dhimma and the people of war

Allah Almighty says, "Fight those of the people who were given the Book who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day and do not forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden and do not take as their deen the deen of Truth, until they pay the poll tax with their own hands in a state of complete abasement," (9:29) meaning humbled. "Misery" (maskana) (2:61, 3:112) is the verbal noun of "miserable". One says that so-and-so is more miserable than so-and-so, meaning more in need. It is not derived from sukûn (calmness).

What has come about taking the jizya from the Jews, Christians, Magians and non-Arabs.

Ibn Abi Nujayh said, "I asked Mujahid, 'Why do the people of Syria have to pay four dinars while the people of Yemen only pay one dinar?' He replied, 'That was imposed according to wealth.'"

2987. It is related that 'Umar was heard to say, "I was sitting with Jabir ibn Zayd and 'Amr ibn Aws, and Bajala had related to them at the steps of Zamzam in 70 A.H., the year in which Mus'ab ibn az-Zubayr went on hajj with the people of Basra. He said, 'I was the scribe of Jaz' ibn Mu'awiya, the uncle of al-Ahnaf. A letter reached us from 'Umar ibn al-Khattab a year before he died: "Separate every marriage between forbidden degrees of the Magians." 'Umar did not take jizya from the Magians until 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf testified that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had taken it from the Magians of Hajar.'"

[Hajar is in Bahrayn]

2988. It is related from 'Amr ibn 'Awf al-Ansari, who was an ally of the Banu 'Amir ibn Lu'ayy and who was present at Badr, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah to Bahrayn to collect their jizya. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had made a truce with the people of Bahrayn and appointed al-'Ala' ibn al-Hadrami as their governor. Abu 'Ubayda brought the money from Bahrayn and the Ansar heard of the arrival of Abu 'Ubadya which was at the time of the Subh prayer with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When he had prayed Fajr with them and finished, they presented themselves before him and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, smiled when he saw them. He said, 'I think you must have heard that Abu 'Ubayda has arrived with something?' They said, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Rejoice, and hope for what will gladden you. By Allah, it is not poverty that I fear for you, but I fear that this world will be spread out in front of you as it was spread out in front of those before you, and then you will vie for it as they vied for it, and it will destroy you as it destroyed them.'"

2989. It is related that Jubayr ibn Hayya said, "'Umar sent people to the regions of the great countries to fight the idolaters. Al-Hurmuzan became Muslim and 'Umar said, 'I want to consult you about these expeditions.' He said, 'Yes, the example of them and the enemies of the Muslims who are in them is like a bird which has a head, two wings, and two legs. If one of its wings is broken, it gets up on its legs with one wing and the head. If the other wing is broken, it gets up on the two legs and the head. But if the head is broken, then the legs, wings and head are gone. The head is Chosroes, the wing is Caesar and the other wing is Faris. Therefore command the Muslims to make for Chosroes.'"

Jubayr ibn Hayya said, "So 'Umar detailed us and appointed an-Nu'man ibn Muqarran over us. When we reached enemy territory, the agent of Chosroes came out to us with forty thousand men. An interpreter stood up and said, 'Let a man among you speak to me.' Al-Mughira said, 'Ask whatever you like.' He said, 'Who are you?' He replied, 'We are people of the Arabs. We used to be in terrible hardship and severe affliction. We would suck hides and date-stones out of hunger and we wore camel hair and goat hair. We used to worship trees and stones. While we were like that, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earths - may His mention be exalted and His immensity magnified! - sent us a Prophet from among ourselves whose father and mother we knew. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has commanded us to fight you until you worship Allah alone or pay the jizya. Out Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has informed us from the message of our Lord: whoever of us is killed will go to the Garden in bliss whose like he has never seen. Whoever of us remains will be your masters.'

"An-Nu'man said, 'If Allah had made you be present at the like of it with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he would not have made you regret waiting nor disgraced you. But I was present with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the fighting, and when he did not fight at the beginning of the day, he would wait until the winds blew and it was time for the prayer.' [meaning when the day was cooler]"

[Faris was a region of Persia.

An-Nu'man's comments are in answer to al-Mughira's objection to the decision to delay the attack.]

II: When the ruler concludes a truce with the King of a country, does that hold for the rest of them?

2990. It is related that Abu Humayd as-Sa'idi said, "We went on an expedition with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to Tabuk and the king of Ayla gave the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a while mule and a cloak, and the Prophet wrote for him that he had authority over his land."

III: Instructions in regard to the people who have a covenant (dhimma) with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

Dhimma is the covenant and ill means kinship (9:8,10).

2991. It is related that Juwayriya ibn Qudama at-Tamimi said, "I heard 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. We had said to him, 'Instruct us, Amir al-Mu'minin!' He said, 'I instruct you to fulfil the contract of the dhimma of Allah. It is the dhimma of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and provision for your dependants.'"

IV: On the land grants that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made in Bahrayn and what he promised people out of the money and jizya of Bahrayn. Among whom should the spoils and jizya be distributed?

2992. It is related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned the Ansar to write out for them land in Bahrayn. They said, 'No, by Allah, not unless you write out the like of it for our brothers of Quraysh. He said, 'They will have that if Allah wills.' They spoke to him and he said, "You will find self-seeking after I have gone, so be steadfast until you meet me at the Basin."

2993. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'If the money from Bahrayn comes to us, I will give you such-and-such.' The money from Bahrayn did not come until after the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had died. When the money of Bahrayn arrived, Abu Bakr said, 'Whoever has a promise from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, should come to us.' I came to him and said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told me "If the money from Bahrayn comes to us, I will give you such-and-such."'. He said to me, 'Scoop up,' and I scooped up. He said, 'Count it.' I counted them and there were five hundred. He gave me one thousand five hundred."

2994. It is related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought some goods from Bahrayn. He said, "Lay them out in the mosque.' It was the largest amount that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had ever received. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the prayer and did not even glance at them. When he finished the prayer, he came and sat down by them. He gave something to everyone he saw. When al-'Abbas came to him, he said, 'Messenger of Allah, give some to me, for I ransomed myself and 'Aqil.'' He said to him, 'Take some.' He filled up his garment and then tried to lift it but could not. He said, 'Messenger of Allah, tell someone to help me lift it.' He answered, 'No.' Then he asked, 'Then you help me lift it?' He said, 'No.' So he discarded some of it and then tried to lift it again and said, 'Messenger of Allah, tell one of them to help me lift it.' He replied, 'No.' He said, 'Then you help me lift it?' He said, 'No.' So he discarded some more and hoisted it up onto his shoulders and left. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, continued to follow him with his eye until he disappeared from view out of astonishment at his greed. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not get up until there was not a dirham of it left."

V: The sin of someone who kills a person with a treaty without him having commmitted a crime

2995. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever kills someone with a treaty will not experience the fragrance of the Garden although its fragrance can be experienced at a distance of forty years."

VI: Expelling the Jews from the Arabian peninsula

'Umar said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "We will let you remain in that as long as Allah lets you remain there."

2996. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "While we were in the mosque, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out and said, 'Go to the Jews.' We went out until we came to the house of al-Midras. He said, 'Become Muslim and you will be safe. Know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Messenger. I want to expel you from this land. Whoever of you has some property should sell it. However, the earth belongs to Allah and His Messenger.'"

2997. It is related from Sa'id ibn Jubayr that he heard Ibn 'Abbas saying, "'Thursday! What is Thursday!'" and then he wept until his tears made the pebbles wet. I said, 'Abu 'Abbas! What is it about Thursday!' He said, 'The Prophet's pain became intense and he said, "Bring me a shoulder so that I may write a document for you after which you will never go astray." They quarrelled, although it is not proper to quarrel in the presence of a Prophet. They said, "What is wrong with him? Is he delirious? Ask him." He said, "Leave me. That which I am in is better than that to which you call me." He gave them three commands and said, "Expel the idolaters from the Arabian peninsula, give gifts to the delegations as I used to give them gifts."'" "The third was something good which either he was silent about or which he said and I forgot." Sufyan said that this is part of what Sulayman said.

VII: When the idolaters act with treachery towards the Muslims, can they be forgiven?

2998. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When Khaybar was conquered, a poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Gather for me all the Jews who are here.' They were gathered for him and he said, 'I am going to ask you about something. Will you tell me the truth about it?' They said, 'Yes.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to them, 'Who is your father?' They replied, 'So-and-so.' He said, 'You have lied. Your father is so-and-so.' They said, 'You spoke the truth.' He said, 'So now will you tell me the truth about something if I ask you about it?' They answered, 'Yes, Abu'l-Qasim. If we lie, you will recognise our lie as you recognised it regarding our father.' He asked them, 'Who are the people of the Fire?' They said, 'We will be in it for a short time and then you will follow us in it.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'May you be basely driven into it! By Allah, we will never follow you in it!' Then he said, 'Will you tell me the truth about something if I ask you about it?' They said, 'Yes, Abu'l-Qasim.' He asked, 'Did you put poison in this sheep?' They said, 'Yes.' He said, 'What made you do that?' They said, 'If you were a liar, then we would be relieved of you. If you are a Prophet, then it would not harm you.'"

VIII: The ruler cursing those who have broken a treaty

2999. It is related that 'Asim said, "I asked Anas ibn Malik about the qunut and he said, 'It is done before ruku'.'" He said, "Someone claims that you said it was done after ruku'. He said, 'He lied.' Then he related from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that he only did the qunut after ruku' for a month, in which he made supplication against the tribes from the Banu Sulaym. He said, "He sent out forty - or seventy (he was unsure about it) - reciters" to some people of the idolaters. Those people attacked them and killed them, although there they had a treaty with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I have never seen him as grieved for anyone as he was for them.'"

IX: Offering of security and sanctuary by women

3000. It is related that Abu Murra, the mawla of Umm Hani' bint Abi Talib, heard Umm Hani' bint Abi Talib say, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the year of the Conquest of Makka and found him doing ghusl, with his daughter Fatima screening him. I greeted him and he said, 'Who is this?' I said, 'It is Umm Hani' bint Abi Talib.' He said, 'Welcome, Umm Hani'.' When he finished his ghusl, he stood up and prayed eight rak'ats wrapped in a single cloth. When he finished, I said, 'Messenger of Allah, my brother claims that he is going to kill a man to whom I have given sanctuary. It is so-and-so, the son of Hubayra.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'We give sanctuary to the one to whom you have given sanctuary, Umm Hani'.'" Umm Hani' said that that happened in the morning.

X: The dhimma and sanctuary of the Muslims is the same, and it is effected by the lowest of them

3001. It is related that the father of Ibrahim at-Tamimi said, "'Ali addressed us, saying, 'We have no book that we read but the Book of Allah and this paper which contains [judgements about] wounds and the ages of camels: "Madina is a sanctuary between 'A'ir to such-and-such a place. Whoever commits an improper action in it or gives refuge to someone who commits improper actions, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him. Whoever accepts the proctectorship of other than his masters will have the like of that curse. The dhimma [covenant] of the Muslims is the same. Whoever breaks a Muslim's covenant, on him is the like of that curse."'"

XI: When they say, "Saba'na" and do not say "We have become Muslim" (aslamna) properly

Ibn 'Umar said, "Khalid began killing (them) and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O Allah, I declare myself innocent to You of what Khalid has done.'"

'Umar said, "If someone says, 'Matras' [Persian for 'Do not fear'], he is granting security. Allah knows all the tongues." He said, "Speak, there is no harm." [Said to al-Hurmurzan and is said to grant security]

XII: Making peace and truces with the idolaters for money and other things. The wrong action of someone who does not abide by the treaty.

The words of Allah, "If they incline to peace, incline to it as well." (8:61)

3002. It is related that Sahl ibn Hathma al-Ansari said, "'Abdullah ibn Sahl and Muhayyisa ibn Mas'ud ibn Zayd went to Khaybar at a time when there was a truce. They parted and then Muhayyisa came upon 'Abdullah ibn Sahl, murdered and covered in blood. He buried him and then went to Madina. Then 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Sahl, and Muhayyisa and Huwayyisa, the sons of Mas'ud, went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and 'Abdu'r-Rahman began to speak. He said, 'The eldest, the eldest.' for he was the youngest of the people there. So he was silent, and the two of them spoke. He said, 'Do you swear (to this) and demand your right from the murderer - or your companion?' They asked, 'How can we swear when we did not witness it or see it?' He said, 'Then the Jews can clear themselves by fifty men taking an oath.' They said, 'How can you accept the oaths of a people of unbelievers!' So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, himself paid the blood money.'"

XIII: The excellence of fulfilling the terms of a treaty

3003. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said that Abu Sufyan ibn Harb informed him that Heraclius had sent a message to him while he was with a Qurayshi caravan composed of merchants who were trading in Syria during the period when the the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a truce with Abu Sufyan and the unbelievers of Quraysh.

XIV: Is a dhimmi pardoned when he practises magic?

Ibn Shihab was asked, "Is one of the people with a treaty killed if he practises magic?" He answered, "It has reached us that that was done to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but he did not kill the one who had done it, and he was one of the People of the Book."

3004. It is related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was bewitched so that he imagined that he had done something when he had not done it.

[That was Labid ibn al-A'sam.]

XV: Being on guard against treachery

The words of Allah Almighty, "If they intend to deceive you, Allah is enough for you..." (8:62)

3005. It is related that 'Awf ibn Malik said, "I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during the Tabuk expedition while he was in a hide tent. He said, 'Count six signs before the Hour: my death, then the conquest of Jerusalem, then a plague which will carry you off like the sheep disease, then the increase of wealth so that a man will be given a hundred dinars and remain displeased, then a civil war (fitna) which will not fail to enter every house of the Arabs, and then a truce between you and the Greeks who will act treacherously and come at you under eighty flags with twelve thousand men under every flag.'"

XVI: How to revoke a treaty

The words of Allah, "If you fear treachery on a people's part, revoke your treaty with them mutually...." (8:58)

3006. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "Abu Bakr sent me with the callers who announced at Mina on the Day of Sacrifice, 'No pagan is to make the hajj after this year and no one is to do tawaf of the House naked.' The day of the Greater Hajj is the Day of Sacrifice. It is called 'the greater" because people say, 'the lesser Hajj.' So Abu Bakr revoked the treaty with people that year, and so no pagan made hajj in the year of the Farewell Hajj in which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made hajj."

XVII: The wrong action of someone who makes a treaty and then acts treacherously

His words, "Those with whom you make a treaty and who then break it every time. They are not godfearing." (8:56)

3007. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone has four characteristics, he is [like] a pure hypocrite: whenever he speaks, he lies; whenever he is trusted, he betrays his trust; when he makes an agreement, he breaks it; and when he quarrels, he deviates from the truth and speaks falsely. Iif anyone has one of them, he has an aspect of hypocrisy until he gives it up."

3008. It is related that 'Ali said, "We have nothing written down from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,but the Qur'an and this paper. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: "Madina is a sanctuary between 'A'ir to such-and-such a place. Whoever commits an improper action in it or gives refuge to someone who commits improper actions, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him. The dhimma [covenant] of the Muslims is the same, and it is effective by the lowest of them. Whoever breaks a Muslim's covenant, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him. Whoever accepts the protectorship of a people without his masters's permission on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him.'"

3009. It is related that Abu Hurayra remarked, "How will you be when you do not collect either dinar or dirham?" He was asked, "How do you know that will come about, Abu Hurayra?" He said, "By the One in Whose hand is the soul of Abu Hurayra, from the words of the truth confirmed one." They asked, "What is that?" He answered, "The dhimma of Allah and His Messenger will be violated and so Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, will strengthen the hearts of the people of the dhimma so that they refuse to pay what they owe."

3010. It is related that al-A'mash said, "I asked Abu Wa'il, 'Were you present at Siffin?' He answered, 'Yes, and I heard Sahl ibn Hunayf say, "Have doubts about your opinions! You should have seen me on the day of Abu Jandal! If I had been able to defy the order of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I would have defied it. We did not remove our swords from our shoulders for something which outraged us, and it was easier for us to recognise (the good in it) which is not the case in this business of ours."'"

[Siffin was the battle between 'Ali and Mu'awiya. Sahl was criticised for his lack of enthusiasm for the fight. Abu Jandal came to the Muslims in chains after the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyya had been concluded, and was handed back to Quraysh according to the terms of the treaty.]

3011. It is related that Abu Wa'il said, "We were at Siffin and Sahl ibn Hunayf stood up and said, 'O people! Doubt yourselves! We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the Day of al-Hudaybiyya, and if we had thought it proper to fight, we would have fought. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab came and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, do we not have the truth while our enemy have the false?' He said, 'Yes indeed.' He said, "Are not our dead in the Garden while their dead are in the Fire?' He said, 'Yes indeed.' He said, Then why do we concede humbleness in our deen? Will we go back without Allah having judged between us and them?' He said, 'O Ibn al-Khattab, I am the Messenger of Allah and He will never neglect me.' Then 'Umar went to Abu Bakr and said to him the like of what he had said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr said, 'He is the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and He will never neglect him.' Then Surat al-Fath (48) was sent down and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, read it to 'Umar to the end of it and 'Umar said, 'Messenger of Allah, was that the victory?' He said, 'Yes.'"

3012. It is related that Asma' bint Abi Bakr said, "My mother came to visit me with her father during the period when Quraysh had a treaty with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while she was still an idolater and I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'My mother has come to me, wanting something. Shall I give it to her?' He replied, 'Yes. Give to your mother.'"

XVIII: A truce for three day or a specified period

3013. It is related that al-Bara' said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to go on 'umra, he sent to the people of Makka to ask their permission to enter Makka. They made a stipulation that he would only remain there for three days and that no one would enter it except with weapons sheathed, and that he would not invite any of them [to Islam]." He said, "So 'Ali ibn Abi Talib began to write the stipulations between them, and he wrote, 'This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, agrees to.' They said, 'If we knew that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have prevented you and we would have offered allegiance to you. Rather write, "This is Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah decides."' He said, 'By Allah, I am Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah, and, by Allah, I am the Messenger of Allah.' He did not write." He said, "So he said to 'Ali, 'Rub out "Messenger of Allah".' 'Ali said, 'By Allah, I will never rub it out!' He said, 'Show it to me.'" He said, "He showed it to him and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rubbed it out with his hand. When he had entered Makka and the days had passed, they went to 'Ali and said, 'Tell your companion to depart.' He mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Yes,' and then departed."

XIX: A truce without a specific time

The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "We will let you remain in that as long as Allah lets you remain there." (see 2213)

XX: Throwing the corpses of idolaters into a well and not taking any price for them

3014. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "While the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in prostration, surrounded by some of the idolaters of Quraysh, 'Uqba ibn Abi Mu'ayt brought the foetal membrance of a young camel and threw it on the back of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He did not raise his head until Fatima came and removed it from his back. Then he pronounced an invocation against those who had done that. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O Allah! Destroy the council of Quraysh! O Allah, destroy Abu Jahl ibn Hisham, 'Utba ibn Rabi'a, Shayba ibn Rabi'a, 'Uqba ibn Abi Mu'ayt, and Umayya ibn Khalaf! (or and Ubayy ibn Khalaf)' I saw them killed on the day of Badr and they were thrown into the well, except for Umayya or Ubayy. He was a fat man and when they dragged him, his joints separated before he was thrown into the well."

XXI: The wrong action someone treacherous, whether he does that to a pious or a corrupt person

3015. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Every traitor will have a banner on the Day of Rising." One of them said, "It will be fixed," and the other said, "It will be shown on the Day of Rising so that he is recognised by it."

3016. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Every traitor will have a banner fixed because of his treachery.'"

3017. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "On the day of the Conquest of Makka, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is no more hijra, but there is jihad and intention. When you are called to it then go.' He said on the day of the Conquest of Makka, 'Allah made this city inviolable on the day when he created the heavens and the earth and it will be inviolable by Allah's sanctity until the Day of Rising. Fighting was not lawful in it for anyone before me and it was only lawful for me for one hour of one day. It will remain inviolable by Allah's sanctity until the Day of Rising. Its thorns should not be cut, its game should not be chased and something dropped should not be picked up except by someone who announces it and its plants are not to be pulled up.' Al-'Abbas said, 'Messenger of Allah, apart from the idhkhir herb for our goldsmiths and houses!' He said, 'Apart from the idhkhir herb.'"