Chapters on 'Umra

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 32. Chapters on 'Umra

I: The obligation and excellence of 'umra

Ibn 'Umar , "There is no one for whom hajj and 'umra are not an obligation." Ibn 'Abbas said, "They are joined together in the Book of Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, 'Perform the hajj and 'umra.' (2:196)"

1683. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "From one 'umra to the next is expiation for everything in between them and there is no reward for an accepted hajj other than the Garden." (Muwatta, Book 20, 66)

II: Someone doing 'umra before hajj

1684. It is related from Ibn Jurayj that 'Ikrima ibn Khalid asked Ibn 'Umar  about performing 'umra before hajj and he said, "There is no harm in it." 'Ikrima said that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did 'umra before he did hajj."

Ibn Ishaq related that 'Ikrima ibn Khalid said, "I asked Ibn 'Umar the same thing."

'Ikrima ibn Khalid said, "I asked Ibn 'Umar the same thing." (Muwatta, Book 20, 58)

III: The number of times the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did 'umra

1685. It is related from Mujahid, "'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr and I entered the mosque and found 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar sitting next to the room of 'A'isha. Some other people were praying the Duha prayer in the mosque." Mujahid said, "We asked him [Ibn 'Umar] about their prayer and he said, 'It is an innovation.' Then he ['Urwa] said to him, 'How many times did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do 'umra?' He said, 'Four times: once in Rajab.' We did not like to contradict him."

He said, "We heard 'A'isha, Umm al-Mu'minin, cleaning her teeth in the room and so 'Urwa said, 'O mother! O Umm al-Mu'minin! Do you not hear what Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman is saying?' She said, 'What is he saying?' He said, 'He says that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra four times, one of which was in Rajab.' She said, 'May Allah have mercy on Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman. He did not do any 'umra but that he was present with him. He never went on 'umra in Rajab.'"

1686. It is related that 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr said, "I asked 'A'isha and she said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not go on 'umra in Rajab."

1687. It is related from Qatada, "I asked Anas, 'How many times did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, go on 'umra?' He said, 'Four - the 'umra of al-Hudaybiya in Dhu'l-Qa'da when the idolaters stopped him, the 'umra in the following year in Dhu'l-Qa'da when he had a treaty with them, and the 'umra of al-Ji'rana when he divided the booty.' I think it was Hunayn. I said, 'How many times did he go on hajj?' He said, 'Once.'"

1688. It is related that Qatada said, "I asked Anas and he said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra when they made him turn back, and in the year after the 'umra of al-Hudaybiyya, and he did an 'umra in Dhu'l-Qa'da, and an 'umra with his hajj.'"

It is related the Hammam said, "He (the Prophet) went on 'umra four times, all of them in Dhu'l-Qa'da except when he did 'umra with his hajj: his 'umra from al-Hudaybiyya, that in the following year and that from al-Ji'rana, when he divided the booty of Hunayn, and his 'umra with his hajj."

1689. It is related that Abu Ishaq said, "I asked Masruq, 'Ata' and Mujahid and they said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra in Dhu'l-Qa'da before he went on hajj.'" He said, "I heard al-Bara' ibn 'Azib say, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra in Dhu'l-Qa'da twice before he went on hajj.'"

IV: 'Umra during Ramadan

1690. It is related that 'Ata' said, "I heard Ibn 'Abbas report to us, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to a woman of the Ansar (Ibn 'Abbas named her but I have forgotten her name), 'What kept you from going on hajj with us?' She said, 'We have an irrigation camel and the father of so-and-so and his son (her husband and son) rode it and left us only a single camel for irrigation.' He said, 'Then go on 'umra in Ramadan. An'umra in Ramadan is hajj.' or he said something like it."

V: 'Umra on the night of the 13th of Dhu'l-Hijja and other nights

1691. It is related that 'A'isha said, "We set out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, just before the new moon of Dhu'l-Hijja. He said to us, 'Any of you who want to go into ihram for hajj should do so and those who want to go into ihram for 'umra should go into it for 'umra. If I had not brought a sacrifice with me, I would have gone into ihram for 'umra.'" She said, "Some of us went into ihram for 'umra and some of us went into ihram for hajj. I was one of those who went into ihram for 'umra. When the day of 'Arafa approached, I was still menstruating, so I complained to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Forget about your 'umra, unbraid your hair and comb it and go into ihram for hajj.' On the night of the 13th, he sent 'Abdu'r-Rahman with me to at-Tan'im and I went into ihram for 'umra to compensate for my other 'umra."

VI: The 'umra of at-Tan'im

1692. It is related from 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him to let 'A'isha ride behind him and to take her on 'umra from at-Tan'im. Once Sufyan (one of the narrators) said, "I heard it from 'Amr. How often I heard it from 'Amr!"

1693. It is related from Jabir ibn 'Abdullah, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his Companions went into ihram for hajj. None of them had a sacrificial animal with them except for the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Talha. 'Ali arrived from the Yemen with a sacrificial animal and said, 'I have gone into ihram with the same intention as that with which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went into ihram.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered his Companions to make it 'umra and do tawaf and then to shorten their hair and to come out of ihram - except those who had sacrificial animals. They said, 'Can we go to Mina when one of us says that he has just had a seminal discharge' That reached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'If I had known at the beginning of the business what I know at the end, I would not have brought a sacrificial animal with me. If I did not have a sacrificial animal with me, I would have come out of ihram.' 'A'isha got her menstrual period and performed all the practices except for tawaf." He said,"When she was pure, she did tawaf and said, 'Messenger of Allah, you are returning with hajj and 'umra when I am returning with only hajj?' So he commanded 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr to go out with her to at-Tan'im and she did 'umra after hajj in the month of Dhu'l-Hijja. Suraqa ibn Malik ibn Ju'sham met the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was stoning al-'Aqaba and asked him, 'Is this just for you, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'No, it is forever.'"

VII: Doing 'umra after hajj without having a sacrificial animal

1694. It is related that 'A'isha said, "We set out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, just before the new moon of Dhu'l-Hijja. He said, 'Any of you who want to go into ihram for 'umra should do so and those who want to go into ihram for hajj should go into it for hajj. If I had not brought a sacrifice with me, I would have gone into ihram for 'umra.' Some people went into ihram for 'umra and some of them went into ihram for hajj. I was one of those who went into ihram for 'umra. I started menstruating before I entered Makka. When the day of 'Arafa came, I was still menstruating, so I complained to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Leave your 'umra, unbraid your hair and comb it and go into ihram for hajj.' I did that. On the night of the 13th, he sent 'Abdu'r-Rahman with me to at-Tan'im." He let her ride behind him and she went into ihram for 'umra to compensate for her other 'umra so Allah fulfilled both her hajj and 'umra. She was not required to sacrifice nor to give sadaqa nor to fast.

VIII: The reward of the 'umra is according to the effort exerted

1695. It is related from al-Aswad, "'A'isha said, 'Messenger of Allah, is everyone going to return with two acts of worship while I am only returning with one?' She was told, 'Wait, and when you are pure, go out to at-Tan'im and go into ihram. Then meet us at such-and-such a place. But it is according to what you spend and the effort you exert.'"

IX: When someone doing 'umra leaves after doing the tawaf of 'umra, can that be considered the Tawaf of Farewell?

1696. It is related that 'A'isha said, "We set out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, going into ihram for hajj in the months of hajj and the sacred places of the hajj. We halted at Sarif and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told his Companions, 'Anyone who does not have a sacrificial animal with them and wants to make it 'umra should do so. Anyone who has a sacrificial animal with him should not.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and some men of his wealthier Companions had sacrificial animals so they did not do 'umra. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came upon me while I was weeping and said, 'Why are you weeping?' I said, 'I heard you say what you said to your Companions and I am prevented from doing 'umra.' He said, 'What is the matter with you?' I said, 'I am not praying.' He said, 'It doesn't matter. You are one of the daughters of Adam and what is written for them is written for you. Do your hajj and perhaps Allah will give you a way.'" She said, "When were were leaving Mina, we halted at al-Muhassab and he called 'Abdu'r-Rahman and said, 'Go out with your sister to the Haram. She should go into ihram for 'umra. Then complete your 'umra. I will wait for you here.' We returned in the middle of the night and he asked, 'You have both finished?' I said, 'Yes.' So he announced the departure among his Companions, and everyone set out. Some had done tawaf of the House before the Subh prayer. Then he left heading for Madina."

X: Doing in 'umra the same as is done in hajj

1697. Safwan ibn Ya'la ibn Umayya related from his father, "While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was at al-Ji'rana with some of his Companions, a man came to him wearing a cloak which had traces of khaluq-perfume (or he said, 'yellowness') on it and said, 'What do you order me to do in my 'umra?' Revelation came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was shaded by a cloth. I had been wanting to see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the revelation was descending on him. 'Umar said, 'Come on, would you like to see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when Allah is sending down the revelation on him?' I said, 'Yes.' So he lifted a corner of the cloth and I looked at him and he was snoring. (I think he said, 'Snoring like a young camel.') When the state left him, he said, 'Where is the man who asked about 'umra? Take off your cloak, wash off the trace of khaluq from yourself and then wash away the yellowness. Do the same in your 'umra as you do in your hajj.'"

1698. It is related that 'Urwa said, "When I was young I asked 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, 'What do you think of the words of Allah the Blessed and Almighty, "Safa and Marwa are among the Sacred Landmarks of Allah, so anyone who goes on hajj to the House or does 'umra incurs no wrong in going back and forth between them." (2:158) By Allah, so there is nothing wrong in someone not going between Safa and Marwa' She said, 'My nephew, if it was as you say, it would have been, "...incurs no wrong in not going back and forth between of them." However, it was sent down about the Ansar who used previously to go into ihram for the idol Manat which was opposite Qudayd. They considered it to be a sin to go betweenf Safa and Marwa. When Islam came, they asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that and Allah Alimighty sent down, 'Safa and Marwa are among the Sacred Landmarks of Allah, so anyone who goes on hajj to the House or does 'umra incurs no wrong in going back and forth between them.'"

Sufyan and Abu Mu'awiya related from Hisham, "Allah does not consider the hajj or 'umra of any person to be complete until they have gone between Safa and Marwa."

XI: When someone doing 'umra leaves ihram

Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that they make it 'umra and do tawaf and then to shorten their hair and come out of ihram."

1699. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did 'umra and we did 'umra with him. When he entered Makka, he did tawaf and we did tawaf with him. He went to Safa and Marwa and we also went to them with him. We used to shield him from the people of Makka in case one of them tried to shoot him."

A friend of mine asked him, "Did he enter the Ka'ba?" He replied, "No." He went on, "He related to us what he said about Khadija. He said, 'Give Khadija the good news that she will have a house in the Garden made of jewelled piping. There will be no clamour there and no tiredness.'"

1700. It is related that 'Amr ibn Dinar said, "We asked Ibn 'Umar about whether a man, who does tawaf of the House in 'umra but has not yet gone between Safa and Marwa, is permitted to go to his wife? He said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived and did seven circuits of the House and prayed two rak'ats behind the Maqam and went between Safa and Marwa seven times. You have a good example in the Messenger of Allah.'

He said, "We asked Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and he said, 'He should not approach her until he has gone between Safa and Marwa.'"

1701. It is related that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was halted at al-Batha'. He asked, 'Are you on hajj?' I replied, 'Yes.' He said, 'With what intention have you gone into ihram?' I answered, 'At your service! I have gone into ihram with the same intention as that of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' He said, 'You have done well. Do tawaf of the House and of Safa and Marwa. Then come out of ihram.' I did tawaf of the House and Safa and Marwa and then I went to a woman of Qays who deloused my head. Then later I went into ihram for the hajj. I used to transmit that judgement until the khalifate of 'Umar. He said, 'If we take the Book of Allah, it commands us to complete hajj and 'umra. If we take the record of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he did not come out of ihram until the sacrifice reached its place.'"

1702. It is related from 'Abdullah, the mawla of Asma' bint Abi Bakr that whenever Asma' passed by al-Hajun, he heard her say, "May Allah bless His Messenger, Muhammad. We halted here with him and on that day we were travelling light with few mounts and little provision. I and my sister 'A'isha, az-Zubayr and so-and-so and so-and-so went on 'umra. When we touched the Ka'ba, we came out of ihram. Then in the evening we assumed on ihram for hajj."

XII: What to say on returning from hajj, 'umra or a raiding expedition

1703. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from a raiding party, hajj or 'umra, he would say the takbir three times on every hilltop. Then he would say, 'There is no god but Allah alone with no partner. His is the kingdom and His the praise. He has power over all things. [We are] returning, repenting, worshipping, prostrating to our Lord, in praise. Allah has been true to His promise and helped His slave and alone defeated the parties.'" (Muwatta, Book 20, 252)

XIII: Welcoming the people arriving back from hajj. Three people riding on one animal

1704. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived in Makka, some boys of the Banu 'Abdu'l-Muttalib met him and he mounted one of them in front of him and another behind him."

XIV: Arriving in the morning

1705. It is related from 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar that when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left for Makka, he would pray in the ash-Shajara mosque, and when he returned, he would pray at Dhu'l-Hulayfa at the bottom of the valley and would stay the night there until morning.

XV: Coming back in the afternoon

1706. It is related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to not return to his family at night. He would only arrive in the morning or the afternoon."

XVI: Not going to the family at night when arriving late in the city

1707. It is related that Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade people to return to their family during the night."

XVII: Someone spurring on his camel upon reaching his city

1708. It is related that Humayd heard Anas say, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from a journey and saw the high parts of Madina, he would spur on his she-camel. If he was on a donkey, then he would prod it."

Humayd added, "He spurred it on because of his love for Madina."

It is related that Anas said, "Walls."

Al-Harith ibn 'Umayr corroborated it.

XVIII: The words of Allah Almighty, "Enter houses by their doors." (2:189)

1709. It is related that Abu Ishaq heard al-Bara' say, "This verse was revealed about us. When the Ansar went on hajj, they used not to enter their houses by their doors, when they came back, but from the back. A man of the Ansar came and entered by his door and was apparently condemned for it. Then it was revealed: 'It is not devoutness for you to enter houses by the back. Rather devoutness is possessed by those who fear Allah. So come to houses by their doors.'" (2:189)

XIX: Travelling is a form of punishment

1710. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Travelling is a form of punishment. It deprives a person of his food and drink and sleep. When he finishes what he has to do, he should hurry back to his family."

XX: A traveller pushing on in his journey hurrying back to his family

1711. It is related that Zayd ibn Aslam's father said, "I was with 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar on the Makka road when he heard that Safiyya bint Abi 'Ubayd, was very ill. He hurried on until after nightfall when he alighted and prayed Maghrib and 'Isha' together. Then he said, 'When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was travelling in a hurry, I saw him delay Maghrib and join the two of them.'"