Book of the Two 'Ids

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 19. Book of the Two 'Ids

I: The two 'ids and beautifying oneself on them

906. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "'Umar ibn al-Khattab took a silk robe which was being sold in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, 'Messenger of Allah, if you were to buy this you could wear it on the day of Jumu'a and to receive delegations.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, 'This will only be worn by someone who has no share of the Next World.' As long as Allah willed later, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent a brocade robe to 'Umar and 'Umar brought it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah! You said, "This will only be worn by someone who has no share of the Next World" and then you send me this robe!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "You are to sell it or get what you need with it.'"

II: Spears and shields on the Day of the 'Id

907. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to visit me when there were two slavegirls with me singing about Bu'ath. He lay down on the bed and turned his face away. Abu Bakr came and scolded me, saying, 'Musical instruments from Shaytan in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace!' The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, turned to him and said, 'Leave them be.' When (Abu Bakr) was not paying any attention, I signalled to them and they went out. This was the day of the 'Id and the black people were playing a game with their spears and shields. Either I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or he himself said, 'Do you want to have a look?' I said, 'Yes,' so he stood me behind him with my cheek against his and said, 'Go on, Banu Arfida!' until I became bored. He said, 'Is that enough for you?' I said, 'Yes' and he said, 'Go on then.'"

[Bu'ath was a major battle between the Aws and Khazraj before Islam.

Banu Arfida means the Abyssinians.]

III: The sunna of the two 'Ids for the people of Islam

908. It is related that al-Bara' said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, giving a khutba in which he said, 'The first thing to be done on this day of ours is for us to pray and then we will return and sacrifice. Whoever does this has followed our sunna.'"

909. It is related that 'A'isha' said, "Abu Bakr came in while there were two slavegirls of the Ansar with me singing about what the Ansar had said to each other on the Day of Bu'ath." She said, "They were not in fact singers but Abu Bakr said, 'Musical instruments from Shaytan in the house of the Messenger of Allah!' It was the day of the 'id and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Abu Bakr, every people has an 'id and this is our 'id.'"

["They were not singers" means that it was not their profession and they were not known for that.]

IV: Eating on the day of 'Id al-Fitr before going out

910. It is related that Anas said, "On the Day of Fitr, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would not go out until he had eaten some dates."

It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to eat an odd number of them.

V: Eating on the Day of Sacrifice

911. It is related that Anas said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who sacrifices before the prayer should sacrifice again. A man stood up and said, 'This is a day when meat is desired,' and he mentioned some of his neighbours. It seemed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, agreed with what he said. The man said, 'I have a young she-goat which is dearer to me than the meat of two sheep.' So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave him the dispensation of taking it as a sacrifice. I do not know whether the dispensation extended to other than him or not."

912. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us on the Day of the Sacrifice after the prayer. He said, 'Whoever prays as we pray and sacrifices as we sacrifice has fulfilled the sacrifice. Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, it is before the prayer and his sacrifice is invalid.'" Abu Burda ibn Dinar, the uncle of al-Bara', said, "O Messenger of Allah, I sacrificed my sheep before the prayer, knowing that today was a day of eating and drinking, and I wanted my sheep to be the first to be sacrificed in my house. So I slaughtered my sheep and ate before coming to the prayer." He said, "Your sheep is nothing but mutton." Abu Burda said, "Messenger of Allah, I have a young she-goat which is dearer to me than two sheep. Will that be enough for me?" He said, "Yes, but it will not be enough for anyone after you."

VI: Going out to the place of prayer without there being a minbar

913. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "On the day of Fitr and the day of al-Adha, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go out to the place of the prayer. He would start with the prayer first and then after finishing would stand in front of the people who remained sitting in their rows. He would admonish and counsel them and give them instructions. If he wanted to dispatch an expedition, he would do so or if he wanted to command something, he commanded it. Then he left."

Abu Sa'id said, "People continued in this way until the time I went out with Marwan, the amir of Madina for al-Adha or al-Fitr. When we reached the prayer place, there was a minbar which had been built by Kathir ibn as-Salt. Marwan wanted to go up onto the minbar before he had done the prayer. I grabbed him by his clothes but he pushed me away and went up and gave the khutba before the prayer. I said to him, 'You have altered things, by Allah!' He said, 'Abu Sa'id, what you knew has gone.' I said, 'By Allah, what I know is better than what I do not know.' He said, 'People do not keep sitting down for us after the prayer and so I put it before the prayer.' "

VII: Walking and riding to the 'Id and the prayer being before the khutba without adhan or iqama

914. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray on the days of al-Adha and al-Fitr and then deliver the khutba after the prayer.

915. It is related that 'Ata' said, "I heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out on the Day of Fitr and did the prayer first before the khutba."

916. 'Ata' stated that Ibn 'Abbas sent a message to Ibn az-Zubayr when allegiance was first given to him saying that there was no adhan for the prayer on the Day of Fitr and that the khutba was after the prayer.

917. 'Ata' stated that Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "There was no adhan on the Day of Fitr or the Day of Adha."

918. Jabir ibn 'Abdullah was heard to say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and did the prayer first and then addressed the people afterwards. When the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished, he came down and went to the women and reminded them while leaning on Bilal's arm. Bilal had his garment outspread and the women put sadaqa into it."

Ibn Jurayj said to 'Ata', "Do you think that it is incumbent on Imams today to go to the women and remind them when they have finished?" 'Ata' said, "It certainly is incumbent on them and why indeed do they not do it?"

VIII: The khutba after the 'Id (prayer)

919. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I attended the 'Id with the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman and all of them did the prayer before delivering the khutba."

920. It is related that ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr and 'Umar did the prayer on both 'Ids before delivering the khutba."

921. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed two rak'ats on the Day of Fitr and did not pray before or after it. Then he went to the women with Bilal and commanded them to give sadaqa. They began to to throw things in, each woman throwing in her ear-rings and necklace."

922. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The first thing we do on this day of ours is pray and then we go back and slaughter. Whoever does that has followed our Sunna. Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, that is just meat which he has presented to his family and it is not a hajj rite at all." A man of the Ansar called Abu Burda ibn Niyar said, "Messenger of Allah, I have already sacrificed but I also have a a one-year old she-goat which is better than a two year old goat." He said, "Use that instead but it will not suffice (or be enough) for anyone after you."

IX: It is disliked to carry weapons on the 'Id and in the Haram

Al-Hasan said, "People were forbidden to carry weapons on the day of the 'Id unless there was fear of an enemy."

923. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I was with Ibn 'Umar when a spearhead went into the sole of his foot making his foot stick in the stirrup. I dismounted and pulled it free. That happened at Mina. Al-Hajjaj heard about it and came to visit him. Al-Hajjaj said, 'If only we knew who had wounded you!' Ibn 'Umar said, 'You wounded me.' He said, 'How?' He said, 'You allowed weapons to be carried on a day on which they may not be carried and you allowed weapons to be brought into the Haram when weapons may not be brought into the Haram.'"

924. It is related that Ishaq ibn Sa'id ibn 'Amr ibn Sa'id ibn al-'As said from his father, "Al-Hajjaj came to visit Ibn 'Umar while I was with him. He said, 'How are you?' He said, 'Fine.' He asked, 'Who wounded you?' He said, 'I was wounded by the person who commanded that weapons should be carried on a day when it is not lawful for them to be carried,'" meaning al-Hajjaj himself.

X: Going out early to the 'Id

'Abdullah ibn Yusr said, "We would finish at this time," and that was at the time of at-Tasbih (about the time of Duha)."

925. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us on the Day of Sacrifice, 'The first thing we do on this day of ours is pray and then we go back and slaughter. Whoever does that has followed our Sunna. Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, that is just meat which he has presented to his family and it is not a hajj rite at all.' My uncle, Abu Burda ibn Niyar stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have already sacrificed but I also have a a one-year old she-goat which is better than a two year old goat.' He said, 'Use that instead but it will not suffice (or be enough) for anyone after you.'

XI: The excellence of right action during the days of tashriq

Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Mention Allah on known days' refers to the first ten days of Dhu'l-Hijja and the 'numbered days' are the days of Tashriq." Ibn 'Umar and Abu Hurayra used to go the market during the first ten days and say the takbir and people would say the takbir after them. Muhammad ibn 'Ali said the takbir after his supererogatory prayers.

926. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No actions done during any ten days are better than the actions done on these days." They said, "Not even jihad?" He said, "Not even jihad, except for a man who goes out putting his life and property in danger and returns with nothing."

XII: Saying the takbir on the days of Mina and when going to 'Arafat

'Umar used to say the takbir in his tent so that the people of the mosque could hear him and they they and the people of the markets said the takbir so that Mina vibrated with it. Ibn 'Umar used to say the takbir at Mina on those days and after the prayers and also when he was in bed, in his tent, while sitting and walking during every one of those days. Maymuna used to say the takbir on the Day of Sacrifice. The women used to say the takbir behind Aban ibn 'Uthman and 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz with the men in the mosque during the nights of tashriq.

927. It is related that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ath-Thaqafi said, "Once when we were coming from Mina to 'Arafat, I asked Anas about the talbiya saying, 'What did you use to do when you were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' He said, 'People would say the talbiya and no objection was made, and people would say the takbir and no objection was made.'"

928. It is related that Umm 'Atiyya said, "We were ordered to come out on the day of the 'Id, and even to bring out virgin girls from their private quarters, and menstruating women as well, so that they could be behind the rest of the people and say the takbir together with them and make supplication together with them, hoping for the blessing of that day and its purification."

XIII: Praying facing a spear on the day of the 'id

929. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to stick a spear upright in front of him on the day of Fitr and Sacrifice before doing the prayer.

XIV: Carrying a sharp stick or a spear in front of the Imam on the day of the 'Id

930. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet used to go out to the place of prayer and a sharp stick was carried in front of him and placed upright in front of him at the place of prayer and he would pray towards it."

XV: Women and menstruating women going out to the place of prayer

931. It is related that Umm 'Atiyya said, "We were commanded to bring out the older girls and those who remain in their private quarters."

Something similar is related from Hafsa. The hadith of Hafsa also has, "The older girls and those who remain in their private quarters, but menstruating women should keep away from the actual place of prayer."

XVI: Children going out to the place of prayer

932. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was heard to say, "I went with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the Day of Fitr or Adha and he did the prayer and then delivered the khutba. Then he went to the women and warned and reminded them and commanded them to give sadaqa."

XVII: The Imam facing the people in the 'Id khutba

Abu Sa'id said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood facing the people."

933. It is related that al-Bara' said, "On the day of Adha, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to al-Baqi' and prayed two rak'ats. Then he faced us and said, 'The first of our practices on this day is to begin with the prayer and then we go back and sacrifice. Whoever does that has acted in accordance with our Sunna. Whoever sacrifices before that, it is just something he has hastened forward for his family but in no way constitutes a sacrifice. A man stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have already sacrificed, but I have a yearling she-goat which is better than a two year old goat.' He said, 'Sacrifice it but it will not be enough for anyone after you.'"

XVIII: The sign indicating the place of prayer

934. It is related that 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Abis said, "I heard Ibn 'Abbas being asked, 'Did you attend the 'Id with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' He said, 'Yes, and if it had not been that I was young, I would not have attended. He reached the sign which was at the house of Kathir ibn as-Salt and did the prayer and then he gave the khutba. Then he went to the women with Bilal and admonished and reminded them and commanded them to give sadaqa. I saw them putting it with their hands into Bilal's garment. Then he and Bilal went to his house.'"

XIX: The Imam preaching to the women on the day of the 'Id

935. It is related from 'Ata', "I heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up on the Day of Fitr and prayed. He did the prayer first and then gave the khutba. When he finished, he went to the women and reminded while leaning on Bilal's arm. Bilal had his garment outspread and the women were putting sadaqa in it.'"

Ibn Jurayj said, I asked 'Ata', 'The zakat of the day of al-Fitr?' He said, 'No, rather sadaqa which they gave at that time. One woman gave a silver ring and others also gave.' I said, 'Do you think that it is incumbent on Imams today to go to the women and remind them when they have finished?' 'Ata' said, 'It is certainly incumbent on them and why indeed do they not do it?'"

936. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I attended the 'Id with the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman  and they performed the prayer before the khutba. The khutba was delivered after the prayer. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left, and it is as if I could see him now, indicating with his hand that the people should sit, and then went forward through the rows until he came to the women and Bilal was with him. He said, 'O Prophet, when believing women come to you, swear fealty to you....' (60:12) and when he finished, he asked, 'Does that apply to you?' One among them - and she was the only woman to answer - said, 'Yes.' (Hasan did not know who she was.) He said, 'Then give sadaqa.' Bilal spread out his garment. Then he said, 'Come on, may my father and mother be your ransom!' They threw silver rings and seal rings into Bilal's garment."

'Abdu'r-Razzaq said, "'Fatakh' are the large rings which were used in the time of the Jahiliyya."

XX: When a woman has no outer wrap for the 'Id

937. It is related that Hafsa bint Sirin said, "We used to prevent our girls from going out on the day of the 'Id. A woman came and stayed in the fortress of Banu Khalaf and I went to her. She related that her sister's husband had participated with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in twelve expeditions and that her sister was with him on six raids. She said, 'We used to look after the sick and treat the wounded.' She said, 'Messenger of Allah, is there anything wrong if one of us does not have an outer wrap and so does not come out (for the 'id)?' He said, 'Let her wear friend let her use some of her wrap. They should be present at the good and the supplication of the believers.'"

Hafsa said, "When Umm 'Atiyya came, I went to her and asked her, 'Did you hear anything about such-and-such?' She said, 'Yes, by my father. (Whenever she mentioned the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, she said, 'By my father.') He said, "Let the mature girls who stay in their private quarters (seclusion)" or he said, "mature girls and those who stay in their private quarters (Ayyub was uncertain) come out. The menstruating women should keep away from the place of prayer. They should be present at the good and supplication of the believers."' I said to her, 'Menstruating women?' She said, 'Yes, aren't menstruating women present at 'Arafat and present at such-and-such and present at such-and-such?'"

XXI: Menstruating women keeping away from the place of prayer

938. From Umm 'Atiyya: "We were commanded to come out, and we came out - the menstruating women, the mature girls and those who stay in their private quarters " Ibn 'Awn said, "The mature girls who stay in their private quarters (seclusion) The menstruating women should should be present at the gathering and supplication of the Muslims, but should keep away from the place of prayer."

XXII: Sacrifice and slaughter on the Day of Sacrifice at the place of prayer

939. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to sacrifice or slaughter at the place of prayer.

XXIII: The words of the Imam and the people during the 'Id khutba. When the Imam is asked about something while he is giving the khutba

940. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us on the Day of the Sacrifice after the prayer. He said, 'Whoever prays as we pray and sacrifices as we sacrifice has fulfilled the sacrifice. Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, that is mutton.' Abu Burda ibn Dinar stood up and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, I sacrificed my sheep before the prayer, knowing that today was a day of eating and drinking,and I made haste and ate and fed my family and neighbours.' He said, "Your sheep is nothing but mutton." Abu Burda said, "Messenger of Allah, I have a young she-goat which is better than two sheep. Will that be enough for me?" He said, "Yes, but it will not be enough for anyone after you."

941. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the prayer on the Day of Sacrifice and then gave a khutba and commanded that whoever had sacrificed before the prayer should repeat his sacrifice. A man of the Ansar stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have some neighbours - and he said of them either that they were very needy or poor - so I sacrificed before the prayer. But I have a young she-goat whose flesh is dearer to me than that of two sheep.' So he allowed him to do it."

942. It is related that Jundab said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the prayer on the Day of Sacrifice and then gave the khutba and sacrificed. He said, 'Any one who has sacrificed before praying should sacrifice another in its place and any one who has not yet sacrificed should do so in the name of Allah.'"

XXIV: Someone using a different route to return on the day of the 'id

943. It is related that Jabir said, "On the day of the 'id, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would return by a different route."

Abu Hurayra corroborated it but the hadith of Jabir is sounder.

XXV: When someone misses the 'Id, he should pray two rak'ats. It is the same for women and those who remain at home or in their villages

This is based on the statement of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "This is our 'Id, people of Islam."

Anas ibn Malik ordered his client, Ibn Abi 'Utba at az-Zawiya to gather together his family and sons. He did the prayer and takbir in the same way as the people of the city. 'Ikrima said, "Country people should gather to pray two rak'ats on the 'id as the Imam does." 'Ata' says, "If someone misses the prayer, he should pray two rak'ats."

944. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Abu Bakr came in when there were two slavegirls with me playing musical instruments while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was wrapped in his garment. Abu Bakr scolded them and the Prophet* unwrapped himself and said, 'Let them be, Abu Bakr. It is the 'Id and these are the days of Mina.'"

'A'isha said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he shielded me while I was watching the Abyssinians playing in the mosque. 'Umar rebuked them and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Let them be. You are safe, Banu Arfida!'meaning under protection."

XXVI: Praying before and after the 'Id

Ibn 'Abbas said that it is disliked to pray before the 'Id.

945. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out on the day of Fitr and prayed two rak'ats and did not pray before or after it. Bilal was with him.