The Book of Knowledge

The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari

by Imam Bukhari
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

Chapter 3: The Book of Knowledge

I: The excellence of knowledge

And the words of Allah, "Allah will raise in rank those of you who believe and those who have been given knowledge," (58:11) and "Say: 'Lord, increase me in knowledge.'" (20:114)

II: On the one who is asked for knowledge while he is engaged in a conversation and then finishes his conversation before answering the question

59. Abu Hurayra said that once, while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in an assembly talking to the people, a Bedouin came and asked, "When is the Last Hour?" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, continued talking upon which some people said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had heard what the man had said and disliked it while others said that he had simply not heard it. When the Messenger of Allah had finished what he was saying, he said, "Where is the person who asked about the Hour?" He said, "Here I am, Messenger of Allah." The Prophet said, "When trustworthiness has been lost, then expect the Hour." The Bedouin said, "How will it be lost?" The Prophet replied, "When authority lies with other than those who should rightfully have it, then expect the Hour."

III: On the one who raises his voice while imparting knowledge

60. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "The Prophet lagged behind us on a journey. We went on and he joined us when we were late for the prayer and were doing wudu'. We were wiping our feet [i.e. not washing properly] and he called out in a loud voice, 'Woe to the heels from the Fire!' two or three times."

IV: On the words of the narrator, "he related to us" (haddathana), "he informed us" (akhbarana) or "he told us" (anbana). etc.

Al-Humaydi said to us, "According to Ibn 'Uyayna, haddathana, akhbarana, anbana and sami'tu are all equally valid." Ibn Mas'ud said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related to us (haddathana) and he was the most truthful of the truthful..." Shaqiq ibn 'Abdullah said, "I heard (sami'tu) the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say..." Hudhayfa said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, narrated to us (haddathana) two hadiths..." Abu 'Aliya said on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas on the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in what he recounted from his Lord..." Anas said, "On the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who recounted it from his Lord..." Abu Hurayra said, "On the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who recounted it from your Lord."

61. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is a tree whose leaves do not fall which is like the Muslim. Tell me what it is." The people thought about the trees of the desert and 'Abdullah said, "It occurred to me that it was the date-palm, but I was too shy to answer. Then they said, 'Tell us what it is, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'It is the date-palm.'"

V: On the Imam directing questions to his companions to test their knowledge

62. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is a tree whose leaves do not fall which is like the Muslim. Tell me what it is." The people thought about the trees of the desert and 'Abdullah said, "It occurred to me that it was the date-palm. Then they said, 'Tell us what it is, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'It is the date-palm.'"

VI: On what has come about knowledge and the words of Allah, "Say: Lord, increase me in knowledge." (20:114)

On the reading (qira') of the teacher and reading ('ard) to the teacher [which is preferred]. The opinion of al-Hasan, ath-Thawri and Malik that reading of the teacher is permitted.

Abu 'Abdullah saying, "I heard Abu 'Asim mention from Sufyan ath-Thawri and Imam Malik that they thought that the reading of the teacher and the teacher listening to his students reading were both permitted."

'Ubaydullah ibn Musa narrated to us that Sufyan said, "If someone reads to the teacher, there is nothing wrong if he says [when narrating this to others] 'He narrated to me (haddathana)' or 'I heard'." Some of them use as an argument for reading out to the scholar what Dimam ibn Tha'laba said to the Prophet, "Did Allah command you to pray five prayers?" He said, "Yes." He says that this was reading out to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Malik uses as evidence the reading of a record to people who then say, "We testify to such-and-such." That is read to them, and the reader says, "So-and-so to me."

Al-Hasan said, "There is nothing wrong in reading out the hadith to the scholar."

Sufyan said, "If someone reads to the teacher, there is nothing wrong if he says, 'He narrated to me (haddathana)'. And I [al-Bukhari] heard 'Asim say from Malik and Sufyan that reading to the teacher and his own reading are of equal value.

63. Anas ibn Malik said, "Once when we were sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the mosque, a man came up riding a camel. He made his camel kneel in the mosque and then hobbled it. He said, 'Who among you is Muhammad?' The Prophet*, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,was reclining among us. We said, 'The white man who is reclining.' The man said to him, 'Son of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, 'I answered your question (i.e. I heard you).' The man said to the Prophet*, 'I will question you and will be hard on you in the questioning, so do not be cross with me.' He said, 'Ask whatever you like.' He said, 'I ask you by your Lord and the Lord of those before you, has Allah sent you to all people?' He replied, 'By Allah, yes.' He said, 'I ask you by Allah, did Allah command you to pray five prayers a day?' He replied, 'Yes.' He said, 'I ask you by Allah, did Allah command you to fast this one month of the year?' He replied, 'By Allah, yes!' He said, 'I ask you by Allah, did Allah command you to take this zakat from the rich people among us and divide it among our poor?' The Prophet said, 'By Allah, yes!' Then the man said, 'I have accepted the truth of what you have brought and I am a messenger for those I left behind of my people. I am Dimam ibn Tha'laba, of the brothers of Banu Sa'd ibn Bakr.'"

VII: On what is said about hand-to-hand exchange and the people of knowledge sending knowledge in writing to different countries.

Anas said that 'Uthman had the copies of the Qur'an copied and sent them to far-off areas.

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, Yahya ibn Sa'id and Malik considered the exchange of books by scholars permissible and some people of the Hijaz argued for it on the basis of a hadith of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in which he wrote a letter to a commander of an expedition, saying, "Do not read it until you reach a certain place." When he reached that place, he read it to the people and told them the orders of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

64. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent a letter to a man and commanded him to give it to the governor of Bahrayn and the governor of Bahrayn gave it to Chosroes. When he read the letter and tore it up. Ibn Shihab reckoned that Ibn al-Musayyab said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, put a curse on them that they would be torn to pieces."

65. Anas ibn Malik said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wrote a letter or wanted to write one. He was told that they would not read letters unless they were sealed. So he took a signet-ring of silver engraved with, 'Muhammad, Messenger of Allah.' It is as if I were looking at its whiteness on his hand."

I asked Qatada, "Who said that it was engraved with 'Muhammad, Messenger of Allah.'" He replied, "Anas."

VIII: On someone who sat at the edge of the assembly, and someone who found a place in the gathering and sat in it.

66. It is related from Abu Waqid al-Laythi that once when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting in the mosque with some people, three people arrived. Two of them came up to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the other left. The two stood before the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. One of them saw a place in the gathering and sat in it. Another sat behind the assembly. The third turned around and left. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished, he said, "Shall I tell you about those three people? One of them betook himself to Allah and so Allah took him in His mercy. The second was shy to vause overcrowding and so Allah was shy with him [so He would not punish him]. The other turned away, so Allah turned away [His mercy] from him."

IX: On the words of the Prophet, "Many a person to whom something is conveyed may retain it better than the one who heard it."

67. Abu Bakra mentioned that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting on his camel and a man was holding its rein or halter. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, "What day is this?" We were silent, thinking that he might change its name. He said, "Is this not the Day of Sacrifice?" We said, "Indeed." He said, "What month is this?" We were silent, thinking that he might change its name. He said, "Is this not Dhu'l-Hijja?" We said, "Yes." He said, "Your blood, your property and your honour are sacred to you, like the sacredness of this day in this month in this city. Let the one who is present convey to the one who is absent. Perhaps the one to whom it is conveyed will retain it better the present one."

X. On knowledge [is preconditional] before speaking and action according to the words of Allah, "Know then that there is no god but Allah," (47:19) where He begins with knowledge.

The people of knowledge are the heirs of the Prophets and and they inherit knowledge. The one who takes knowledge is taking an ample share. And if someone travels a path in quest of knowledge, Allah will make his path to the Garden easy. Allah says, "Only His slaves who have knowledge fear Allah," (35:28) and "Only those with knowledge will understand it," (29:43) and "They will say, 'If only we had really listened used our minds, we would not have been the Companions of the Blaze." (67:10) and "Are they equal: those who know and those who do not know?" (39:9)

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If Allah desires good for someone, He gives him understanding in the deen. Knowledge is gained by learning." Abu Dharr pointed to his neck and said, "If you were to put the sword here and I thought that I could finish one sentence which I heard from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, before you finished me, I would say it." Ibn 'Abbas said [in the tafsir of 3:79], "Be people of religious knowledge (rabbaniyun), people of forbearance and fiqh." It is said that the rabbani is the one who instructs people with simple knowledge before deeper knowledge.

XI: On the Prophet being careful about giving people admonition and knowledge so that they would not feel aversion to it.

68. Ibn Mas'ud said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to be careful to give us admonition on particular days, not wanting it to become boring for us."

69. Anas ibn Malik related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Make things easy for people and do not make them difficult. Give good news to people and do not make them feel aversion."

XII: On the one who appointed fixed days for the people desiring knowledge.

70. Abu Wa'il said, "'Abdullah used to remind the people every Thursday. Once a man said to him, 'Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman! I wish you would remind us every day!' He said, 'That which prevents me from doing that is that I do not want to bore you and I pay particular care and attention to using admonition as did the Prophet out of the fear that we might become bored.'"

XIII: When Allah desires good for someone, He gives him correct understanding in the deen

71. Mu'awiya was heard to say in a khutba, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When Allah desires good for someone, He gives him correct understanding in the deen. I am an even-handed distributor, but it is Allah who gives. This community will remain straight following the command of its Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and will not be harmed by those who oppose it until the command of Allah comes."

XIV: On understanding in knowledge

72. Mujahid said, "I accompanied Ibn 'Umar to Madina and only heard him relate one hadith from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, 'We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the spadix of a date-palm was brought to him. He said, "There is a tree which is like the Muslim." I wanted to say that it was the palm-tree, but I was the youngest of the people so I kept silent. The Prophet said, "It is the palm-tree."'"

XV: On desire for having knowledge and wisdom like others.

'Umar said, "Seek fiqh before you become a chief."

Abu 'Abdullah said, "The Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, studied even though they were old."

73. 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud was heard to say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You can only have envy for two things: for a man to whom Allah has given wealth which he spends for the truth, and for a man to whom Allah has given wisdom and he acts by it and teaches it."

XVI: On what is mentioned about Musa's journey on the sea to meet al-Khidr

And the words of Allah, "May I follow you on condition that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?" (18:66)

74. Ibn 'Abbas transmitted that he and Hurr ibn Qays ibn Hisn al-Fazari argued about Musa's companion. Ibn 'Abbas said that it was Khidr. Ubayy ibn Ka'b passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him over and said, "My companion and I are arguing about the companion of Musa whom Musa asked to meet. Did you hear the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mention him?" He said, "Yes, I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'While Musa was in a gathering of the Banu Isra'il, a man came to him and said, "Do you know of anyone who has more knowledge than you?" Musa said that he did not and then Allah revealed to Musa, "Indeed, Our slave Khidr has." Musa asked the way to find him and Allah gave him the fish as a sign and told Musa that wherever the fish was lost, he should return to that place and he would find Khidr there. He followed the track of the fish into the sea. Then Musa's servant said to him, "Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish. No one made me forget to remember it except Shaytan." [Musa said,] "This is the very thing that we were looking for!" So, following their footsteps, they retraced their route.' Then they found Khidr. [What happened further] Allah relates their affair in His Book.'"

XVII: On the words of the Prophet, "O Allah! Teach him the Book!"

75. It is related that  Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, embraced me and said, 'O Allah! Teach him the Book!'"

XVIII: On the proper age for a child to learn hadith

76. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, "Once I was riding a she-donkey and had just that day reached puberty. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was praying at Mina and there was no wall in front of him. I passed in front of some of the rows and let the she-ass graze. I joined the row, and no one objected to what I did."

77. Mahmud ibn Rabi'a said, "When I was five years old, I recall the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, spat a mouthful of water from a bucket into my face."

XIX: On going out in search of knowledge.

Jabir ibn 'Abdullah travelled for a month to get a single hadith from 'Abdullah ibn Unays.

78. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that he and al-Hurr ibn Qays ibn Hisn al-Fazari argued about Musa's companion. Ubayy ibn Ka'b passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him over and said, "My companion and I are arguing about the companion of Musa whom Musa asked to meet. Did you hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mention him?" Ubayy said, "Yes, I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'While Musa was in a gathering of the Banu Isra'il, a man came to him and said, "Do you know of anyone who has more knowledge than you?" Musa said that he did not and then Allah revealed to Musa, "Indeed, Our slave Khidr has." Musa asked the way to find him and Allah gave him the fish as a sign and told Musa, "Wherever you lose the fish, you should return to that place and you will find Khidr there." Musa followed the track of the fish into the sea. Then Musa's servant said to him, "Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish. No one made me forget to remember it except Shaytan." [Musa said,] "This is the very thing that we were looking for!" So, following their footsteps, they retraced their route.' Then they found Khidr. [What happened further] Allah relates their affair in His Book.'".

XX: On the excellence of someone who learns and teaches

79. Abu Musa narrated that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The example of the guidance and knowledge with which Allah has sent me is like the abundant rain which strikes the earth. Some of it is fertile and accepts the water and brings forth plants and grass in abundance. Some of it is hard and holds the water enabling Allah to let people use it. They drink from it, water their animals and irrigate. Some of the land it strikes is level and barren and does not retain the water nor produce plants. The first is the example of someone who understands the deen of Allah and benefits from that with which Allah has sent me and learns and teaches. The last is the example of the person who pays no attention to it for the sake of the Prophet and does not accept the guidance with which I have been sent."

Abu 'Abdullah said, "Some of it on which water falls is level and the water rises over it when the ground is level and smooth."

XXI: On the disappearance of knowledge and appearance of ignorance.

Rabi'a said, "The person who has some knowledge should not waste himself [by abstaining from teaching it to others]"

80. It is related from Anas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Among the signs of the Hour are the disappearance of knowledge, the establishment of ignorance, the drinking of wine and the appearance of fornication."

81. Anas said, "I am relating a hadith to you which no one after me will relate to you. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Among the signs of the Hour are that knowledge becomes negligible, ignorance appears, fornication appears, and there are many women and few men so that one man has to look after fifty women.'"

XXII: On the excellence of knowledge

82. Ibn 'Umar related that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "While I was asleep, I dreamt that I was brought a goblet of milk and I drank until I could feel moisture coming out of my nails and then I gave what was left to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab." They asked, "How do you interpret it, Messenger of Allah?" He replied, "It means knowledge."

XXIII: On giving fatwa while sitting on a stationary animal or standing on something else

83. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As that during the Farewell Hajj, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stopped at Mina for the people to ask him questions. A man came to him and said, "I inadvertently had my hair cut before I sacrificed." He said, "Sacrifice. There is no harm done." Another man came said, "I inadvertently slaughtered before I threw the stones." He said, "Throw them. There is no harm done." Everything that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about before or after its time, he replied, "Do it, and there is no harm done."

XXIV: On the one who answers a fatwa by pointing with his hand or nodding

84. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked in his final Hajj, "I slaughtered before I did the stoning." He indicated with his hand and said, "There is no harm done." Someone said, "I shaved before I sacrificed." He indicated with his hand, "There is no harm done."

85. Abu Hurayra was heard to say from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,, "Knowledge will be taken away, and ignorance and sedition will appear, and there will be a lot of harj." He was asked, "Messenger of Allah, what is harj?" He used his hand to indicate killing.

86. It is related that Asma' said, "I came to 'A'isha while she was praying and asked, 'What is wrong with people?' She pointed to the sky.* The people were standing (in prayer) She said, 'Glory be to Allah!' I said, 'A sign?' She indicated with her head that it was and I too then stood to pray until I nearly fainted. I began to pour water on my head. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, praised and glorified Allah and then said, 'Anything which I have not seen earlier I saw just now during my standing, even the Garden and the Fire. It was revealed to me that you will be tested in your graves like - or nearly like - [I do not know which Asma' said] the test of the False Messiah. You will be asked, 'What do you know of this man?'[i.e. the Prophet] The believer - or the one who is certain - I do not know which Asma' said - will say, 'He is Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah who brought us the clear signs and guidance. So we responded to him and followed him. He is Muhammad.' He will repeat it three times. Then he will be told, 'Sleep, O virtuous one! We know that you believed in him.' As for the hypocrite or the doubter -I do not know which Asma' said - he will say, 'I do not know. I heard people saying something and so I said it too.'"

* This hadith refers to the prayer performed on the occasion of the eclipse of the sun.

XXV: On the Prophet urging the delegation of 'Abdu'l-Qays to safeguard their belief and knowledge and to inform those they left behind.

Malik ibn al-Huwayrith said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told us, 'Return to your people and teach them.'"

87. Abu Jamra said, "I used to act as translator between the people and Ibn 'Abbas. Ibn 'Abbas said, 'The delegation of 'Abdu'l-Qays came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Who (or what delegation) are you?' They replied, 'Rabi'a.' He said, 'Welcome to the people (or delegation). May you not suffer disgrace nor regret!' They said, 'We come to you from along journey and there is a district of the unbelievers of Mudar between us and you. We can only come to you in the sacred month Give us some clear instructions which we can convey to those we left behind and by which we may enter Paradise.' The Prophet commanded them to do four things and forbade them to do four things. He commanded them to believe in Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, alone and asked them, 'Do you know what belief in Allah alone is?' They said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.' He said, "To testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to establish the prayers, to pay the zakat, to fast Ramadan and to pay the khums (fifth).' He forbade them four things: dubba', hantam, and muzaffat. Shu'ba said, "He may have said naqir. or muqayyar. [different kinds of wine vessels] He said, 'Remember these and convey them to the people you left behind.'"

XXVI: On travelling to seek an answer to a problem and to teach one's family

88. 'Abdullah ibn Abi Mulayka narrated that 'Uqba ibn al-Harith married a daughter of Abu Ihab ibn 'Aziz. Later a woman came to him and said, "I nursed both 'Uqba and the one he married." 'Uqba said to her, "I did not know that you nursed me and you did not tell me." So he travelled to the Messenger of Allah in Madina and asked him and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "How can you keep her when that has been said?" So 'Uqba separated from her and she married another man.

XXVII: On seeking in knowledge in turns

89. 'Umar said, "I and a neighbour of mine from the Ansar were in the Banu Umayya ibn Zayd which is part of the 'Awali area of Madina. We used to take it in turns to visit the Messenger of Allah. He would go one day and I would go the next. When I went, I would bring him the news of that day regarding revelation and other things. When he went, he did the same. Once, on a day when it was his turn, my Ansari friend banged loudly on my door and said, 'Is he here?' I was alarmed and came out to him. He said, 'Something terrible has happened. I went to Hafsa and found her weeping. I asked, "Has the Messenger of Allah divorced you all?" She said, "I do not know." Then I went to the Prophet and asked while I was standing, "Have you divorced your wives?" He said, "No." I said, "Allahu Akbar (Allah is greater)!"'"

[The 'Awali area refers to villages on the east of Madina and close to it.]

XXVIII: On expressing anger in admonition and instruction when one sees something one dislikes

90. Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari related, saying, "A man said, 'Messenger of Allah, I am on the point of not attending the prayer because so-and-so makes it too long for us.'" [Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari said,] "I have never seen the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, more furious in admonishment than he was on that day. He said, 'O people! Some of you make people averse! Whoever leads the people in the prayer should make it shorter because among them some people are ill, weak, or need to do something.' "

91. Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani related, saying, "A man asked the Prophet about finding a lost article. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Note the details of its container and secure it and publicize it for a year. Then make use of it, but give it to its owner if he comes.' Then the man asked about a lost camel and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, became so angry that his cheeks became red. He said, 'It has nothing to do with you. It has its water and its feet and it will find water and graze from the trees until its owner finds it.' Then he asked about a lost sheep and he said, 'It is for you, your brother or the wolf.' "

92. Abu Musa related, saying, "The Prophet*, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,was asked about things which he disliked. When there was too much insistence, he became angry and said to the people, 'Ask about whatever you want.' A man asked, 'Who is my father?' He replied, 'Your father is Hudhafa.' Then another man got up and asked, 'Who is my father, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'Your father is Salim, the mawla of Shayba.' When 'Umar saw the anger in his face, he said, 'O Messenger of Allah, we repent to Allah!'"

XXIX: On kneeling before an Imam or hadith-teacher

93. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out and 'Abdullah ibn Hudhafa stood up and said, "Who is my father?" He said, "Your father is Hudhafa." Then he repeated, "Ask me!" Then 'Umar knelt down and said, "We are pleased with Allah as Lord and Islam as deen and Muhammad as our Prophet." Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, became silent.

XXX: On someone repeating a hadith three times so that it is understood

He said, "Do not tell a lie," and kept on repeating it. Ibn 'Umar said that the Prophet asked three times, "Have I conveyed it?"

94. Anas reported that whenever the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,greeted, he did it three times, and when he said something, he would repeat it three times.

95. Anas reported that the whenever the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said something, he said it three times so that it was understood. When he came to a people to greet them, he would greet them three times.

96. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "The Prophet lagged behind us on a journey. He joined us when we were late for the 'Asr prayer and were doing wudu'. We were wiping our feet [i.e. not washing properly] and he called out in a loud voice, 'Woe to the heels from the Fire!' two or three times."

XXXI: On a man teaching his slave-girl and family

97. Abu Burda's father narrated that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Three people will have a double reward: a man of the People of the Book who believes both in his Prophet and in Muhammad, a slave who fulfills his duty to both Allah and his master, and a man who has a slave-girl whom he teaches adab (i.e. good manners) so that she has good adab and educated her in the best possible way and then frees her and marries her. He has two rewards."

Abu 'Amr then said, "We have given it to you for nothing." He rode after that to Madina.

XXXII: On the Imam admonishing and teaching women

98. Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out with Bilal, thinking that the women had not heard. So he warned them and commanded them to give sadaqa. So a woman began to give her ear-rings and rings and Bilal collected them in a corner of his garment."

Isma'il reported from Ayyub from 'Ata' that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I witnessed the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

XXXIII: On eagerness for hadith [learning]

99. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "I asked, 'Messenger of Allah, who will be the person happiest with your intercession on the Day of Rising?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Abu Hurayra, I think that none would ask about this before you since I know your eagerness for hadith [learning]. The person happiest with my intercession on the Day of Rising will be the one who says: "There is no god but Allah" sincerely from his heart or his soul.'"

XXXIV: On the way knowledge will be taken away

'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz wrote to Abu Bakr ibn Hazm, "Seek out the existing hadiths of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then write them down. I am afraid that knowledge will vanish and the men of knowledge will depart. Only the hadiths of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would be accepted. Circulate knowledge and sit [and teach] so that the one who does not know will learn. Knowledge only perishes when it is kept secret."

'Abdullah ibn Dinar has related the same up to "the men of knowledge will depart."

100. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,say, 'Allah will not take away knowledge from His servants, but knowledge will be taken away as the men of knowledge are taken away until there is not a single man of knowledge left. Then people will take ignorant men for their leaders who will be asked something and give a fatwa (decision) without any knowledge. They will go astray and lead others astray.' "

XXXV: On whether a day should be fixed for women on their own to seek knowledge?

101. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri related, "The women said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'The men take more of your time than we do, so appoint us a day with you. He appointed a day for them in which he met them and admonished and commanded them. One of the things the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to them was, 'If any woman among you has three of her children predecease her, it will be a shield for her from the Fire.' One woman asked, 'And if it is two?' He said, "Even if it is two.'"

102. The same with a different isnad.

The same as above, but with the addition "if they have not yet reached puberty."

XXXVI: On someone hearing something and asking for it again until he completely understands it.

103. Ibn Abi Mulayka related that whenever 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, heard something and did not understand it, she would ask again until she had grasped it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever is given his reckoning will be punished." 'A'isha said, "Doesn't Allah say, 'He will be given an easy reckoning'?" (84:8) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "That is the simple presentation, but whoever has his account scrutinized will be destroyed.' "

XXXVII: On the obligation of the one present to convey knowledge to the one absent as quoted by Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet

104. Abu Shurayh said to 'Amr ibn Sa'id when he was sending his troops to Makka, "O Amir! Let me tell you what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said on the day after the Conquest of Makka which I heard with my own ears and grasped with my heart and my eyes saw him when he uttered it. He praised and glorified Allah and then said, 'Makka was made a sanctuary by Allah and not by people. So it is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it or cut down a tree in it. If anyone allows it because the Prophet fought in it, then say that Allah gave His Messenger permission and he did not give you permission. I was only given permission in it for a single hour of one day, and now its sanctity has reverted to what it was previously. Let the one who is present convey to the one who absent.' " Abu Shurayh was asked, "What did 'Amr say?" He said that 'Amr said, "I know better than you, Abu Shurayh. It does not give refuge to one who rebels, to anyone who sheds blood or steals."

105. Abu Bakr mentioned that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Your blood, your property [and he reckons that he said, "Your honour"] are sacred, like the sacredness of this day in this month in this city. Let the one who is present convey to the one who is absent." Muhammad (the narrator) said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, spoke the truth and it was so: 'Have I not conveyed it?' He said it twice."

XXXVIII: On the wrong action of the one who lies and falsely ascribes to the Prophet

106. 'Ali related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not tell lies about me. Whoever falsely attributes a statement to me will enter the Fire."

107. 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr said to his father, "I do not hear you relating hadith from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as I heard so-and-so and so-and-so relate them." He said, "I was always with him, but I heard him say, 'Whoever falsely attributes a hadith to me should take his seat in the Fire.'"

108. Anas said, "The thing that prevents me from relating many hadiths is that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever deliberately falsely attributes a hadith to me would take his seat in the Fire.' "

109. Salama said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Whoever says that I said what I did not say will take his seat in the Fire.'"

110. Abu Hurayra related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Name yourselves with my name, but do not use my kunya. Whoever sees me in a dream has truly seen me. Shaytan does not take on my form. Whoever deliberately tells a lie about me will take his seat in the Fire."

XXXIX: On writing down knowledge

111. Abu Juhayfa said, "I asked 'Ali, 'Do you have anything in writing?' He said, 'No, only the Book of Allah or the understanding which a Muslim man has been given or what is in this booklet.' I asked, 'What is in this booklet?' He replied, 'The blood-wit, the ransom of captives and that a Muslim is not to be killed in retaliation for an unbeliever.'"

112. It is related from Abu Hurayra is that the people of Khuza'a killed a man from the Banu Layth in the year of the Conquest of Makka in retaliation for one of them that they had killed. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was informed of that and therefore mounted his she-camel and gave a speech, saying, "Allah saved Makka from slaughter - or from the Elephant, but Allah gave the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the believers power over it. It was not lawful to anyone before me and will not be lawful for anyone after me. It was only lawful for me for one hour of one day. Now it is again unlawful. Its thorns are not to be uprooted nor its trees cut nor any fallen things picked up in it except by someone who announces it. If someone is killed, then there is a choice between taking blood money or allowing the people of the murdered man to take retaliation." A man from Yemen came and said, "Write this for me, Messenger of Allah!"

He said that it should be written for Abu so-and-so [i.e. for the man who asked.] Then a man from Quraysh said, "Except for the cutting of idhkhar herb, Messenger of Allah, that we put in our houses and graves!" The Prophet said, "Except for the idhkhar herb, except for the idhkhar herb."

Abu 'Abdullah was asked, "What was written for him?" He replied, "This letter."

113. Abu Hurayra said, "Among the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, no one has more hadiths than I except for 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr. He used to write them down which I did not do."

Ma'mar corroborated with him.

114. Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the Prophet's pain became intense, he said, 'Bring me some sheets so that I may write a document for you after which you will never go astray." 'Umar said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is overcome by pain. We have the Book of Allah and that is enough for us.' There was a disagreement and a lot of noise. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Leave me and do not quarrel in my presence." Ibn 'Abbas came out from where he was when this happened, saying, "A disaster, a complete disaster that stopped the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from writing down."

XL: On teaching knowledge and admonition at night

115. Umm Salama said, "One night the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,woke up and said, 'Glory be to Allah! How many afflictions have been revealed tonight and how many treasures disclosed! Go and wake up the women of the rooms (i.e. his wives for the tahajjud prayer). Many a person who is dressed in this world will be naked in the Next!'"

XLI: On chatting at night about knowledge

116. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed the 'Isha' prayer with us in the last days of his life. After the salam, he stood up and said, 'Do you see yourselves this night? Nobody who is on the face of the earth [this night] will still be alive after a hundred years.'"

117. Ibn 'Abbas said, "Once I spent the night in the house of my maternal aunt, Maymuna bint al-Harith, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet was there that night as well. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed 'Isha' and then came home and prayed four rak'ats and went to sleep. Then he got up and asked, 'Is the boy asleep?' or words to that effect. Then he stood and I stood on his left and he moved me to his right. He prayed five rak'ats and then prayed two rak'ats and went to sleep until I could hear his snoring. Then he went out for the (Subh) prayer."

XLII: On preserving knowledge

118. Abu Hurayra said, "People say that Abu Hurayra relates many hadiths. If it had not been for two ayats in the Book of Allah, I would not have related a single hadith." Then he recited, "Those who conceal the clear signs that We save sent down..." to "Most Compassionate." (2:159-160) He went on, "Our brothers among the Muhajirun used to be busy with business in the markets and our brothers among the Ansar were busy with their property, Abu Hurayra would stick to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in order to fill his stomach and be present with him while others were absent and retain what they did not retain."

119. Abu Hurayra said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, I hear many hadiths from you which I forget.' He said, 'Spread out your cloak.' I spread it out, he scooped with his hands and then said, 'Embrace it.' I embraced it at my chest and never forgot anything after that."

[Variant with "scooped with his hands in it."]

120. Abu Hurayra said, "I memorised two containers full from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, (i.e. two types of knowledge). I have distributed one of them but if I were to distribute the other one my throat would be cut."

XLIII: On listening to the people of knowledge or scholars

121. It is related from Jarir that during the Farewell Hajj, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "Ask the people to keep silent." Then he said, "Do not revert to unbelief after me by cutting one anothers' throats." [It is better to attribute its knowledge to Allah.]

XLIV: On the obligation of a man of knowledge to say that Allah knows best when he is asked, "Who is the person with the most knowledge?"

122. Sa'id ibn Jubayr is reported to have said, "I said to Ibn 'Abbas, 'Nawf al-Bikali claims that this Musa was not the Musa of the Banu Isra'il, but another Musa.' He replied, 'The enemy of Allah has lied.'"

Ubayy ibn Ka'b narrated to us that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Musa stood up to give a speech among the Banu Isra'il and he was asked, 'Do you know of anyone who has more knowledge than you?' He said, 'I am the most knowledgeable.' Allah censured him since he did not ascribe this knowledge to Him. Allah revealed to him, 'There is one of Our slaves at the meeting of the two seas who knows more than you." He said, 'My Lord, how can I meet him?' He was told, 'Carry a fish in a basket and when it is lost, that is the place.' So Musa set out with his lad Yusha' ibn Nun, and they carried a fish in a basket until they were at a rock on which they put their heads and went to sleep. The fish slipped out of the basket and made its way into sea, burrowing. Musa and the lad were amazed. They continued on for the rest of the night and day. In the morning, Musa said to his lad, 'Bring us our morning meal. This journey of ours has made us very tired..' Musa did not feel tired until he had gone beyond the place about which he was told. The lad said to him, 'Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish.' Musa said, 'This is the very thing that we were looking for!' So they turned back on their tracks, retracing their steps. When they reached the rock, there was a man wrapped in a garment or wrapped in his own garment. Musa greeted him, Al-Khadir said, 'Is there any greeting in your land?' He replied, 'I am Musa.' He asked, 'The Musa of the Banu Isra'il?' Musa said that he was and added, 'May I follow you on condition that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?' He said, 'You will not be able to bear with me, Musa. I have a knowledge from the knowledge of Allah which He has taught me which you do not know and you have a knowledge He has taught you which I do not know.' He said, 'You will find me patient, if Allah wills, and I will not disobey you in any matter.'

"They continued walking along the shore without a boat. A boat passed by them and they asked them to take them on board. Al-Khadir was recognised and they took them on board for free. A sparrow came and alighted on the edge of the ship and dipped its beak once or twice in the sea. Al-Khadir said, 'Musa, my knowledge and your knowledge have not diminished the knowledge of Allah any more than the pecking of this sparrow in the sea.' Al-Khadir went to one of the planks of the ship and pulled it up. Musa said, 'These people carry us for free and then you deliberately ruined their ship to drown its people?' He said, 'Did I not say that you would not be able to bear with me?' Musa said, 'Do not blame me because I forgot.' The first excuse of Musa was that he had forgotten.

"Then they continued and found a boy playing with some other boys. Al-Khadir took him by the head and wrenched his neck out.' Musa said, 'Have you killed a boy who has done no wrong, without it being in retaliation for someone else?.' He said, 'Did I not say to you that you would not be able to bear with me?' Ibn 'Uyayna said that this second statement of Khidr was more emphatic.

"Then went on until they came to the people of a village whom they asked for food, but who refused to give them hospitality. They found a wall there which was on the point of collapse, and al-Khadir repaired it with his own hands. Musa said, 'If you had wanted, you could have taken a wage for that.' He said, 'This is the parting of the ways between me and you.'"

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "May Allah have mercy on Musa. Would that he had been patient so that we would have been told more about them!"

XLV: On someone standing who asked a question of a man of knowledge who was seated.

123. Abu Musa said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, what kind of fighting is truly in the way of Allah? One of us fights in anger and another fights out of fanaticism.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, raised his head, and he only raised his head to him because the man was standing up, and said, 'If someone fights so that the word of Allah will be the uppermost, that is fighting in the way of Allah.'"

XLVI: On asking questions and giving fatwa in the place of stoning the jamras (in the Hajj).

124. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at the jamra being asked questions. A man said, "Messenger of Allah, I inadvertently slaughtered before I threw the stones." He said, "Throw them. There is no harm done." Another said, "I inadvertently had my hair cut before I sacrificed." He said, "Sacrifice. There is no harm done." Everything that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about before or after its time, he replied, "Do it, and there is no harm done."

XLVII: On the words of Allah, "You have only been given a little knowledge." (17:85)

125. 'Abdullah said, "Once when I was walking with the Prophet in a ruined part of Madina and he was using a palm-branch as a staff, we passed by a group of Jews. One of them told the others to ask the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the ruh. Another of them said, 'Do not ask him that. He might tell you something that you will not like.' Another of them said, 'We should ask him.' One among them got up and said, 'Abu'l-Qasim! What is the ruh?' He was silent. I said, 'He is receiving revelation,' and I stood up. When the state left him, he said, 'They will ask you about the ruh. Say: "The ruh is by my Lord's concern. You have only been given a little knowledge."' (17:85)"

XLVIII: On remaining silent about something [which was permissible] out of the fear that some people may not be able to understand it and will fall into worse things

126. Al-Aswad said that Ibn az-Zubayr said to him, "'A'isha often used to tell you things secretly. What did she tell you about the Ka'ba?" Al-Aswad said, "She told me that the Prophet had said, 'O 'A'isha, if it had not been that your people are still close to disbelief, I would have dismantled the Ka'ba and built into it only two doors: one for people to enter and one by which they would leave.' " That is what Ibn az-Zubayr did.[Later on he became the ruler of the Hijaz.]

['A'isha was his maternal aunt.]

XLIX: On someone teaching knowledge to some people rather than others fearing that they might not understand.

127. 'Ali said, "Speak to people according to what they know. Do you want Allah and His Messenger to be denied?"

Abu't-Tufayl related this from 'Ali.

128. Anas ibn Malik related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was riding with Mu'adh behind him. He said, "Mu'adh ibn Jabal!" He replied, "At your service, Messenger of Allah." He said, "Mu'adh ibn Jabal!" He replied, "At your service, Messenger of Allah." He said, "Mu'adh!" He replied, "At your service, Messenger of Allah" three times. Then the Prophet said, "There is no one who testifies that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, sincerely from his heart but that Allah makes it unlawful for the Fire to touch him." Mu'adh said, "Messenger of Allah, shall I tell the people that so that they can rejoice?" He said, "Then they will rely on it." Mu'adh related it when he was dying, fearing to commit a wrong action [by concealing the knowledge.

129. Anas said, "I was told that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Mu'adh, 'Whoever meets Allah without associating anything with Him will enter the Garden.' He said, 'Shall I tell the people the good news.' The Prophet said, 'No, I fear that they will depend on it.'"

L: On modesty in knowledge.

Mujahid said, "Neither a timid nor a proud person will learn knowledge." 'A'isha said, "The best women are the women of the Ansar. Modesty does not prevent them from seeking understanding in the deen."

130. Umm Salama said, "Umm Sulaym came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, Allah is not shy about the truth. Does a woman have perform a ghusl when she has an erotic dream?' The Prophet, Messenger of Allah answered, 'When she has a visible discharge.'" Umm Salama covered her face and said, "Messenger of Allah, do women have wet dreams?" He said, "Yes, may your hand be dusty! Why does her child resemble her?"  (Muwatta Imam Malik, Chapter 2, 87)

131. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is a tree whose leaves do not fall which is like the Muslim. Tell me what it is.' The people thought about the trees of the desert and it occurred to me that it was the date-palm.'" 'Abdullah said, "I was too shy to answer. Then they said, 'Tell us what it is, Messenger of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is the date-palm.'" 'Abdullah said, "I told my father what had occured to me and he said, 'I would have preferred that you had said it to having such-and-such.'"

LI: On someone who is too shy to ask and requests someone else to inquire on his behalf

132. 'Ali said, "I was a man who used to have a discharge (madhiy). I told al-Miqdad to ask the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about it and he said that wudu' needs to be done for it."

LII: On seeking knowledge and giving fatwa in the mosque

133. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that a man stood up in the mosque and said, "Messenger of Allah, from where are we commanded to take on ihram?" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The people of Madina take on ihram from Dhu'l-Hulayfa, the people of Syria take it on from Juhfa, and the people of Najd from Qarn." Ibn 'Umar said, "They claim that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that the people of Yemen take on ihram from Yalamlam, but I do not recall hearing this from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

LIII: On someone answering more than he was asked

134. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that a man asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "What should someone in ihram wear?" He replied, "He should not wear a shirt, a turban, trousers, a burnous or a garment stained with wars or saffron. If he cannot find sandals, then he should wear leather socks but cut them short so that they start under the ankles."

[Wars is a plant which is used to make a yellow dye.]