The Decree

Al-Muwatta' of Imam Malik

by Imam Malik ibn Anas
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

46.0 The Decree

 

46.1 The Prohibition against Talking about the Decree

1 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad from al-A'raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,him peace, said, "Adam and Musa argued and Adam got the better of Musa. Musa rebuked Adam, saying, 'You are Adam who led people astray and brought them out of the Garden.' Adam said to him, 'You are Musa to whom Allah gave knowledge of everything and whom he chose above other people with His message.' He said, 'Yes.' Adam said, 'Do you then censure me for a matter which was decreed for me before I was even created?'

[In Muslim]

2 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Abi Unaysa that 'Abd al-Hamid ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn al-Khattab informed him from Muslim ibn Yasar al-Juhani that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab was asked about this ayat, "When your Lord took out all their descendants from the loins of the children of Adam and made them testify against themselves: 'Am I not your Lord?' They said, 'We testify that indeed You are!' Lest you say on the Day of Rising, 'We were heedless of this.'" (7:172) 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, being asked about it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, created Adam. Then He stroked his back with His right hand and some of his progeny issued from it. He said, "I created these for the Garden and they will act with the behaviour of the people of the Garden." Then He stroked his back again and brought forth the rest of his progeny from him. He said, "I created these for the Fire and they will act with the behaviour of the people of the Fire."' A man asked, 'Messenger of Allah, then of what value are actions?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, 'When Allah creates a slave for the Garden, He gives him the behaviour of the people of the Garden so that he dies on one of the actions of the people of the Garden and by it He brings him into the Garden. When He creates a slave for the Fire, He gives him the behaviour of the people of the Fire so that he dies on one of the actions of the people of the Fire and by it He brings him into the Fire.'"

[In Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

3 Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I have left two things with you. As long as you hold fast to them, you will not go astray. They are the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet."

4 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ziyad ibn Sa'd from 'Amr ibn Muslim that Tawus al-Yamani said, "I found some of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, 'Everything is by a decree.' "

Tawus added, "I heard 'Abdullah ibn 'Umay say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Everything is by a decree - even incapacity and ability.'"

[Muslim]

5 Malik related to me from Ziyad ibn Sa'd that 'Amr ibn Dinar said, "I heard 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr say in a khutba, 'Allah - He is the Guider and the One Who Tempts Away.' "

6 Yahya related to me from Malik that his paternal uncle, Abu Suhayl ibn Malik, said, "I was a prisoner with 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz. He said, "What do you think of these Qadariyya (proponents of free will)?' I said, 'My opinion is that one should ask them to turn away from wrong action if they will do so. If not, subject them to the sword. 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz said, 'That is my opinion.' "

Malik added, "That is my opinion as well."

 

46.2 General Section on the People of the Decree

7 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad from al-A'raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A woman should not ask for the divorce of her sister so as to have everything for herself and in order to marry. She will get what is decreed for her."

8 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Ziyad that Muhammad ibn Ka'b al-Qurazi said, "Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan said from the minbar, 'O people! Nothing can keep away what Allah gives and nothing can give what Allah keeps away. The earnestness of the earnest person does not profit him. When Allah desires good for him, He gives him understanding in the deen.' Then Mu'awiya said, 'I heard these words from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on these very planks of wood.'"

9 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that this was said, "Praise be to Allah who created everything as is necessary, who does not hasten anything He defers and determines. Allah is enough for me and sufficient. Allah hears whoever makes du'a' to him. There is no goal beyond Allah."

10 Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard that this was said, "No one will die until his provision is completed for him, so behave correctly in seeking it."

[In Ibn Majah]