Prayer

Al-Muwatta' of Imam Malik

by Imam Malik ibn Anas
Translated by: Ustadha Aisha Bewley

3.0 Prayer

3.1 The Call to Prayer

1 Yahya related to me from Malik that Yahya ibn Sa'id said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had wanted to take two pieces of wood to strike them together to gather people for the prayer, and 'Abdullah ibn Zayd al-Ansari, of the tribe of Harith ibn al-Khazraj, was shown two pieces of wood in his sleep. He said, 'These are close to what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wants.' Then it was said, 'Do you not call to the prayer?' so when he woke up he went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned the dream to him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered the adhan."

[Also in Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah]

2 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from 'Ata' ibn Yazid al-Laythi from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you hear the adhan, repeat what the mu'adhdhin says."

[cf. Bukhari 586]

3 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawla of Abu Bakr ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stated, "If people only knew what was in the call to prayer and the first row, and could find no other way to get it than drawing lots for it, they would draw lots for it. If they only knew what was in going early to the prayer, they would race each other to get there. And if they only knew what was in the prayers  of 'Isha' and Subh, they would come to them even if they had to crawl."

[cf. Bukhari 590]

4 Yahya related to me from Malik from al-'Ala' ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ya'qub from his father and Ishaq ibn 'Abdullah that they informed him that they heard Abu Hurayra say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When the iqama is called for prayer, do not come to it running, but come with calmness. Pray what you catch and complete what you miss. You are in prayer as long as your aim is the prayer.'"

[cf. Bukhari 610]

5 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abu Sa'sa'a al-Ansari, and later al-Mazini, that his father told him that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri had said to him, "I see that you love sheep and the desert. When you are among your sheep or in the desert, call the prayer and raise your voice in the adhan, because I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'No jinn or man or anything within range hears the voice of the mu'adhdhin without bearing witness for him on the Day of Rising.'"

[cf. Bukhari 584]

6 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad from Al-A'raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the call to prayer is made Shaytan retreats, passing wind, so that he will not hear it. When the adhan is completed he comes back, until, when the iqama is said, he retreats again. When the iqama is completed, he comes back, until he comes between a man and his self and says, 'Think of such and such, think of such and such,' which he was not thinking about before, until the man does not know how much he has prayed."

[cf. Bukhari 583]

7 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Hazim ibn Dinar that Sahl ibn Sa'd as-Sa'idi said, "There are two times when the gates of heaven are opened, and few who make supplication have it returned to them unanswered. They are at the time of the adhan, and in a rank of people fighting in the way of Allah."

[Ibn 'Abdu'l-Barr said that most transmitters of the Muwatta' consider this to be mawquf]

Malik was asked whether the adhan on the day of Jumu'a was called before the time had come for the prayer and he said, "It is not called until after the sun has passed the meridian."

Malik was asked about doubling the adhan and the iqama, and at what point people had to stand when the iqama for the prayer was called. He said, "I have heard nothing about the adhan and iqama except what I have seen people do. As for the iqama, it is not doubled. That is what the people of knowledge in our region continue to do. As for people standing up when the iqama for the prayer is called, I have not heard of any definite point at which it is begun, and I consider it rather to be according to people's (individual) capacity, for some people are heavy and some are light, and they are not able to be as one man."

Malik was asked about a gathering of people who wished to do the prescribed prayer calling the iqama and not the adhan, and he said, "It is enough for them. The adhan is only obligatory in mosques where the prayer is said in congregation."

Malik was asked about the mu'adhdhin saying "Peace be upon you" to the imam and calling him to the prayer, and he was asked who was the first person to whom such a greeting was made. He replied, "I have not heard that this greeting occurred in the first community."

Yahya said that Malik was asked whether a mu'adhdhin who called the people to prayer and then waited to see if anyone would come and no one did, so he said the iqama and did the prayer by himself and then people came after he had finished, should repeat the prayer with them. Malik said, "He does not repeat the prayer, and whoever comes after he has finished should do the prayer by himself."

Yahya said that Malik was asked about a mu'adhdhin who called the adhan for a group of people, did voluntary prayers, and then the group of people wanted to do the prayer with some one else saying the iqama. He said, "There is no harm in that. His iqama or somebody else's are the same."

Yahya said that Malik said, "The Subh prayer is still called before dawn. As for the other prayers, we believe that they should only be called after the time has started."

8 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the mu'adhdhin came to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab to call him to the Subh prayer and found him sleeping, so he said, "Prayer is better than sleep," and 'Umar ordered him to put that in the adhan for Subh.

9 Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik that his uncle's father said, "I recognise nothing nowadays of what I saw the people (i.e. the companions of the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace) doing except the call to prayer."

10 Yahya related to me from Malik that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar heard the iqama while he was in Baqi'*, so he increased his pace of walking to the mosque.

[* Baqi' is the graveyard of Madina, about three hundred yards from the mosque.]

 

3.2 The Adhan on a Journey and without Wudu'

11 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar called the adhan on a cold and windy night and included the phrase, "Pray in your houses." Then he said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to order the mu'adhdhin to say, 'Pray in your houses' when it was a cold, rainy night."

[cf. Bukhari 606]

12 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that on a journey 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar did no more than the iqama, except for Subh, when he called both the adhan and the iqama. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to say, "The adhan is for an imam whom people join [for the prayer]."

13 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn 'Urwa that his father said to him, "When you are on a journey you can, if you wish, call the adhan and the iqama, or, if you wish, the iqama and not the adhan."

Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "There is no harm in a man calling the adhan while riding."

14 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id that Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab used to say, "If someone prays in waterless, desolate land, an angel prays on his right and an angel prays on his left. When he calls both the adhan and the iqama for the prayer, or calls out the iqama, mountains of angels pray behind him."

[mursal]

 

3.3 The Meal before Dawn (Sahur) in Relation to the Adhan

15 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Abdullah ibn Dinar from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Bilal calls the adhan whilst it is still night so eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan."

[cf Bukhari 1819]

16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn 'Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Bilal calls the adhan in the night, so eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan." Ibn Umm Maktum was a blind man who did not call the adhan until someone said to him, "The morning has come. The morning has come."

[cf Bukhari 592]

 

3.4 The Opening of the Prayer

17 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn 'Abdullah from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to raise his hands to the level of his shoulders when he began the prayer and when he raised his head from the ruku' he raised them in the same way, saying, "Allah hears whoever praises him, our Lord and praise belongs to You." He did not do that in the sujud.

[cf Bukhari 702]

18 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that 'Ali ibn Husayn ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say, 'Allah is greater' whenever he lowered himself and raised himself, and he continued to pray like that until he met Allah."

[mursal]

19 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id from Sulayman ibn Yasar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to raise his hands in the prayer.

20 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abu Salama ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Awf that Abu Hurayra used to lead them in prayer and would say "Allah is greater" whenever he lowered himself and raised himself. When he had finished he would say, "By Allah, I am the person whose prayer most resembles the prayer of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

[cf Bukhari 752]

21 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn 'Abdullah that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to say "Allah is greater" in the prayer whenever he lowered himself and raised himself.

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to raise his hands to the level of his shoulders when he began the prayer and when he came up from ruku' he would raise them less than that.

[In Abu Dawud]

22 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Nu'aym Wahb ibn Kaysan that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah used to teach them the takbir in the prayer. Abu Nu'aym said, "He used to tell us to say 'Allah is greater' whenever we lowered or raised ourselves."

23 Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab used to say, "When a man catches the rak'a he says, 'Allah is greater' once, and that takbir is enough for him."

Malik added, "That is if he intended to begin the prayer by that takbir."

Malik was asked about a man who began with the imam but forgot the opening takbir and the takbir of the ruku' until he had done one rak'a. Then he remembered that he had not said the takbir at the opening nor in the ruku', so he said the takbir in the second rak'a. He said, "I prefer that he start his prayer again, but if he forgets the opening takbir with the imam and says the takbir in the first ruku', I consider that enough for him if he intends by it the opening takbir."

Malik said about someone who prayed by himself and forgot the opening takbir, "He begins his prayer afresh."

Malik said about an imam who forgot the opening takbir until he had finished his prayer, "I think that he should do the prayer again, and those behind him, even if they have said the takbir."

 

3.5 The Recitation of Qur'an in the Maghrib and 'Isha Prayers

24 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Mut'im that his father said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite at-Tur (sura 52) in the Maghrib prayer."

[cf Bukhari 731]

25 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba ibn Mas'ud from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas that Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith heard him reciting al-Mursalat (sura 77) and she said to him, "My son, you have reminded me by reciting this sura that it was what I last heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite in the Maghrib prayer."

[cf Bukhari 729]

26 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu 'Ubayd, the mawla of Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik, from 'Ubada ibn Nusayy from Qays ibn al-Harith that Abu 'Abdullah as-Sunabihi said, "I arrived in Madina in the khalifate of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, and I prayed Maghrib behind him. He recited the Umm al-Qur'an and two suras from the shorter ones of the Mufassal in the first two rak'as. Then he stood up in the third and I drew so near to him that my clothes were almost touching his clothes. I heard him reciting the Umm al-Qur'an and this ayat, 'Our Lord, do not make our hearts deviate after You have guided us. And give us mercy from You. You are the Ever-Giving.'" (3:8).

27 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to recite in all four rak'as when he prayed alone - in every rak'a the Umm al-Qur'an and another sura from the Qur'an. Sometimes he would recite two or three suras in one rak'a in the obligatory prayer. Similarly, he recited the Umm al-Qur'an and two suras in the first two rak'as of Maghrib.

28 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id from 'Adi ibn Thabit al-Ansari that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "I prayed 'Isha' with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he recited at-Tin (sura 95) in it."

[cf Bukhari 733]

 

3.6 Behaviour in the Recitation

29 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' from Ibrahim ibn 'Abdullah ibn Hunayn from his father from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade wearing the qassi (an Egyptian garment, striped with silk), wearing gold rings, and reciting the Qur'an in ruku'.

[Also in Muslim]

30 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Harith at-Taymi from Abu Hazim at-Tammar from al-Bayadi that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to the people while they were praying and their voices were raised in the recitation. He said, "When you pray you are talking confidentially to your Lord. So look to what you confide to Him, and do not say the Qur'an out loud so that others hear it."

[A similar hadith is reported from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri by Abu Dawud]

31 Yahya related to me from Malik from Humayd at-Tawil that Anas ibn Malik said, "I stood behind Abu Bakr and 'Umar and 'Uthman and none of them used to recite 'In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful' when they began the prayer."

[Muslim]

32 Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik that his father said, "We heard the recitation of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab when we were at the home of Abu Jahm in al-Balat." (Al-Balat was a place in Madina between the mosque and the market.)

33 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that when 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar missed anything of a prayer in which the imam had recited out loud, he would stand up when the imam had said the taslim and recite what he owed out loud by himself.

34 Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Ruman said, "I used to pray next to Nafi' ibn Jubayr ibn Mut'im and he would nudge me to prompt him while we were praying."

 

3.7 The Recitation in the Subh Prayer

35 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn 'Urwa from his father that Abu Bakr as-Siddiq prayed Subh and recited Surat al-Baqara in the two rak'ats.

36 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn 'Urwa that his father heard 'Abdullah ibn 'Amir ibn Rabi'a say, "We prayed Subh behind 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and he recited Surat Yusuf (sura 12) and Surat al-Hajj  (sura 22) slowly."

"I (Hisham's father) said, 'By Allah, then it must have been his habit to get up at the crack of dawn.' He said, 'Of course. '

37 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id and Rabi'a ibn Abi 'Abd ar-Rahman from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad that al-Furafisa ibn 'Umayr al-Hanafi said, "I only learnt Surat Yusuf (sura 12) from the recitation of it by 'Uthman ibn 'Affan in the Subh prayer because of the great number of times he repeated it to us."

38 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to recite the first ten suras of the Mufassal in the Subh prayer, and on a journey he would recite the Umm al-Qur'an and a sura in every rak'a.

 

3.8 The Umm al-Qur'an

39 Yahya related to me from Malik from al-'Ala' ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ya'qub that Abu Sa'id, the mawla of 'Amir ibn Kurayz, told him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called to 'Ubayy ibn Ka'b while he was praying. When 'Ubayy had finished his prayer he joined the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah put his hand upon his hand, and he was intending to leave by the door of the mosque, so the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I hope that you will not leave the mosque until you know a sura whose like Allah has not sent down in the Torah nor in the Gospek nor in the Qur'an." 'Ubayy said, "I began to slow down my pace in the hope of that. Then I said, 'Messenger of Allah, the sura you promised me!' He said, 'What do you recite when you begin the prayer?' I recited the Fatiha (sura 1) until I came to the end of it, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is this sura, and it is the "Seven Oft-Repeated" and the "Great Qur'an" which I was given.' "

[al-Bukhari has this story from Abu Sa'id al-Mu'alla)

40 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Nu'aym Wahb ibn Kaysan that he heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say, "Someone who prays a rak'at without reciting the Umm al-Qur'an in it has not performed the prayer, unless he is praying behind an imam."

 

3.9 Reciting to Oneself behind the Imam when He does not Recite Aloud

41 Yahya related to me from Malik from al-'Ala' ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ya'qub that he heard Abu's-Sa'ib, the mawla of Hisham ibn Zuhra, say he had heard Abu Hurayra say, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Someone prays a prayer without reciting the Umm al-Qur'an in it, his prayer is aborted, it is aborted, it is aborted, incomplete. So I said, 'Abu Hurayra, sometimes I am behind the imam.' He pulled my forearm and said, 'Recite it to yourself, O Persian, for I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say that Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, said, "I have divided the prayer into two halves between me and my slave. One half of it is for Me and one half of it is for My slave, and My slave has what he asks for."' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Recite." The slave says, 'Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.' Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, says, 'My slave has praised Me.' The slave says, 'The All-Merciful, the Most Merciful.' Allah says, 'My slave has spoken well of Me.' The slave says, 'Master of the Day of the Deen.' Allah says, 'My slave has glorified Me.' The slave says, 'You alone we worship and You alone we ask for help.' Allah says, 'This ayat is between Me and My slave, and for My slave is what he asks for.' The slave says, 'Guide us in the straight Path, the Path of those whom You have blessed, not of those with whom You are angry, nor those who are in error.' Allah says, 'These are for My slaves, and for My slave is what he asks for.'"

[Muslim]

42 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn 'Urwa that his father used to recite behind the imam when the imam did not recite aloud.

43 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id and from Rabi'a ibn Abi 'Abd ar-Rahman that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad used to recite behind the imam when the imam did not recite aloud.

44 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Ruman that Nafi' ibn Jubayr ibn Mut'im used to recite behind the imam when he did not recite aloud.

Malik said, "That is what I prefer of what I have heard about the matter."

 

3.10 Not Reciting behind the Imam when He Recites Aloud

45 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, when asked if anyone should recite behind an imam, said, "When you pray behind an imam then the recitation of the imam is enough for you, and when you pray on your own you must recite."

Nafi' added, "'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used not to recite behind the imam."

Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "The position with us is that a man recites behind the imam when the imam does not recite aloud and he refrains from reciting when the imam recites aloud."

46 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Ibn Ukayma al-Laythi from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished a prayer in which he had recited aloud and asked, "Did any of you recite with me just now?" One man said, "Yes, I did, Messenger of Allah." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I was saying to myself, 'Why am I distracted from the Qur'an?'" When the people heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say that, they refrained from reciting with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he recited aloud.

[In an-Nasa'i]

 

3.11 Saying 'Amin' behind the Imam

47 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab and Abu Salama ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman told him from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the imam says 'Amin', say 'Amin'. If someone's 'Amin' coincides with that of the angels, he will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

[cf Bukhari 747]

Ibn Shihab said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say 'Aameen' (extending it)."

48 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawla of Abu Bakr, from Abu Salih as-Samman, from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the imam has said, 'not of those with anger on them nor of those who are in error,' say 'Amin', for the past wrong actions of all those whose utterance coincides with that of the angels are forgiven them."

[cf Bukhari 749]

49 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad from al-A'raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When any of you say 'Amin' and the angels in the heavens also say 'Amin' so that the one coincides with the other, his past wrong actions are forgiven him."

[cf Bukhari 748]

50 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawla of Abu Bakr, from Abu Salih as-Samman from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the Imam says, 'Allah hears whoever praises Him,' say, 'O Allah, our Lord, praise belongs to You.' Anyone whose words coincide with those of the angels will be forgiven his past wrong actions.'"

[cf Bukhari 763]

 

3.12 Behaviour in the Sitting in the Prayer

51 Yahya related to me from Malik from Muslim ibn Abi Maryam that 'Ali ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman al-Mu'awi said, "'Abdullah ibn 'Umar saw me playing with some small pebbles in the prayer. When I finished he forbade me, saying, 'Do as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did.' I asked, 'What did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do?' He said, 'When he sat in the prayer, he placed his right hand on his right thigh and he closed his fist and pointed his index finger, and he placed his left hand on his left thigh. That is what he used to do.'"

[In Muslim]

52 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Abdullah ibn Dinar that he had seen 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar praying with a man beside him. When the man sat in the fourth rak'at, he put both feet to one side and crossed them. When 'Abdullah finished, he disapproved of that to him, and the man protested, "But you do the same." 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "I am ill."

53 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sadaqa ibn Yasar that al-Mughira ibn Hakim saw 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar sit back from the two sajdas of the prayer onto the top of his feet. When he had finished, al-Mughira mentioned it to him, and 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar explained, "It is not a sunna of the prayer. I do it because I am ill."

54 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasim that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar told him that he used to see 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar cross his legs in the sitting position of the prayer. He said, "So I did the same, and I was young at the time. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar forbade me to do it, saying, 'The sunna of the prayer is that you keep your right foot vertical and lay your left foot down.' I said to him, 'But you were doing that.' He said, 'My feet do not support me.'"

[cf Bukhari 793]

55 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad showed them how to sit in the tashahhud, and he kept his right foot vertical and laid his left foot down, and sat on his left haunch not on his foot. Then he said, "'Abdullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar saw me doing this and related to me that his father used to do the same thing."

 

3.13 Tashahhud in the Prayer

56 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr from 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Abd al-Qari that he heard 'Umar ibn al-Khattab say, while he was teaching people the tashahhud from the minbar, "Say: 'Greetings belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Good words and prayers belong to Allah. Peace on you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are right-acting. I testify that there is no god except Allah. And I testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.'"

"At-tahiyatu lillah, az-zakiyatu lillah, at-tayibatu wa's-salawatu lillah. As-salamu 'alayka ayyuha'n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibadi'llahi's-salihin. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa 'llah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluh."

[Ash-shafi'i relates it in the Risala.]

57 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to say the tashahhud saying, "In the Name of Allah. Greetings belong to Allah. Prayers belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Peace be on the Prophet and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the slaves of Allah who are right-acting. I testify that there is no god except Allah. I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."

"Bismillah, at-tahiyatu lillah, as-salawatu lillah, az-zakiyatu lillah. As-salamu 'ala'n-nabiyyi wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibadi'llahi's-salihin. Shahidtu an la ilaha illallah. Shahidtu anna Muhammadan rasulu'llah."

He used to say this after the first two rak'ats and he would make supplication with whatever seemed fit to him when the tashahhud was completed. When he sat at the end of the prayer, he did the tashahhud in a similar manner, except that after the tashahhud he made supplication with whatever seemed fit to him. When he had completed the tashahhud and intended to say the taslim, he said, "Peace be on the Prophet and His mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are right-acting."

"As-salamu 'ala'n-nabiyyi wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibadi'llahi's-salihin."

He then said, "Peace be upon you" to his right, and would return the greeting to the imam, and if anyone said "Peace be upon you" from his left he would return the greeting to him.

58 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasim from his father that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say in the tashahhud, "Greetings, good words, prayers, pure actions belong to Allah. I testify that there is no god except Allah, alone without partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger. Peace be on you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the slaves of Allah who are right-acting. Peace be upon you."

"At-tahiyatu, at-tayibatu, as-salawatu, az-zakiyatu lillah. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah, wahdahu la sharika lah, wa anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluhu. As-salamu 'alayka ayyuha'n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibadi'llahi's-salihin. As-salamu 'alaykum."

59 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Ansari that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad told him that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say in the tashahhud, "Greetings, good words, prayers, pure actions belong to Allah. I testify that there is no god except Allah, alone without partner, and I testify that Muhammad is the slave of Allah and His Messenger. Peace be upon you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are right-acting. Peace be upon you."

"At-tahiyatu, at-tayibatu, as-salawatu, az-zakiyatu lillah. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah, wahdahu la sharika lah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluhu. As-salamu 'alayka ayyuha'n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibadi-llahi's-salihin. As-salamu 'alaykum."

60 Yahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab and Nafi', the mawla of Ibn 'Umar, whether a man who joined an imam who had already done a rak'a should say the tashahhud with the imam in the second and fourth rak'as, even though these were odd for him? They said, "He should say the tashahhud with him."

Malik said, "That is the position with us."

 

3.14 What to do if one raises one's head before the imam

61 Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn 'Amr ibn 'Alqama from Malik ibn 'Abdullah as-Sa'di that Abu Hurayra said, "The forelock of some one who raises his head and lowers it before the imam is in the hand of a shaytan."

Malik said concerning some one who forgot and raised his head before the imam in ruku' or sujud, "The sunna of that is to return to bowing or prostrating and not to wait for the imam to come up. What he has done is a mistake, because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The imam is appointed to be followed, so do not differ with him.' Abu Hurayra said, 'The forelock of some one who raises his head and lowers it before the imam is in the hand of a shaytan.'"

[cf Bukhari 689]

 

3.15 What to do if through forgetfulness one says the taslim after two rak'as

62 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ayyub ibn Abi Tamima as-Sakhtayani from Muhammad ibn Sirin from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished the prayer after two rak'as and Dhu'l-Yadayn asked him, "Has the prayer been shortened or did you forget, Messenger of Allah?" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Has Dhu'l-Yadayn spoken the truth?" The people said, "Yes," and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood and prayed another two rak'ats and then said, "Peace be upon you." Then he said, "Allah is greater" and went into a sajda as long as his usual prostration or longer. Then he came up from sajda and said, "Allah is greater" and went into a sajda as long as his usual prostration or longer and then came up.

[cf Bukhari 1170]

63 Yahya related to me from Malik from Daud ibn al-Husayn that Abu Sufyan, the mawla of Ibn Abi Ahmad, said that he heard Abu Hurayra say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed 'Asr and said the taslim after two rak'ats. Dhu'l-Yadayn stood up and said, 'Has the prayer been shortened, Messenger of Allah, or did you forget?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and completed what remained of the prayer, and then, remaining sitting after saying the taslim, he made two prostrations."

[In Muslim]

64 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Abu Bakr ibn Sulayman ibn Abi Hathma said, "I have heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed two rak'as of one of the two day-time prayers, Dhuhr or 'Asr, and said the taslim after two rak'as. Dhu'sh-Shamalayn asked him, 'Has the prayer been shortened, Messenger of Allah, or did you forget?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The prayer has not been shortened and I did not forget.' Dhu'sh-Shamalayn said, 'It was certainly one of those, Messenger of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, approached the people and said, 'Has Dhu'sh-Shamalayn spoken the truth?' They replied, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah,' and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, completed what remained of the prayer, and then said, 'Peace be upon you.'"

65 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, and from Abu Salama ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, the same as that.

Malik said, "For every forgetfulness which decreases from the prayer, prostrations for it are done before the greeting, and for every forgetfulness which is an addition to the prayer, prostrations are done for it come after the greeting."

 

3.16 Completing what is recalled when uncertain how much has been prayed

66 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from 'Ata' ibn Yasar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If you are uncertain in the prayer and do not know whether you have prayed three or four rak'ats, then pray a rak'at and make two prostrations from the sitting position before the taslim. If the rak'at that you prayed was the fifth, then you make it even by these two sajdas, and if it was the fourth, then the two prostrations spite Shaytan."

[Muslim has this from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri]

67 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayd from Salim ibn 'Abdullah that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to say, "If you are uncertain in the prayer, estimate what you think you have forgotten of the prayer and repeat it, then do the two sajdas of forgetfulness from the sitting position."

68 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Afif ibn 'Amr as-Sahmi that 'Ata' ibn Yasar said, "I asked 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As and Ka'b al-Ahbar about someone who was uncertain in his prayer and did not know whether he had prayed three or four rak'ats. Both of them said, 'He should pray another rak'a and then do two sajdas from the sitting position.'"

69 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi' that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, when questioned about forgetfulness in the prayer, said, "If you think that you have forgotten part of the prayer, then pray it."

 

3.17 What to do if one stands after the completion of the prayer or after two rak'as

70 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from al-A'raj that 'Abdullah ibn Buhayna said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed two rak'as with us then got up without sitting back and the people stood with him. When he had finished the prayer and we had seen him say the taslim, he said 'Allah is greater' and did two sajdas from the sitting position and then said the taslim again."

[cf Bukhari 1166]

71 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa'id from 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Hurmuz that 'Abdullah ibn Buhayna said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed Dhuhr with us and he stood straight up after two rak'ats without sitting. When he had finished the prayer, he did two sajdas and then said the taslim after that."

[cf Bukhari 1167]

Malik said, concerning someone who forgot in his prayer and stood up after he had completed four rak'ats and recited and then went into ruku' and then, when he raised his head from ruku', remembered that he had already completed (his prayer), "He returns to a sitting position and does not do any sajda. If he has already done one sajda I do not think he should do another. Then when his prayer is finished he does two sajdas from the sitting position after saying the taslim."

 

3.18 Distraction in the Prayer

72 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Alqama ibn Abi 'Alqama from his mother that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Abu Jahm ibn Hudhayfa gave the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a fine striped garment from Syria and he did the prayer in it. When he had finished he said, 'Give this garment back to Abu Jahm. I looked at the stripes in the prayer and they almost distracted me.'"

[cf Bukhari 366]

73 Malik related to me from Hisham ibn 'Urwa from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wore a fine striped garment from Syria, and then gave it to Abu Jahm and took a plain, rough, garment in return. Abu Jahm asked, "Messenger of Allah! Why?" He said, "I looked at the stripes in the prayer."

[mursal]

74 Malik related to me from 'Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr that Abu Talha al-Ansari was praying in his garden when a wild pigeon flew in and began to fly to and fro trying to find a way out. The sight was pleasing to him and he let his eyes follow the bird for a time and then he went back to his prayer but could not remember how much he had prayed. He said, "A trial has befallen me in this property of mine." So he came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned the trial that had happened to him in his garden and said, "Messenger of Allah, it is a sadaqa for Allah, so dispose of it wherever you wish."

75 Yahya related to me from Malik from 'Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr that a man from the Ansar was praying in a garden of his in Quff, one of the valleys of Madina, during the date season and the branches of the palms were sagging with fruit on all sides. He stared at their fruitfulness in amazement. Then he went back to his prayer and he did not know how much he had prayed. He said, "A trial has befallen me in this property of mine." So he went to 'Uthman ibn 'Affan, who was the khalifa at the time, and mentioned it to him and said, "It is sadaqa, so give it away in the paths of good." 'Uthman ibn 'Affan sold it for fifty thousand and so that property became known as the Fifty.